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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has serious physiological and psychological consequences. The long-term (>12 weeks post-infection) impact of COVID-19 on mental health, specifically in older adults, is unclear. We longitudinally assessed the association of COVID-19 with depression symptomatology in community-dwelling older adults with metabolic syndrome within the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus cohort.
Participants (n = 5486) aged 55–75 years were included in this longitudinal cohort. COVID-19 status (positive/negative) determined by tests (e.g. polymerase chain reaction severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, IgG) was confirmed via event adjudication (410 cases). Pre- and post-COVID-19 depressive symptomatology was ascertained from annual assessments conducted using a validated 21-item Spanish Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models assessed the association between COVID-19 and depression symptomatology.
COVID-19 in older adults was associated with higher post-COVID-19 BDI-II scores measured at a median (interquartile range) of 29 (15–40) weeks post-infection [fully adjusted β = 0.65 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–1.15; p = 0.011]. This association was particularly prominent in women (β = 1.38 points, 95% CI 0.44–2.33, p = 0.004). COVID-19 was associated with 62% increased odds of elevated depression risk (BDI-II ≥ 14) post-COVID-19 when adjusted for confounders (odds ratio; 95% CI 1.13–2.30, p = 0.008).
COVID-19 was associated with long-term depression risk in older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly in women. Thus, long-term evaluations of the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and preventive public health initiatives are warranted in older adults.
This study uses luminescence and 14C accelerator mass spectrometry procedures to date relevant glaciofluvial and glacial deposits from the south-central and southeastern Pyrenees (Andorra–France–Spain). We distinguish two types of end-moraine complexes: (1) those in which at least a far-flung moraine exists beyond a frequently nested end-moraine complex (the most common) and (2) those in which a close-nested end moraine encompasses at least two glacial cycles. Both types formed within six distinctive glacial intervals: (1) A penultimate glacial cycle during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 and older glaciofluvial terraces occurred beyond the range of the luminescence dating method. (2) An early glacial advance in MIS 5d (~97 −15/+19 ka) was followed by glacial retreat during MIS 5c (< 91 ± 9 ka). (3) The last maximum ice extent (LMIE) was in early MIS 4 (~74 ± 4.5 ka). (4) Unexpectedly, glaciers thinned during the second half of MIS 3 (~39 −6/+11 ka). (5) During the MIS 3–2 transition, glaciers subsequently fluctuated behind the LMIE limits. (6) The global last glacial maximum (LGM) started as early as ~26.6 ± 0.365 ka b2k, and the corresponding end moraines were built behind the LMIE limits or merged with it, forming close-nested moraines.
To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
Youths and kids in Indonesia since almost two decades ago have been showing significant increase of interest in space sciences, especially astronomy. One of the main factors is due to the annual event of National Science Olympiad which includes Astronomy as the subject. The increasing level of public interest, especially younger generation on astronomical events, such as eclipses, moon sightings, meteor showers has been constantly observed from time to time. Being aware that Astronomy course does not included in primary and secondary education level’s curricula, teachers are somewhat desperate and are not capable to play role as clearing house in science related to space. The IAU Network of Astronomy for School Education Network (IAU-NASE) course was started in 2016 in Machung University, East Java as the pilot project in Indonesia. The course has attracted significant interest from teachers and university staff, especially in East and Middle Java Provinces. Being confident with the enthusiasm of teachers who expressed that NASE course could fulfil their needs to teach and instruct students in a very efficient way, it was organized consecutively at Bandar Lampung, Lampung Province in 2018 and 2019 (hosted by Institut Teknologi Sumatera) and in 2020 at Bandung, West Java Province (hosted by Institut Teknologi Bandung). The most recent NASE course on 21–23 August 2020, conducted in on-line mode, was attended by 74 participants, although primarily aimed at 15 School teachers, and was quite successful. The on-line observational activity turned out to be the most impressive session for the participants. We report and review four years of IAU NASE courses in Indonesia, with various documentation and brief analysis of the positive impact to the teachers and instructors attitude in teaching astronomy at secondary level of education.
Astronomy is connected with the every day experiences of the people, since the observation of simple and repetitive phenomena, as the succesion of days and nights, untill events of high impact, as the total solar eclipses. In this sense, the Astronomy is a fascinating activity and can be used to inspire interest in sciences in general. In this contribution, we introduce the Network of Astronmy School Education as part of the IAU proposals connected with teaching training programs, and we highlight several examples on the specific topic of the eclipses: their importance and connection with the culture, that can capture students attention if we use the workshops as part of the classes.
Ibn al-Haytham (known as Alhazen in occident), extensively studied the camera obscura phenomenon in the early 11th century. This instrument was used to obtain the projected image of a landscape on the screen and also was addopte by the scientists and famous painters along the centuries, to experiment with it until their final evolution as the modern photografic camera. The resource in the simple version of the “pinhole camera” can be used at the classroom to experience several phenomena, such us solar eclipses and Moon phases, and to each about optics and geometry. This contribution presents an application of this ingeniuos tool in the framework of solar eclipses, where the scale models are important to understand what really happens with the Sun-Earth-Moon system.
Just as in the past, the development of the natural sciences and in particular of astronomy has changed the history of humanity. If we think about the role of our discipline into the future, it shows its enormous power in the field of education, owing to the possibility of awakening interest in science in very varied audiences. Within the framework of the enormous progress made in the technologies related to astronomy, many of them of daily use, the role of the astronomer in the era of Communications acquires fundamental importance.
In this presentation, we will try to make a journey through the different ways of presenting astronomical topics for different audiences over the last 100 years. In turn, we will show some specific achievements, associated with education programmes of the discipline. We discuss the impact produced by proposals that are both rigorous in terms of content, and also appeal to the development of the human being in an integral manner, within the framework of citizen science activities.
For this research, we have taken into account the uninterrupted development of the NASE programme, which has performed 112 courses in 24 countries throughout the world and in different languages. NASE has involved 4966 secondary teachers in the last eight years.
The Learning Services Management System of the Network for the Education of Astronomy in the School (IAU-NASE) has been developed following the guidelines of the ISO 29990: 2013 Standard, which understands on the “Learning services for non-formal education and training’’, and which aims to improve quality of learning services and facilitate comparison on worldwide basis.
As the IAU heads towards its second century, many changes have simultaneously transformed Astronomy and the human condition world-wide. Amid the amazing recent discoveries of exoplanets, primeval galaxies, and gravitational radiation, the human condition on Earth has become blazingly interconnected, yet beset with ever-increasing problems of over-population, pollution, and never-ending wars. Fossil-fueled global climate change has begun to yield perilous consequences. And the displacement of people from war-torn nations has reached levels not seen since World War II.
Astronomy is part of our culture. Astronomy cannot be isolated in a classroom, it has to be integrated in the normal life of teachers and students. “Astronomy in the city” is an important part of NASE (Network for Astronomy School Education) (Ros & Hemenway 2012). In each NASE course we introduce a “working group session” chaired by a local expert in cultural astronomy. The chair introduces several examples of astronomy in their city and after that, the participants have the opportunity to discuss and mention several similar examples. After this session all participants visit one or two sites proposed and introduced by the chair.
After more than 5 years using this method we visited and discovered several examples of astronomy in the city:
•Astronomy in ancient typical clothes.
•Archaeological temples oriented according to the sunrise or set.
•Petroglyphs with astronomical meaning.
•Astronomy in monuments.
•Oriented Colonial churches.
•Astronomy in Souvenirs.
In any case, teachers and students discover that Astronomy is part of their everyday life. They can take into account the Sun's path when they park their car or when they take a bus “what is the best part in order to be seat in the shadow during the journey?” The result is motivation to go with “open eyes” when they are in the street and they try to get more and more information about their surroundings.
In summary, one of the main activities is to introduce local cultural aspects in NASE astronomy courses. The participants can discover a new approach to local culture from an astronomical point of view.
Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded inconsistent results. Besides, few studies have analysed the effects of red wine (RW) consumption on the prevalence of the MetS and its components. As moderate RW drinkers have a better lipid profile and lower incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension and abdominal obesity, all components of the MetS, it was hypothesised that moderate RW consumption could be associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS. In the present cross-sectional study of 5801 elderly participants at a high cardiovascular risk included in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, 3897 fulfilled the criteria of the MetS at baseline. RW intake was recorded using a validated 137-item FFQ. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the association between RW intake and the prevalence of the MetS. Compared with non-drinkers, moderate RW drinkers ( ≥ 1 drink/d) were found to have a reduced risk of prevalent MetS (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·68; P< 0·001), a lower risk of having an abnormal waist circumference (OR 0·59, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·77; P< 0·001), low HDL-cholesterol concentrations (OR 0·42, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·53; P< 0·001), high blood pressure (OR 0·28, 95 % CI 0·17, 0·45; P< 0·001) and high fasting plasma glucose concentrations (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·82; P< 0·001) after adjusting for several confounders. This association was found to be stronger in female participants, in participants aged < 70 years and in participants who were former or current smokers. No significant association was found between RW intake ( ≥ 1 drink/d) and TAG concentrations. In conclusion, moderate RW consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS in an elderly Mediterranean population at a high cardiovascular risk.
C46 is a Commission of the Executive Committee of the IAU under Division XII Union-Wide Activities. Aiming at improvement of astronomy education and research at all levels worldwide (through the various projects it initiates),maintains, develops, as well as through the dissemination of information. C46 has 332 members and it was managed by the Organizing Committee, formed by the Commission President (Rosa M. Ros, from Spain), the Vice-Presiden (John Hearnshaw, from New Zealand), the Retiring President (Magda Stavinschi, from Romania), the Vice-President of the IAU (George Miley, from Netherland) and the PG chairs:
• Worldwide Development of Astronomy WWDA: John Hearnshaw
• Teaching Astronomy for Development TAD: Edward Guinan and Laurence A. Marshall
• International Schools for Young Astronomers ISYA; chair: Jean-Pierre de Greve
• Network for Astronomy School Education NASE: Rosa M. Ros and Beatriz Garcia
• Public Understanding at the times of Solar Eclipses and transit Phenomena PUTSE: Jay Pasachoff
In astronomy it is important to promote observation and the quality of the sky is essential for a good observation impact. It is important that children have a nice memory of their observations in a non-polluted sky. Using students as agents of change it is possible to promote good practice for sky protection in society.
The omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocyte membranes expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids, has been proposed as both a risk marker and risk factor for CHD death. A major determinant of the omega-3 index is EPA+DHA intake, but the impact of other dietary fatty acids has not been investigated. In a cross-sectional study on 198 subjects (102 men and 96 women, mean age 66 years) at high cardiovascular risk living in Spain, the country with low rates of cardiac death despite a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, dietary data were acquired from FFQ and blood cell membrane fatty acid composition was measured by GC. The average consumption of EPA+DHA was 0·9 g/d and the mean omega-3 index was 7·1 %. In multivariate models, EPA+DHA intake was the main predictor of the omega-3 index but explained only 12 % of its variability (P < 0·001). No associations with other dietary fatty acids were observed. Although the single most influential determinant of the omega-3 index measured here was the intake of EPA+DHA, it explained little of the former's variability; hence, the effects of other factors (genetic, dietary and lifestyle) remain to be determined. Nevertheless, the high omega-3 index could at least partially explain the paradox of low rates of fatal CHD in Spain despite a high background prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors.
In a recent study published in the British Journal of Nutrition, Spencer et al.(1) reviewed the strengths and the limitations of the biomarkers of dietary polyphenol intake, since nutritional biomarkers may be a better measure of dietary exposure than self-reported dietary data.
Commission 46 continues its task in the triennium, which started in September 2006. It seeks to further contribute to the development and improvement of astronomical education at all levels all over the world through various projects initiated, maintained and to be developed by the Commission, and by disseminating information concerning astronomy education.