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The definition and classification of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been an important but controversial topic for many decades with significant implications for treatment and prognosis. The 2018 international guideline incorporates evidence-based evaluation of the condition together with clinical, consumer, academic and industry contributions to set up the most accepted approach to diagnosis, evaluation and treatment available internationally.
The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused myriad health, social, and economic stressors. To date, however, no known study has examined changes in mental health during the pandemic in the U.S. military veteran population.
Data were analyzed from the 2019–2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, a nationally representative, prospective cohort survey of 3078 veterans. Pre-to-peri-pandemic changes in psychiatric symptoms were evaluated, as well as pre-pandemic risk and protective factors and pandemic-related correlates of increased psychiatric distress.
The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) positive screens increased from pre- to peri-pandemic (7.1% to 9.4%; p < 0.001) and was driven by an increase among veterans aged 45–64 years (8.2% to 13.5%; p < 0.001), but the prevalence of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder positive screens remained stable. Using a continuous measure of psychiatric distress, an estimated 13.2% of veterans reported a clinically meaningful pre-to-peri-pandemic increase in distress (mean = 1.1 standard deviation). Veterans with a larger pre-pandemic social network size and secure attachment style were less likely to experience increased distress, whereas veterans reporting more pre-pandemic loneliness were more likely to experience increased distress. Concerns about pandemic-related social losses, mental health COVID-19 effects, and housing stability during the pandemic were associated with increased distress, over-and-above pre-pandemic factors.
Although most U.S. veterans showed resilience to mental health problems nearly 1 year into the pandemic, the prevalence of GAD positive screens increased, particularly among middle-aged veterans, and one of seven veterans experienced increased distress. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
This paper presents data obtained in a one-day census investigation in five European countries (Austria, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia). The census forms were filled in for 4191 psychiatric inpatients. Concerning legal status, 11.2% were hospitalised against their will (committed) and 21.4% were treated in a ward with locked doors. There was only a small correlation between commitment and treatment in a locked ward. More frequent than treatment of committed patients in locked wards was treatment of committed patients in open wards (Austria, Hungary) and treatment of voluntary patients in closed wards (Slovakia, Slovenia). Concerning employment, 27.7% of patients aged 18–60 held a job before admission. The vast majority of patients (84.8%) had a length of stay of less than 3 months. A comparison of these data with the results of a study performed in 1996 and using the same method shows a decrease of rates of long-stay patients. In 1996 the rates of employment were significantly higher in Romania (39.3%) and Slovakia (42.5%) compared to Austria (30.7%). These differences disappeared in 1999 due to decreasing rates of employment in Romania and Slovakia. The numbers of mental health personnel varies between types of institution (university or non-university) and countries, being highest in Austria and lowest in Romania. A considerable increase in the numbers of staff was found in Slovakia.
Clinical case studies have long been recognized as a useful adjunct to problem-based learning and continuing professional development. They emphasize the need for clinical reasoning, integrative thinking, problem-solving, communication, teamwork and self-directed learning - all desirable generic skills for health care professionals. This volume contains a selection of cases on assisted reproduction that will inform and challenge reproductive medicine practitioners at all stages in their careers. Both common and uncommon cases are included. The aim is to reinforce diagnostic skill through careful analysis of individual presenting patterns, and to guide treatment decisions. Each case consists of a clinical history, examination findings and special investigations, before a diagnosis is made. Clinical issues raised by each case are discussed and major teaching points emphasized. Selective references are provided. The book provides a useful complementary adjunct to existing textbooks of reproductive medicine, and an excellent resource for teaching and continuing professional development.