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Years of sport participation (YoP) is conventionally used to estimate cumulative repetitive head impacts (RHI) experienced by contact sport athletes. The relationship of this measure to other estimates of head impact exposure and the potential associations of these measures with neurobehavioral functioning are unknown. We investigated the association between YoP and the Head Impact Exposure Estimate (HIEE), and whether associations between the two estimates of exposure and neurobehavioral functioning varied.
Former American football players (N = 58; age = 37.9 ± 1.5 years) completed in-person evaluations approximately 15 years following sport discontinuation. Assessments consisted of neuropsychological assessment and structured interviews of head impact history (i.e., HIEE). General linear models were fit to test the association between YoP and the HIEE, and their associations with neurobehavioral outcomes.
YoP was weakly correlated with the HIEE, p = .005, R2 = .13. Higher YoP was associated with worse performance on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, p = .004, R2 = .14, and Trail Making Test-B, p = .001, R2 = .18. The HIEE was associated with worse performance on the Delayed Recall trial of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, p = .020, R2 = .09, self-reported cognitive difficulties (Neuro-QoL Cognitive Function), p = .011, R2 = .10, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18), p = .018, R2 = .10, and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for Adults), p = .017, R2 = .10.
YoP was marginally associated with the HIEE, a comprehensive estimate of head impacts sustained over a career. Associations between each exposure estimate and neurobehavioral functioning outcomes differed. Findings have meaningful implications for efforts to accurately quantify the risk of adverse long-term neurobehavioral outcomes potentially associated with RHI.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
Remote delivery of evidence-based psychological therapies via video conference has become particularly relevant following the COVID-19 pandemic, and is likely to be an on-going method of treatment delivery post-COVID. Remotely delivered therapy could be of particular benefit for people with social anxiety disorder (SAD), who tend to avoid or delay seeking face-to-face therapy, often due to anxiety about travelling to appointments and meeting mental health professionals in person. Individual cognitive therapy for SAD (CT-SAD), based on the Clark and Wells (1995) model, is a highly effective treatment that is recommended as a first-line intervention in NICE guidance (NICE, 2013). All of the key features of face-to-face CT-SAD (including video feedback, attention training, behavioural experiments and memory-focused techniques) can be adapted for remote delivery. In this paper, we provide guidance for clinicians on how to deliver CT-SAD remotely, and suggest novel ways for therapists and patients to overcome the challenges of carrying out a range of behavioural experiments during remote treatment delivery.
Key learning aims
(1) To learn how to deliver all of the core interventions of CT-SAD remotely.
(2) To learn novel ways of carrying out behavioural experiments remotely when some in-person social situations might not be possible.