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The spatial distribution of collaborative targets and the information collaboration process are two important factors affecting the efficiency of real-time collaborative navigation. Addressing these factors, this paper presents the following work. First, the collaborative communication process between navigation targets is designed and illustrated with an application example. Second, the feature and error condition of the spatial distribution of collaborative targets is analysed. Then, a method based on CGDOP (collaborative geometric dilution of precision) value is proposed for the evaluation of the actual spatial distribution conditions of collaborative targets. Finally, a simulated experiment is conducted to evaluate the collaborative navigation process and the collaboration effect of the collaborative navigation network in different spatial shapes. Overall, the results of this study optimised the observation and application efficiency of navigation data, and improved the stability and reliability of real-time navigation service through multi-target collaborative navigation.
The research was to introduce the experience of doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect (DCVSD) repaired through tricuspid approach.
From January, 2015 to September, 2019, 86 consecutive DCVSD paediatrics underwent repair via right subaxillary vertical incision (RAVI) through tricuspid approach. Perioperative and follow-up data were collected.
The age and weight at operation were 28.1 ± 18.5 (range: 7–101) months and 12.2 ± 4.2 (6–26.5) kg. There were two patients combined with discrete subaortic membrane, two patients with patent ductus arteriosus, one patient with atrial septal defect, and two patients with abnormal muscle bundle in right ventricular outflow tract. The mean size of ventricular septal defect was 7.0 ± 2.4 (3–13) mm. The defect was repaired with a piece of Dacron patch in 68 patients or directly with 1–2 pledgetted polypropylene sutures in 18 patients. The cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time were 46.2 ± 13.3 (23–101) minutes and 29.2 ± 11.5 (12–84) minutes. After 3.1 ± 2.4 (0–14) hours’ ventilator assist and 23.2 ± 32.1 (0–264) hours’ ICU stay, all patients were discharged safely. At the latest follow-up (27.9 ± 14.6 months), echocardiography showed trivial residual shunt in two patients. There was no malignant arrhythmia occurred and there was no chest deformity or asymmetrical development of the breast was found.
DCVSD repaired via right subaxillary vertical incision through tricuspid approach was safe and feasible, providing a feasible alternative to median sternotomy, and it can be performed with favourable cosmetic results.
Nicotine 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate dihydrate is a nicotine salt and can be used as compositions in tobacco products. X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for nicotine 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate, C10H15N2⋅C7H5O4⋅2H2O, are reported [a = 8.424(1) Å, b = 13.179(8) Å, c = 8.591(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 102.073(8)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 932.765(3) Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.256 g⋅cm−3, and space group P21] at room temperature. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21 space group.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
Kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A and KS-4H) collected from a corn field near Garden City, KS, have previously shown multiple resistance to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr. These accessions were also suspected as being resistant to photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors. The main objectives of this research were to 1) confirm the coexistence of cross-resistance to PS II inhibitors (atrazine and metribuzin) applied PRE and POST, 2) investigate the underlying mechanism of PS II-inhibitor resistance, and 3) determine the effectiveness of alternative POST herbicides for control of these multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) kochia accessions. Results from dose-response experiments revealed that the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions were 23-fold to 48-fold resistant to PRE- and POST-applied atrazine and 13-fold to 18-fold resistant to POST-applied metribuzin compared to a known susceptible kochia accession (KS-SUS). Both accessions also showed putative resistance to PRE-applied metribuzin that needs to be confirmed. Sequence analyses of the psbA gene further revealed that all samples from the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions had a Ser264Gly point mutation. A pretreatment with malathion followed by a POST application of atrazine at 1,120 g ha−1 or metribuzin at 630 g ha−1 did not reverse the resistance phenotypes of these MHR accessions. In a separate greenhouse study, alternative POST herbicides, including bicyclopyrone + bromoxynil; bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole; paraquat alone or in combination with atrazine, metribuzin, 2,4-D, or saflufenacil; and saflufenacil alone or in combination with 2,4-D effectively controlled the KS-4H accession (≥97% injury). To our knowledge, this research reports the first case of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to PRE-applied atrazine and POST-applied metribuzin. Growers should adopt diversified weed control strategies, including the use of competitive crops, cover crops, targeted tillage, and harvest weed seed control along with effective alternative PRE and POST herbicides with multiple sites of action to control MHR kochia seedbanks on their production fields.
This study aimed at estimating the transmissibility of hepatitis C. The data for hepatitis C cases were collected in six districts in Xiamen City, China from 2004 to 2018. A population-mixed susceptible-infectious-chronic-recovered (SICR) model was used to fit the data and the parameters of the model were calculated. The basic reproduction number (R0) and the number of newly transmitted cases by a primary case per month (MNI) were adopted to quantitatively assess the transmissibility of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Eleven curve estimation models were employed to predict the trends of R0 and MNI in the city. The SICR model fits the reported HCV data well (P < 0.01). The median R0 of each district in Xiamen is 0.4059. R0 follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The median MNI of each district in Xiamen is 0.0020. MNI follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The transmissibility of HCV follows a decreasing trend, which reveals that under the current policy for prevention and control, there would be a high feasibility to eliminate the transmission of HCV in the city.
The Western Tianshan orogenic belt is essential for understanding the evolution of the Central Asian orogenic belt. However, no agreement exists among geologists about its tectonic environment during the Late Palaeozoic. The volcanic rocks of the Yishijilike and Wulang Formation in the Yili Block, Western Tianshan, formed in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, mainly consist of a bimodal suite of basalts – basaltic andesites and rhyolites, with only some intermediate rocks. Mafic rocks are slightly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) and depleted in Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf, suggesting a subduction-modiﬁed depleted mantle source. Some mafic samples in the Early Permian bimodal volcanic rocks have high Ti contents with relatively high concentrations of Nb and high field strength elements (HFSE) and low contents of heavy rare earth elements (HREE). These rocks are similar to the continental flood basalts, which suggests that they formed from an asthenospheric mantle. This paper indicates that mafic members were created by the partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle material and subduction-modiﬁed lithospheric mantle mixture. Some rhyolites and dacites in the Wulang formation were enriched in Ga, Nb, Zr, Ce and Y and depleted in Sr and Eu. Additionally, they showed fractionation of rare earth elements (REE) with negative Eu anomalies, which is indicative of an A-type affinity of felsic rocks. The genesis of mafic members and an A-type affinity of felsic members indicate that the Late Carboniferous – Early Permian magmatism in the Western Tianshan area formed as a result of an extensional setting. This study also reveals bimodal magmatism produced by delamination in an extensional tectonic setting.
A paper-based survey was conducted from 2015 to 2017 among stakeholders of the Texas rice industry on current weed management challenges and factors influencing management decisions. A total of 108 survey questionnaires were completed by stakeholders at the rice Cooperative Extension meetings conducted in the rice-growing counties of Texas. In addition, late-season field surveys were conducted prior to harvest in 2015 and 2016 across the rice-growing counties to understand dominant weed escapes occurring in rice fields. Results from the questionnaire survey revealed that rice–fallow–rice was the most common rotation practiced in Texas rice production. Echinochloa spp., Leptochloa spp., and Cyperus spp. were the top three problematic weed issues faced by the respondents. Among the Leptochloa species, Nealley’s sprangletop, a relatively new species in rice fields, was indicated as an emerging concern. Clomazone was the most frequently used PRE herbicide, whereas quinclorac, propanil, imazethapyr, and cyhalofop were the popular POST herbicides. Most respondents (72%) made weed-control decisions on the basis of economic thresholds, whereas 63% made decisions on the basis of weed problems from previous years. Most respondents (88%) expressed moderate to high concern for herbicide-resistant weeds in their operations. Strategies to manage herbicide-resistant weeds and economical weed management practices were among the top suggested research needs. The field survey revealed that jungle rice, Nealley’s sprangletop, and hemp sesbania were the top three late-season weed escapes in rice production in Texas, with frequencies of occurrence of 28%, 19%, and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, average field area infested by a species was the greatest for jungle rice (13%), followed by hemp sesbania (11%) and weedy rice (11%). Findings from the stakeholder and field surveys help direct future research and outreach efforts for sustainable weed management in Texas rice.
Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 at Kansas State University Ashland Bottoms (KSU-AB) research farm near Manhattan, KS, and Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center (KSU-ARC) near Hays, KS, to determine the effectiveness of various PRE-applied herbicide premixes and tank mixtures alone or followed by (fb) an early POST (EPOST) treatment of glyphosate + dicamba for controlling glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth in glyphosate/dicamba-resistant (GDR) soybean. In experiment 1, PRE-applied sulfentrazone + S-metolachlor, saflufenacil + imazethapyr + pyroxasulfone, chlorimuron + flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, and metribuzin + flumioxazin + imazethapyr provided 85% to 94% end-of-season control of GR Palmer amaranth across both sites. In comparison, Palmer amaranth control ranged from 63% to 87% at final evaluation with PRE-applied pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone, pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone plus metribuzin, pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone plus carfentrazone + sulfentrazone, and sulfentrazone + metribuzin at the KSU-ARC site in experiment 2. All PRE fb EPOST (i.e., two-pass) programs provided near-complete (98% to 100%) control of GR Palmer amaranth at both sites. PRE-alone programs reduced Palmer amaranth shoot biomass by 35% to 76% in experiment 1 at both sites, whereas all two-pass programs prevented Palmer amaranth biomass production. No differences in soybean yields were observed among tested programs in experiment 1 at KSU-ARC site; however, PRE-alone sulfentrazone + S-metolachlor, saflufenacil + imazethapyr + pyroxasulfone, and chlorimuron + flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone had lower grain yield (average, 4,342 kg ha−1) compared with the top yielding (4,832 kg ha−1) treatment at the KSU-AB site. PRE-applied sulfentrazone + metribuzin had a lower soybean yield (1,776 kg ha−1) compared with all other programs in experiment 2 at the KSU-ARC site. These results suggest growers should proactively adopt effective PRE-applied premixes fb EPOST programs evaluated in this study to reduce selection pressure from multiple POST dicamba applications for GR Palmer amaranth control in GDR soybean.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increased. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, to identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and to strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail how to optimize processes, prevent cross-infection, provide health protection, and prevent disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on the pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provides practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period.
This study introduces a new real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning method which is suitable for baselines of different lengths. The method merges carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free observation combinations (LWLC) instead of using pseudo-range, and carrier-phase ionosphere-free combination (PCLC), or single-frequency pseudo-range and phase combination (P1L1). In a first step, the double-differenced wide-lane ambiguities were calculated and fixed using the pseudo-range and carrier-phase wide-lane combination observations. Once the double-differenced wide-lane integer ambiguities were known, the wide-lane combined observations were regarded as accurate pseudo-range observations. Subsequently, the carrier-phase wide-lane, and ionosphere-free combined observations were used to fix the double-differenced carrier-phase integer ambiguities, achieving the final RTK positioning. The RTK positioning analysis was performed for short, medium, and long baselines, using the P1L1, PCLC, and LWLC methods, respectively. For a short baseline, the LWLC method demonstrated positioning accuracy similar to the P1L1 method, and performed better than the PCLC method. For medium and long baselines, the positioning accuracy of the LWLC method was slightly higher than those of the PCLC and P1L1 methods. In conclusion, the LWLC method provided high-precision RTK positioning results for baselines with different lengths, as it used high-precision carrier-phase observations with fixed ambiguities instead of low-precision pseudo-range observations.
Parabronema skrjabini is one of the most harmful nematodes to camels and is responsible for economic losses in animal husbandry industry. There is an urgent need for in-depth studies of potential vectors of the nematode due to its scant regarding information. As previous studies indicated that flies may be the vectors of P. skrjabini, we captured flies in the main camel-producing areas of Inner Mongolia. After autopsy of the specimens of two species of horn flies, we observed the morphology of the suspected nematode larvae found in them. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal-DNA gene sequences were considered the best candidate to confirm the species of the larvae found. Our results showed that the homology compared with P. skrjabini was 99.5% in GenBank. Subsequently, we preliminarily identified two species of horn flies through morphological observation and then sequenced the mitochondrial-DNA-gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I obtained from two species of horn flies, with 100 and 99.2% similarity to sequences deposited in GenBank, respectively. Thus, we identified Haematobia titillans and Haematobia irritans and provided evidence for their potential role as vectors of parabronemosis. Our study provides reference for future research on the life history of the nematode and the vectors of parabronemosis.
The widespread evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations has become an increasing concern for no-tillage (NT) growers in semiarid regions of the U.S. Great Plains. Lack of cost-effective and alternative new herbicide sites of action further exacerbates the problem of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds and threatens the long-term sustainability of prevailing cropping systems in the region. A recent decline in commodity prices and increasing herbicide costs to manage HR weeds has spurred research efforts to build a strong rationale for developing ecologically based integrated weed management (IWM) strategies in the U.S. Great Plains. Integration of cover crops (CCs) in NT dryland production systems potentially offers several ecosystem services, including weed control, soil health improvement, decline in selective pest pressure, and overall reduction in pest management inputs. This review article aims to document the role of CCs for IWM, with emphasis on exploring emerging weed issues; ecological, economic, and agronomic benefits of growing CCs; and constraints preventing adoption of CCs in NT cropping systems in the semiarid Great Plains. We attempt to focus on changes in weed management practices, their long-term impacts on weed seedbanks, weed shifts, and herbicide-resistance evolution in the most common weed species in the region. We also highlight current knowledge gaps and propose new research priorities based on an improved understanding of CC management strategies that will ultimately aid in achieving sustainable weed management goals and preserving natural resources in water-limited environments.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move and uncomfortable sensations. Genetic studies have identified polymorphisms in up to 19 risk loci, including MEIS1 and BTBD9. Rodents deficient in either homolog show RLS-like phenotypes. However, whether MEIS1 and BTBD9 interact in vivo is unclear. Here, with C. elegans, we observed that the hyperactive egg-laying behavior caused by loss of BTBD9 homolog was counteracted by knockdown of MEIS1 homolog. This was further investigated in mutant mice with Btbd9, Meis1, or both knocked out. The double knockout mice showed an earlier onset of the motor deficit in a wheel running test but did not have increased sensitivity to heat stimuli as observed in single knock outs. Meis1 protein level was not influenced by Btbd9 deficiency, and Btbd9 transcription was not affected by Meis1 haploinsufficiency. Our results demonstrate that MEIS1 and BTBD9 do not regulate each other.
Varicella is an acute respiratory infectious diseases, with high transmissibility and quick dissemination. In this study, an SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered) dynamic model was established to explore the optimal prevention and control measures according to the epidemiological characteristics about varicella outbreak in a school in a central city of China. Berkeley Madonna 8.3.18 and Microsoft Office Excel 2010 software were employed for the model simulation and data management, respectively. The result showed that the simulated result of SEIR model agreed well with the reported data when β (infected rate) equal to 0.067. Models showed that the cumulative number of cases was only 13 when isolation adopted when the infected individuals were identified (assuming isolation rate was up to 100%); the cumulative number of cases was only two and the TAR (total attack rate) was 0.56% when the vaccination coefficient reached 50%. The cumulative number of cases did not change significantly with the change of efficiency of ventilation and disinfection, but the peak time was delayed; when δ (vaccination coefficient) = 0.1, m (ventilation efficiency) = 0.7 or δ = 0.2, m = 0.5 or δ = 0.3, m = 0.1 or δ = 0.4 and above, the cumulative number of cases would reduce to one case and TAR would reduce to 0.28% with combined interventions. Varicella outbreak in school could be controlled through strict isolation or vaccination singly; combined interventions have been adopted when the vaccination coefficient was low.
The X-ray emissions in the interaction of 3–6 MeV Xe23+ ions into thick solid In target are measured. The projectile-to-target and target Lα/Lβ X-ray production intensity ratios are observed to strongly depend on the projectile energy. The dependence deviates from Coulomb ionization predictions, which implies the important roles of coupling between subshells and the activation of 4fσ rotational couplings for projectile energy larger than 5 MeV.
Transmission of varicella occurs frequently in schools and households. We investigated the characteristics of varicella cases derived from within-household transmission and the modes of varicella transmission between school and household settings in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2018. Within-household transmission occurred in 278 households, of which 134 transmission events were between children. Sixty-one household varicella transmission events may be attributed to isolation procedures for infected students during school outbreaks, and 7.6% of school outbreaks were caused by schoolchildren cases derived from within-household transmission. The frequency of ‘school-household-school’ transmission adds an additional layer of complexity to the control of school varicella outbreaks. Administration of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure is considered to be an effective measure to control varicella spread within households and schools.