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Recently, several farm assurance schemes in the United Kingdom have been adopting innovative approaches, such as welfare outcome assessment, into their routine procedures. In this paper, we present the findings of four consultation exercises, undertaken as part of a review process that examined farmer perspectives on planned or implemented changes to their current certification visits as members of UK-based dairy and laying hen schemes. The changes included the introduction of welfare outcome assessment by assessors, joint-scoring of welfare-outcome measures by farmers and assessors and self-assessment of welfare outcome measures by farmers between assessor visits. This study also explores the challenges that arise when schemes are aiming to adopt a scheme-level continuous improvement approach to promote welfare improvement on participating farms. The key challenges fall under three themes: the purpose and value for the farmer of the assessment of welfare outcomes as part of a farm assurance assessment process; the potential conflict rather than concordance with the role of the farmer in caring for their animals; and finally the technicalities of the assessment process, such as sample sizes for assessment being calibrated for gauging welfare prevalence at a scheme rather than farm level and the role of the farm assurance assessors both to assess impartially compliance against the standards and to provide welfare advice to support improvement. This study highlights that the involvement of farmers at all stages in the development and in the evaluation of outcome assessment initiatives is likely to be beneficial for welfare improvement on-farm.
This paper describes a case example where initiatives from private assurance schemes, scientists, charities, government and egg companies have improved the welfare of UK cage-free laying hens. The RSPCA and Soil Association farm assurance schemes introduced formal welfare outcome assessment into their annual audits of laying-hen farms in 2011. Feather loss was assessed on 50 birds from each flock on a three-point scale for two body regions: Head and Neck (HN) and Back and Vent (BV). In support of the observations, assessors were trained in feedback techniques designed to encourage change in farmer behaviour to improve welfare. In addition, during Year 2 farmers were asked about changes they had made, and intended to make on their farms. During 2011-2013 there were also wider industry initiatives to improve feather cover. Data were analysed from 830 and 743 farms in Year 1 and Year 2, respectively. From Year 1 to Year 2 there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of feather loss from 31.8% (9.6% severe) to 20.8% (6% severe) for the HN region, and from 33.1% (12.6% severe) to 22.7% (8.3% severe) for BV. Fifty-nine percent of 662 farmers reported they had made changes on their farms during Year 1 to improve bird welfare. For such a substantial industry change, attributing causation to specific initiatives is difficult; however, this is the first study to demonstrate the value to animal welfare of certification schemes monitoring the effectiveness of their own and other industry-led interventions to guide future policy.
The Wilkes Subglacial Basin in East Antarctica contains ice equivalent to 3–4 m of global mean sea level rise and is primarily drained by Cook Glacier. Of concern is that recent observations (since the 1970s) show an acceleration in ice speed over the grounding line of both the Eastern and Western portions of Cook Glacier. Here, we use a numerical ice-flow model (Úa) to simulate the instantaneous effects of observed changes at the terminus of Cook Glacier in order to understand the link between these changes and recently observed ice acceleration. Simulations suggest that the acceleration of Cook West was caused by a retreat in calving-front position in the 1970s, potentially enhanced by grounding-line retreat, while acceleration of Cook East was likely caused by ice-shelf thinning and grounding-line retreat in the mid-1990s. Moreover, we show that the instantaneous ice discharge at Cook East would increase by up to 85% if the whole ice shelf is removed and it ungrounds from a pinning point; and that the discharge at Cook West could increase by ~300% if its grounding line retreated by 10 km.
The weakening and/or removal of floating ice shelves in Antarctica can induce inland ice flow acceleration. Numerical modelling suggests these processes will play an important role in Antarctica's future sea-level contribution, but our understanding of the mechanisms that lead to ice tongue/shelf collapse is incomplete and largely based on observations from the Antarctic Peninsula and West Antarctica. Here, we use remote sensing of structural glaciology and ice velocity from 2001 to 2020 and analyse potential ocean-climate forcings to identify mechanisms that triggered the rapid disintegration of ~2445 km2 of ice mélange and part of the Voyeykov Ice Shelf in Wilkes Land, East Antarctica between 27 March and 28 May 2007. Results show disaggregation was pre-conditioned by weakening of the ice tongue's structural integrity and was triggered by mélange removal driven by a regional atmospheric circulation anomaly and a less extensive latent-heat polynya. Disaggregation did not induce inland ice flow acceleration, but our observations highlight an important mechanism through which floating termini can be removed, whereby the break-out of mélange and multiyear landfast sea ice triggers disaggregation of a structurally-weak ice shelf. These observations highlight the need for numerical ice-sheet models to account for interactions between sea-ice, mélange and ice shelves.
Adolescents who hold an entity theory of personality – the belief that people cannot change – are more likely to report internalizing symptoms during the socially stressful transition to high school. It has been puzzling, however, why a cognitive belief about the potential for change predicts symptoms of an affective disorder. The present research integrated three models – implicit theories, hopelessness theories of depression, and the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat – to shed light on this issue. Study 1 replicated the link between an entity theory and internalizing symptoms by synthesizing multiple datasets (N = 6,910). Study 2 examined potential mechanisms underlying this link using 8-month longitudinal data and 10-day diary reports during the stressful first year of high school (N = 533, 3,199 daily reports). The results showed that an entity theory of personality predicted increases in internalizing symptoms through tendencies to make fixed trait causal attributions about the self and maladaptive (i.e., “threat”) stress appraisals. The findings support an integrative model whereby situation-general beliefs accumulate negative consequences for psychopathology via situation-specific attributions and appraisals.
Evolving conditions at the terminus of Thwaites Glacier will be important in determining the rate of its future sea-level contribution over the coming decades. Here, we use remote-sensing observations to investigate recent changes (2000–2018) in the structure and velocity of Thwaites Glacier and its floating tongue. We show that the main trunk of Thwaites Glacier has accelerated by 38% over this period, while its previously intact floating tongue has transitioned to a weaker mélange of fractured icebergs bounded by sea ice. However, the rate of structural weakening and acceleration was not uniform across the observational period and we identify two periods of rapid acceleration and structural weakening (2006–2012; 2016–2018), separated by a period of deceleration and re-advance of the structurally-intact shear margin boundary (2012–2015). The timing of these accelerations/decelerations strongly suggests a link to variable ocean forcing. The weakened tongue now has some dependency on landfast sea ice for structural integrity and is vulnerable to changes in landfast ice persistency. Future reductions in landfast sea ice could manifest from changes in climate and/or the imminent removal of the B-22A iceberg from the Thwaites embayment. Such changes could have important implications for the integrity of the ice tongue and future glacier discharge.
This article aimed to address the feasibility of mentalization-based treatment (MBT) for patients with personality disorder in a non-specialist setting. The development and implementation of an MBT Programme is described.
A multidisciplinary Consult Group met to plan the implementation of the programme. Participants attended a psychoeducation group (MBT Introductory Group), then weekly individual and group therapy. Fourteen participants started the full programme with eight completing at least 9 months, complete data are available for five participants who completed 27 months (first cohort) and 21 months (second cohort). Data include quantitative measures and qualitative questionnaires/interviews. All had a diagnosis of personality dysfunction with co-morbid disorder including anxiety/depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and eating disorder.
Data on five participants revealed reductions in global level of distress, improvements in psychological well-being, less interpersonal difficulties and better work and social functioning. Qualitative data from feedback questionnaires (n = 18) and in-depth interview (n = 2) are discussed under the themes of mentalizing, treatment feedback/outcomes and group factors. Therapist reflections on the process identify the challenges involved in implementing a specialist psychotherapy programme within a general service and learning points from this are discussed.
MBT is an acceptable treatment for patients with personality dysfunction. Prior to the implementation of a programme, factors at the therapist, team and organizational level, as well as the wider context, need to be examined. This is to ensure that conditions are in place for proper adherence to the model to achieve the positive outcomes demonstrated in the RCT studies.
In situ laser ablation high resolution ICP-MS analyses of scheelite from hydrothermal veins at the Archaean Mt. Charlotte gold deposit (Western Australia) show inhomogeneous REE distribution at small scale (<100 μm). In a limited number of samples, variations of the cathodoluminescence (CL) colours from blue to yellow are linked to the REE content of scheelite, and reveal oscillatory zoning of the REE with zone widths between 1 μm and 100 μm. However, CL failed to reveal the zoning in most inhomogeneous scheelite samples. A nuclear microprobe has been used to characterize the distribution of REE in these samples. No reasonable map for the distribution of REE could be obtained by particle induced X-ray emission, because of interferences with W-L lines. However, monochromatic ionoluminescence (IL) maps collected at the wavelength of the main REE3+ luminescence peaks revealed oscillatory zoning. Therefore, IL is a powerful tool for mapping the distribution of REE in natural scheelite. Monochromatic IL maps allow us to determine the nature of the inhomogeneous distribution of REE in scheelite, fundamental information for using the REE in this mineral as a marker for the chemistry of ore-forming fluids, and for interpreting Sm-Nd isotopic data.
The spatial pattern and morphometry of bedforms and their relationship to sediment thickness have been analysed in the Marguerite Bay Palaeo-ice stream Trough, western Antarctic Peninsula. Over 17 000 glacial landforms were measured from geophysical datasets, and sediment thickness maps were generated from acoustic sub-bottom profiler data. These analyses reveal a complex bedform pattern characterised by considerable spatial diversity, influenced heavily by the underlying substrate. The variability in length and density of mega-scale lineations indicates an evolving bedform signature, whereby landforms are preserved at different stages of maturity. Lineation generation and attenuation is associated with regions of thick, soft till where deformation was likely to be the greatest. The distribution of soft till and the localised extent of grounding-zone wedges (GZWs) indicate a dynamic sedimentary system characterised by considerable spatio-temporal variability in sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Formation of GZWs on the outer shelf of Marguerite Trough, within the error range of the radiocarbon dates, requires large sediment fluxes (upwards of 1000 m3 a−1 (m grounding line width)−1), and a >1 m thick mobile till layer, or rapid basal sliding velocities (upwards of 6 km a−1).
Thirty-nine patients with a variety of diseases, including essential tremor, Parkinsonߣs Disease, olivopontocerebellar degeneration, ataxia telangiectasia, and cervical cord injury with action tremor, were evaluated for the effect of one ounce of absolute alcohol ingestion. Tremor significantly subsided in 61.9% of E.T.; 46.6% of P.D.; one patient with A.T.; and one patient with C6 lesion. The tremor became worse in one patient with O.P.C.D. Twenty of these patients were treated with propranolol, an average dose of 92 mgm. per day, and re-evaluated three to six months later. All those who improved on alcohol improved on propranolol and the one whose tremor accentuated with alcohol had a similar response to propranolol. It is concluded that the tremorilytic effect of alcohol is neither specific for, nor limited to, essential tremor and is of no value in differentiating various neurological disorders which manifest as action tremor. It is recommended that one ounce of absolute alcohol by mouth be used as an office procedure to predict the response of patientsߣ tremor to propranolol.
In 1976, David Sugden and Brian John developed a classification for Antarctic landscapes of glacial erosion based upon exposed and eroded coastal topography, providing insight into the past glacial dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheets. We extend this classification to cover the continental interior of Antarctica by analysing the hypsometry of the subglacial landscape using a recently released dataset of bed topography (BEDMAP2). We used the existing classification as a basis for first developing a low-resolution description of landscape evolution under the ice sheet before building a more detailed classification of patterns of glacial erosion. Our key finding is that a more widespread distribution of ancient, preserved alpine landscapes may survive beneath the Antarctic ice sheets than has been previously recognized. Furthermore, the findings suggest that landscapes of selective erosion exist further inland than might be expected, and may reflect the presence of thinner, less extensive ice in the past. Much of the selective nature of erosion may be controlled by pre-glacial topography, and especially by the large-scale tectonic structure and fluvial valley network. The hypotheses of landscape evolution presented here can be tested by future surveys of the Antarctic ice sheet bed.
During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, many pregnant women experienced severe illness and some gave birth while ill with suspected or confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza. Because of concerns about possible transmission of this novel virus to immunologically naïve newborns, and the absence of definitive studies regarding this risk, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviewed relevant literature to understand the potential burden of disease and routes of transmission affecting newborns. This report describes the issues considered during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic as CDC developed guidance to protect newborns in hospital settings. Also presented is a framework of protection efforts to prevent novel influenza infection in fetuses/newborns before birth and in hospital settings. Although developed specifically for the pandemic, the framework may be useful during future novel influenza outbreaks.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:97-103)
A population-based study investigated the burden of illness, including the duration of illness associated with laboratory-confirmed cases of campylobacteriosis in two health unit areas. Questionnaire data were collected for 250 cases. The median duration of illness was 8 days and 66% of cases reported symptoms of moderate severity or greater. A Cox proportional hazards model identified antimicrobial use factors associated with a significantly increased rate of symptom resolution (shorter duration of illness): macrolides for less than the recommended number of days, ciprofloxacin for at least 3 days, and antimicrobials not recommended for campylobacteriosis. The impact of antimicrobial use was consistent regardless of when, during the course of illness, the antimicrobial use began. The effectiveness of ciprofloxacin in these results may be due to the low prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin in isolates from this study. The effect of antimicrobials not recommended for campylobacteriosis should be further investigated.
Elevated anxiety sensitivity and the tendency to catastrophically misinterpret ambiguous bodily sensations has been demonstrated in people who experience nonclinical levels of panic (Richards, Austin, & Alvarenga, 2001), and anxiety sensitivity has been shown to be associated with insecure attachment in adolescents and young adults (Weems, Berman, Silverman, & Saavedra, 2001). This study investigated the relationship between attachment style, anxiety sensitivity and catastrophic misinterpretation among 11 nonclinical panickers and 58 nonanxious controls aged 18 to 19 years. Participants completed the Brief Bodily Sensations Interpretation Questionnaire (BBSIQ), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) and an attachment questionnaire. The hypothesis that insecurely attached individuals would demonstrate greater catastrophic misinterpretation and higher anxiety sensitivity than securely attached individuals was not supported; however, nonclinical panickers gave more anxiety-related interpretations of ambiguous internal stimuli than nonanxious controls. Results do not support the notion that attachment style is related to anxiety sensitivity or catastrophic misinterpretation (regardless of panic experience). Results do, however, support the notion that anxiety-related misinterpretation of ambiguous somatic sensations precedes the onset of panic disorder.
To determine whether drinking water contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli is associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli, selected households sending water samples to Ontario and Alberta laboratories in 2005–2006 were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study. Household members aged ⩾12 years were asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit a rectal swab. In 878 individuals, 41% carried a resistant strain of E. coli and 28% carried a multidrug-resistant strain. The risk of carriage of resistant E. coli was 1·26 times higher for users of water contaminated with resistant E. coli. Other risk factors included international travel [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·33], having a child in nappies (PR 1·33), being male (PR 1·33), and frequent handling of raw red meats (PR 1·10). Protecting private water sources (e.g. by improving systems to test and treat them) may help slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli.
A comparison of commonly occurring metazoan parasites in the digestive tract was made between common eiders, Somateria mollissima, that were contaminated with oil and reference birds confiscated from illegal hunting. There was a greater number of commonly occurring parasites and their abundance in reference than in oiled eiders. Except for an acanthocephalan, Polymorphus botulus, which was embedded in the wall of the intestinal tract, most of the other taxa of parasites, including trematodes, cestodes and nematodes, were probably voided from the birds following ingestion of oil. Reference eiders harboured fewer species and a substantially lower mean abundance of parasites than those studied in Newfoundland and Labrador more than four decades ago; this may be a signal of a changing prey base or an increase in prey availability as winter ice cover continues to decline.