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COVID-19 lockdowns increased the risk of mental health problems, especially for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, despite its importance, little is known about the protective factors for ASD children during the lockdowns.
Based on the Shanghai Autism Early Developmental Cohort, 188 ASD children with two visits before and after the strict Omicron lockdown were included; 85 children were lockdown-free, while 52 and 51 children were under the longer and the shorter durations of strict lockdown, respectively. We tested the association of the lockdown group with the clinical improvement and also the modulation effects of parent/family-related factors on this association by linear regression/mixed-effect models. Within the social brain structures, we examined the voxel-wise interaction between the grey matter volume and the identified modulation effects.
Compared with the lockdown-free group, the ASD children experienced the longer duration of strict lockdown had less clinical improvement (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.19–0.79], p = 0.001) and this difference was greatest for social cognition (2.62 [0.94–4.30], p = 0.002). We found that this association was modulated by parental agreeableness in a protective way (−0.11 [−0.17 to −0.05], p = 0.002). This protective effect was enhanced in the ASD children with larger grey matter volumes in the brain's mentalizing network, including the temporal pole, the medial superior frontal gyrus, and the superior temporal gyrus.
This longitudinal neuroimaging cohort study identified that the parental agreeableness interacting with the ASD children's social brain development reduced the negative impact on clinical symptoms during the strict lockdown.
Privacy-preserving computing aims to protect the personal information of users while capitalizing on the possibilities unlocked by big data. This practical introduction for students, researchers, and industry practitioners is the first cohesive and systematic presentation of the field's advances over four decades. The book shows how to use privacy-preserving computing in real-world problems in data analytics and AI, and includes applications in statistics, database queries, and machine learning. The book begins by introducing cryptographic techniques such as secret sharing, homomorphic encryption, and oblivious transfer, and then broadens its focus to more widely applicable techniques such as differential privacy, trusted execution environment, and federated learning. The book ends with privacy-preserving computing in practice in areas like finance, online advertising, and healthcare, and finally offers a vision for the future of the field.
This study aimed to determine the impact of current hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on patients hospitalised with sepsis. This was a retrospective cohort study. Patients from three medical centres in Suzhou from 10 January 2016 to 23 July 2022 participated in this study. Demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics were collected. A total of 945 adult patients with sepsis were included. The median age was 66.0 years, 68.6% were male, 13.1% presented with current HBV infection, and 34.9% of all patients died. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox model, patients with current HBV infection had significantly higher mortality than those without (hazard ratio (HR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–2.02). A subgroup analysis showed that being infected with HBV significantly increased in-hospital mortality in patients younger than 65 years old (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16–2.63), whereas no significant impact was observed in patients ≥65 years. The propensity score-matched case–control analysis showed that the rate of septic shock (91.4% vs. 62.1%, P < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (48.3% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.045) were much higher in the propensity score-matched HBV infection group compared with the control group. In conclusion, current HBV infection was associated with mortality in adults with sepsis.
The objective was to evaluate the association between serum carotenoid levels and respiratory morbidity and mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We assessed the association of serum carotenoid levels with respiratory morbidity and mortality using logistic regression and proportional hazards regression models. Meanwhile, a series of confounders were controlled in regression models and restricted cubic spline, which included age, sex, race, marriage, education, income, drinking, smoking, regular exercise, BMI, daily energy intake, vitamin E, vitamin C, fruit intake, vegetable intake, diabetes, hypertension, asthma, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Compared with participants in the lowest tertiles, participants in the highest tertiles of serum total carotenoids, β-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin levels had a significantly lower prevalence of emphysema (ORtotal carotenoids = 0·61, 95% CI: 0·41–0·89, ORβ-cryptoxanthin = 0·67, 95% CI: 0·49–0·92), chronic bronchitis (ORβ-cryptoxanthin = 0·66, 95% CI: 0·50–0·87) and asthma (Q2: ORlutein/zeaxanthin = 0·78, 95% CI: 0·62–0·97); participants in the highest tertiles of total carotenoids, α-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin and lycopene had a lower risk of respiratory mortality (hazard ratio (HR)total carotenoids = 0·62, 95% CI: 0·42–0·90, HRα-carotene = 0·54, 95% CI: 0·36–0·82, HRlutein/zeaxanthin = 0·48, 95% CI: 0·33–0·71, HRlycopene = 0·66, 95% CI: 0·45–0·96) than those in the lowest tertiles. Higher serum total carotenoids and β-cryptoxanthin levels is associated with decreased prevalence of emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and higher serum total carotenoids, α-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin and lycopene levels had a lower mortality of respiratory disease.