A thirty-eight-year-old man presented with a six year history of symptoms resembling an anterior horn cell disorder. There was progressive upper extremity wasting and weakness in the absence of sensory complaints. Electrophysiologic abnormalities were confined to motor nerve conduction and indicated a demyelinating process involving the brachial plexus and major proximal upper extremity nerve trucks bilaterally. Biopsy of the proximal right ulnar nerve revealed changes suggesting a chronic demyelinating process, and onion-bulb formations were present. Immunohistochemical staining for S-100 protein was positive in the cells comprising the onion-bulbs, indicating a Schwann cell, not a perineurial origin of these cells. After 8 years, symptoms have failed to appear in the lower limbs. Recent reports in the literature have begun to delineate the syndrome, which appears to represent an unusual, localized or multifocal, sometimes inflammatory, clinically benign neuropathy that can mimic motor neuron disease in its earlier stages. We report the first such case with underlying pathology.