This study aimed to compare fruit and vegetable (FV), and carbonated soft drink (CSD) consumption among adolescents from 74 countries, according to macroeconomic indicators. This is an ecological study, developed with countries evaluated through the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) (2003–2014) and the National School Health Survey (PeNSE-Brazil, 2015). The percentages of students in each country who consumed CSD, fruits, and vegetables daily and their association with the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gross National Income per capita (GNIpc) were assessed. Scatter plots were constructed for each marker and a multilevel model was tested to consider the effects of region in the associations. The overall prevalence of daily CSD consumption was 54.1%. CSD consumption was positively associated to HDI and GNIpc through multilevel models; and Central and South America showed a considerable higher consumption compared to other regions. Overall, fruits and vegetables daily consumption were 67.9% and 74.6%, respectively, and no associations with macroeconomic indicators were found. The study shows concerning rates of CSD consumption among adolescents, and a trend of increased consumption with the improvement of the country’s development and GNIpc. This points for the importance of public policies that regulate food and beverage industries to reduce CSD consumption and related comorbidities among adolescents.