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How did Brittany get its name and its British-Celtic language in the centuries after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire? Beginning in the ninth century, scholars have proposed a succession of theories about Breton origins, influenced by the changing relationships between Brittany, its Continental neighbours, and the 'Atlantic Archipelago' during and after the Viking age and the Norman Conquest. However, due to limited records, the history of medieval Brittany remains a relatively neglected area of research. In this new volume, the authors draw on specialised research in the history of language and literature, archaeology, and the cult of saints, to tease apart the layers of myth and historical record. Brittany retained a distinctive character within the typical 'medieval' forces of kingship, lordship, and ecclesiastical hierarchy. The early history of Brittany is richly fascinating, and this new investigation offers a fresh perspective on the region and early medieval Europe in general.
Introducing the special issue, this paper provides a state-of-the-art on established and new trends in the study of international retirement migration (IRM) and summarises the five papers that follow. Early studies on IRM were mainly within Europe and drew on the conceptual framework of lifestyle migration, with some reference to the transnational and mobilities paradigms. New frontiers in IRM are presented under three heads. Firstly, new geographical frontiers extend IRM to new destinations within and proximate to Europe, and to new locations in the global South such as Thailand and Ecuador. Secondly, new typological frontiers involve a broadening of the class and wealth backgrounds of the retirees, including the ‘return of retirement’ of labour migrants to their countries of origin, and attentiveness to IRM's gendered aspects. Thirdly, new conceptual and theoretical frontiers of IRM involve a more in-depth investigation of its transnational aspects, exploration of the various regimes of mobility and, most importantly, a political economy perspective which stresses global inequalities and histories of colonialism in shaping access to privileged lifestyles. In the final part of the paper, the original features of each paper in the special issue are highlighted, demonstrating how they are collectively integrated and contribute to the advancement of IRM research.
The Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Leadership and Management Fellow Scheme aims to develop and support a new cohort of leaders within psychiatry. This article provides an introduction to the scheme, which is accessible to all higher trainees with the support of their host organisation. We explore its development, structure and how it is evolving to provide a strong platform for achieving the College's ambition to benefit patient care by embedding a culture of medical leadership within mental health services.
To prioritise and refine a set of evidence-informed statements into advice messages to promote vegetable liking in early childhood, and to determine applicability for dissemination of advice to relevant audiences.
A nominal group technique (NGT) workshop and a Delphi survey were conducted to prioritise and achieve consensus (≥70% agreement) on 30 evidence-informed maternal (perinatal and lactation stage), infant (complementary feeding stage) and early years (family diet stage) vegetable-related advice messages. Messages were validated via triangulation analysis against the strength of evidence from an Umbrella review of strategies to increase children’s vegetable liking, and gaps in advice from a Desktop review of vegetable feeding advice.
A purposeful sample of key stakeholders (NGT workshop, n=8 experts; Delphi survey, n=23 end-users).
Participant consensus identified the most highly ranked priority messages associated with the strategies of: ‘in-utero exposure’ (perinatal and lactation, n=56 points); and ‘vegetable variety’ (complementary feeding, n=97 points; family diet, n=139 points). Triangulation revealed two strategies (‘repeated exposure’ and ‘variety’) and their associated advice messages suitable for policy and practice, 12 for research and four for food industry.
Supported by national and state feeding guideline documents and resources, the advice messages relating to ‘repeated exposure’ and ‘variety’ to increase vegetable liking can be communicated to families and caregivers by healthcare practitioners. The food industry provides a vehicle for advice promotion and product development. Further research, where stronger evidence is needed, could further inform strategies for policy and practice, and food industry application.
This article explores the Law Commission's proposals on how and where people can get married in England and Wales as found in their ‘Getting Married’ Consultation Paper. It examines the extent to which the Commission's proposals will deal with or mitigate concerns expressed about two types of non-qualifying wedding ceremonies: ‘unregistered religious marriages’ where the couple undergo a religious ceremony that does not comply with the requirements of the Marriage Act 1949, and ‘non-religious marriages’ where the ceremony is conducted by celebrants representing a belief organisation (such as Humanists UK) or by independent celebrants and so is also outside the Marriage Act 1949 and not currently legally binding. The article largely welcomes the Commission's proposals but expresses concern about the proposed officiant system and how it defines belief organisation; the proposed changes to the law on validity; and the creation of a new criminal offence. The article develops these three points further and contends that, while a transformed weddings law could recognise non-religious marriages and reduce the number of unregistered religious marriages, the introduction of statutory cohabitation rights upon separation is needed to truly deal with concerns over unregistered religious marriages.
To assess the incidence of colonization and infection with carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) in the ICUs of our city hospitals before and during COVID-19 pandemic.
Multicentre before-after cross sectional study to compare the rates of colonization and infection with CPE and/or CR-Ab in two study periods, period 1 (Jan-Apr 2019) and period 2 (Jan-Apr 2020). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% CI of weekly colonization and infection rates for each period were compared for the two study periods with Poisson regression. Weekly trends in the incidence of colonization or infection for each study period were summarized using local weighted (Loess) regression.
There was no significant change in either IRR and weekly trend in CPE colonization and infection during the two study periods. A shift from KPC to other CPE mechanisms (OXA-48 and VIM) was observed during period 2. Compared to period 1, during period 2 the IRR of colonization and infection with CR-Ab increased of 7.5 and 5.5-fold, respectively. Genome sequencing showed that all CR-Ab strains belonged to the CC92/IC2 clonal lineage. Clinical strains clustered closely into a single monophyletic group in one of the three centres, whereas segregated in two different clusters in the other two centres, strongly appoints for the occurrence of horizontal transmission.
Our findings remark the need of pursuing infection control activities targeted against the spread of antimicrobial resistance intra and inter hospitals during COVID-19 pandemic, and if necessary re-modulating them according to the new organizational structures imposed by the pandemic.
This chapter evaluates Heaney’s interest in both war and peace across the two world wars and the recent conflict in Northern Ireland. It treats ‘The Aerodrome’, ‘Anahorish 1944’, and ‘In Memoriam Francis Ledgwidge’ as representative considerations by Heaney of the world wars in the context of human testimony and the role of the poet to represent violence properly and resist aestheticizing it. Then it assesses the more familiar poetry about the Northern Irish conflict, including ‘The Tollund Man’, ‘Punishment’, ‘The Harvest Bow’, ‘Tollund’ and ‘A Kite for Aibhín’, along with his September 11 poem, ‘Anything Can Happen’, and relevant prose. Such poems recognize violence’s siren call and capacity for myth-making even as they reject it, and Heaney finally privileges poetry as an ethical space where its wholeness can slowly percolate into unhealthy societies, a precondition for eventual peace.
The intrauterine environment and early-life nutrition are regulated by maternal biomarkers in the blood and breast milk. We aimed to explore epigenetic modifications that may contribute to differential chemerin expression in maternal plasma, colostrum, and breast milk and find its association with fetal cord blood and infant weight at 6 weeks postpartum. Thirty-three gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) mothers and 33 normoglycemic mothers (NGT) were recruited. Two maternal blood samples (28th week of gestation and 6 weeks postpartum), cord blood, colostrum, and mature milk were collected. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were conducted. The weight of the babies was measured at birth and 6 weeks postpartum. Serum chemerin levels at the 28th gestational week and 6 weeks postpartum were significantly lower for the NGT group as compared to the GDM group; (P < 0.05). Higher colostrum chemerin concentrations were observed in the GDM group and remained elevated in mature milk as compared to NGT (P < 0.05). Colostrum and breast milk chemerin levels showed an independent association with infant weight at 6 weeks postpartum (r = 0.270; P = 0.034) (r = 0.464; P < 0.001). Forty percent GDM mothers expressed unmethylated chemerin reflecting increased chemerin concentration in the maternal blood. This pattern was also observed in newborn cord blood where 52% of samples showed unmethylated chemerin in contrast to none in babies born to normoglycemic mothers. The results of this study highlight the critical importance of altered chemerin regulation in gestational diabetic mothers and its effect during early life period and suggest a possible role in contributing to childhood obesity.
This is a collection of essays about literature. The idea that literature is our first and principle port of call to explore contemporary fiction should not go without saying. If looking for fiction today, we might well turn towards other forms: television and film of course; mangas and video games as well. The corpus convened by this volume reaches in these directions. It includes essays that plot the massive development of graphic novels in the past two decades, that discuss crime fiction, the influence of film, the impact of television series and rock music. It also harbours various more or less fleeting intimations of YouTube and other online landscapes around the edges. One of the primary aims this collection gives itself is to blur the perimeter of the field of literature into the broader mediascape of digitally enabled or enhanced flows. Another is to focus this discussion around writing in French, where there is still a tendency in the field to demarcate French and Francophone literature. Our claim is that part of what is signified by ‘the contemporary’ is a detachment from that prior demarcation. The impetus today must be, in part, to think production in a major world language such as French through polycentric, fluctuating constellations. This does not mean to say that there is now no stake or significance in the places where this contemporary literature is emerging and finding its mechanisms of transmission and distinction, as well as its forms of economic viability. On the contrary. The transformations of the landscape that these chapters collectively assess are very largely conditioned by structures of distribution and translation. So our claim is not that global information technologies have smoothed the factors of differentiation, although they have undoubtedly reduced the lag in connection; but rather that the unevenness of the terrain is more complex today than an opposition between French and Francophone can accommodate. Just as the separation of genres on the basis of high/low, insider/outsider polarities is no longer tenable.
France has a long, complicated and often fraught relationship with the United States, a relationship that is arguably more difficult than the one it sustains with its nearer English-speaking neighbour. This, of course, stretches back particularly to the dialogues instigated during the two countries’ founding revolutions and through two world wars. The complexity of this relationship is exemplified by the awkwardness of the relationship between their current presidents. Deep tensions were acutely evident at the first meeting between Donald Trump and Emmanuel Macron in front of the world’s press in 2017, crystallized in the symbolic handshake they were expected to share. President Trump, as was his habit in the opening months of his presidency, appeared to try to outmuscle his younger counterpart in a display of swaggering machismo and political dominance. President Macron, however, was not to be intimidated and, likewise, tried to strong-arm the American premier in an uncomfortably physical display of French exceptionalism. The pair were left temporarily joined in a state of anxious tension, neither wishing to be seen to be the first to drop hands and concede to the other.
Our global literary field is fluid and exists in a state of constant evolution. Contemporary fiction in French has become a polycentric and transnational field of vibrant and varied experimentation; the collapse of the distinction between 'French' and 'Francophone' literature has opened up French writing to a world of new influences and interactions. In this collection, renowned scholars provide thoughtful close readings of a whole range of genres, from graphic novels to crime fiction to the influence of television and film, to analyse modern French fiction in its historical and sociological context. Allowing students of contemporary French literature and culture to situate specific works within broader trends, the volume provides an engaging, global and timely overview of contemporary fiction writing in French, and demonstrates how our modern literary world is more complex and diverse than ever before.