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We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. However, extracting this information requires complex analysis pipelines that include data wrangling, calibration, analysis, and visualization, all while maintaining robustness against imaging distortions and artifacts. In this paper, we present py4DSTEM, an analysis toolkit for measuring material properties from 4D-STEM datasets, written in the Python language and released with an open-source license. We describe the algorithmic steps for dataset calibration and various 4D-STEM property measurements in detail and present results from several experimental datasets. We also implement a simple and universal file format appropriate for electron microscopy data in py4DSTEM, which uses the open-source HDF5 standard. We hope this tool will benefit the research community and help improve the standards for data and computational methods in electron microscopy, and we invite the community to contribute to this ongoing project.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Despite strong evidence recommending supportive care as the mainstay of management for most infants with bronchiolitis, prior studies show that patients still receive low-value care (e.g., respiratory viral testing, salbutamol, chest radiography). Our objective was to decrease low-value care by delivering individual physician reports, in addition to group-facilitated feedback sessions to pediatric emergency physicians.
Our cohort included 3,883 patients ≤ 12 months old who presented to pediatric emergency departments in Calgary, Alberta, with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis from April 1, 2013, to April 30, 2018. Using administrative data, we captured baseline characteristics and therapeutic interventions. Consenting pediatric emergency physicians received two audit and feedback reports, which included their individual data and peer comparators. A multidisciplinary group-facilitated feedback session presented data and identified barriers and enablers of reducing low-value care. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who received any low-value intervention and was analysed using statistical process control charts.
Seventy-eight percent of emergency physicians consented to receive their audit and feedback reports. Patient characteristics were similar in the baseline and intervention period. Following the baseline physician reports and the group feedback session, low-value care decreased from 42.6% to 27.1% (absolute difference: −15.5%; 95% CI: −19.8% to −11.2%) and 78.9% to 64.4% (absolute difference: −14.5%; 95% CI: −21.9% to −7.2%) in patients who were not admitted and admitted, respectively. Balancing measures, such as intensive care unit admission and emergency department revisit, were unchanged.
The combination of audit and feedback and a group-facilitated feedback session reduced low-value care for patients with bronchiolitis.
“Children are not simply small adults”, states the UEMS CAPP training Logbook.
Nevertheless, the core identity of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) has been at stake for the last few decades in Europe. CAP is now an independent specialty in 23 countries and a subspecialty in 8 countries, but 5 countries do not have any structured CAP training.
Training differences are marked even within the EU member countries, and are not only in terms of content of training programs, but are also relevant to duration, trainee selection, and graduation procedures. More importantly, while almost half of the countries have integrated structured psychotherapy training as a full component of CAP training, the other half has not.
Within the UEMS, CAP psychiatrists used to be represented in the section and board of Psychiatry until recently: it is only in 1994 that UEMS established the European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy (CAPP) Section and Board.
The idea behind this initiative to split among UEMS was to promote high standards of mental health care for children across Europe, both directly and indirectly, by establishing standards and improving the quality of postgraduate CAP training, with a particular focus on training in psychotherapy. The UEMS CAP Board published a Training Logbook, which has already proven to be important in helping new EU member countries to develop their own training program in CAP.
We will discuss the discrepancies and similarities in CAP training programs across Europe, and the challenges that have arisen through harmonization processes.
Des troubles de la familiarité ont été décrits dans la schizophrénie . En particulier, une étude récente a montré un seuil de familiarité pour des visages plus faible chez les patients schizophrènes que chez les témoins, suggérant une hyper-familiarité chez les patients . Or, le traitement global d’un visage semble altéré dans la schizophrénie, alors que le traitement des détails serait préservé . Il a alors été suggéré que le sentiment de familiarité chez les patients serait basé sur un traitement prédominant des détails ; les sujets témoins analyseraient les deux types d’information. Les paradigmes d’inversion des visages altèrent sélectivement le traitement global d’un visage . Dans l’hypothèse où les troubles de la familiarité des visages dans la schizophrénie seraient liés à un traitement déficitaire de l’information globale, l’objectif de cette étude était de montrer un plus faible effet d’inversion des visages sur le sentiment de familiarité chez les patients que chez les témoins.
Quinze patients schizophrènes et 15 témoins ont été inclus. Les stimuli étaient des morphes de visages familiers et inconnus présentés à l’endroit ou inversés (inversion haut-bas). Deux conditions d’inversion ont été utilisées : une inversion totale du visage et une inversion dite de Thatcher, dans laquelle l’orientation originelle des yeux et de la bouche était préservée. Une procédure en go/no-go a permis de mesurer le seuil de familiarité de chaque patient.
Les patients et les témoins n’ont pas montré de seuils de familiarité différents. Contrairement à ce qui était attendu, l’effet d’inversion était significativement plus élevé chez les patients que chez les témoins. Néanmoins, l’illusion de Thatcher permettait d’améliorer les performances des patients.
Les informations globales et de détails semblent nécessaires aux patients pour traiter la familiarité d’un visage. Néanmoins, la restauration de l’information des détails seule permet partiellement d’améliorer ce jugement.
• The European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees is an independent federation of psychiatric trainees associations. 37 Countries were represented at the annual Forum in 2011.
• A Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) Working Group meets at this annual forum to discuss issues of relevance to CAP trainees. At the 2009 meeting, the group reflected on difficulties in collecting data on training across Euro.
1. Ten item survey was was circulated to trainee representatives to the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees who attended the annual Forum in 2009.
2. Following this pilot study, a much larger study was conducted from 2010–2011.
• EFPT survey: In 2009–2010 pilot survey - 27 countries responded.
• The EFPT CAP group expanded this in 2010–2011. This survey collected data from 34 countries, 28 of whom provided full data-sets in the following domains:
○Structure and organisation of training;
○Training quality and content; and
○Working conditions and recruitment.
○Statistical analysis was performed on the data to achieve overall rankings of CAP training quality.
• This symposium will look at developing national and international surveys. Results from two completed EFPT CAP studies and ongoing work presented. These studies add significantly to extant literature- it is clear that training across Europe is extremely variable.
• This symposium will also highlight current opportunities for European Trainees. International collaborations and opportunities for trainees will be explored, and we will consider the role of trainees in international organisations
EFPT - The European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees is an independent federation of psychiatric trainees associations and its function is to provide a forum in which trainees can learn about the diversity of the current training of psychiatrists in Europe.
EFPT consists of several working groups that focus on supporting different fields (e.g. psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychiatry etc) and carry out various projects. The aim of CAP working group is firstly to represent CAP trainees and develop common recommendations regarding training while furthering links with organisations such as UEMS. In recent years the group has also recognised the need to collect information in order to assess the quality level of training in european countries, to recognise differences and build upon positives. In 2010–2011 this focused on training standards around Europe. In 2011–2012 we focus on:
A. The field of psychotherapy. The CAP group recognises that family relationships play a major role in the formation of a child's personality. The survey is being conducted in conjunction with the Psychotherapy WG within EFPT; thus training in this area in both adult psychiatry and CAP will be compared. Initial results will be presented at this symposium.
B. We believe that awareness of mental illness in the childhood should be an important part of the education in medical faculties. Therefore, we are keen to ascertain what placement opportunities in CAP are currently offered to medical students around Europe. Gathering information on this isT is our second aim for the next year.
Online learning has become an increasingly expected and popular component for education of the modern-day adult learner, including the medical provider. In light of the recent coronavirus pandemic, there has never been more urgency to establish opportunities for supplemental online learning. Heart University aims to be “the go-to online resource” for e-learning in CHD and paediatric-acquired heart disease. It is a carefully curated open access library of paedagogical material for all providers of care to children and adults with CHD or children with acquired heart disease, whether a trainee or a practising provider. In this manuscript, we review the aims, development, current offerings and standing, and future goals of Heart University.
We describe an algorithm that can fit the properties of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of a tidal stream, given the properties of that stream. We show that under ideal conditions (the Milky Way potential, the orbit of the dwarf galaxy progenitor, and the functional form of the dwarf galaxy progenitor are known exactly), the density and angular width of stars along the stream can be used to constrain the mass and radial profile of both the stellar and dark matter components of the progenitor dwarf galaxy that was ripped apart to create the stream. Our provisional fit for the parameters of the dwarf galaxy progenitor of the Orphan Stream indicates that it is less massive and has fewer stars than previous works have indicated.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) share certain traits: they are parasitic infections, prevailing in tropical environments and affecting marginalized sectors of the population. Six NTDs – ascariasis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm infection, onchocerciasis and trichuriasis – all of them endemic in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), are analysed in this work. This review aims to discuss key information on the function of excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins from these parasites in their infectivity, pathogeny and diagnosis. The modulation of the host immune system to favour the permanence and survival of the parasite is also discussed. An updated knowledge on the function of E/S molecules in endemic parasitoses in LAC may lead to new approaches for the clinical management and diagnosis of these diseases. In turn, this could allow us to optimize their treatment and make it more affordable – a relevant goal given the economic constraints that the region is facing.