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An increasing number of studies have described the relationship between velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and schizophrenia. in a family-based study, we found that rs10314, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the 3’-flanking region of the CLDN5 gene, was associated with schizophrenia among a Chinese population. High false positive rate is a common problem with the association study of human diseases. It is very important to replicate an initial finding with different samples and experimental designs.
A total of 749 patients with schizophrenia and 383 age and sex matched healthy control subjects in Chinese population were recruited. PCR-based RFLP protocol was applied to genotype rs10314 to see its disease association.
The χ2 goodness-of-fit test showed that the genotypic distributions of rs10314 were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the patient group (χ2=1.12, P=0.289) and the control group (χ2=0.22, P=0.639). rs10314 was associated with schizophrenia with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 in the male subjects (χ2=5.45, P=0.02, 95% CI 1.05-1.67) but not in the female subjects (χ2=0.64, P=0.425, OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.83-1.57). the χ2 test showed a genotypic association only for combined samples (χ2=7.80, df=2, P=0.02). SNP rs10314 is a G to C base change. Frequency of the genotypes containing the C allele was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group.
The present work shows that the CLDN5 gene polymorphism is more likely to be involved in schizophrenic men than women, suggesting that this gene may contribute to the gender differences in schizophrenia.
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear.
Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function.
We found significant group differences of the gFCD in bilateral fusiform area (FFA), post-central and pre-central cortex, left superior temporal gyrus (STG), rectal and superior temporal gyrus and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC); abnormal gFCDs in left STG were positively correlated with severity of depression in MDD group. Significant disease × COMT interaction effects were found in the bilateral calcarine gyrus, right vlPFC, hippocampus and thalamus, and left SFG and FFA. Further post-hoc tests showed a nonlinear modulation effect of COMT on gFCD in the development of MDD. Interestingly, an inverted U-shaped modulation was found in the prefrontal cortex (control system) but U-shaped modulations were found in the hippocampus, thalamus and occipital cortex (processing system).
Our study demonstrated nonlinear modulation of the interaction between COMT and depression on brain function. These findings expand our understanding of the COMT effect underlying the pathophysiology of MDD.
The association between opportunistic infection (OI) and anaemia among HIV-infected patients remains to be studied. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in hospitalised HIV-infected patients to reveal the association between OI and anaemia. We conducted a retrospective study of HIV-positive hospitalised patients from June 2016 to December 2017 in Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University. Patients’ information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were carefully collected. The comparison of anaemia prevalence between groups was conducted with χ2 test. A logistic regression model was carried out to analyse the predictors of anaemia. The total prevalence of anaemia in hospitalised HIV-infected patients was 55.15%. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia was 41.42%, 11.08% and 2.64%, respectively. Predictors independently associated with anaemia were: CD4 counts <50 cells/μl (odds ratio (OR): 6.376, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.916–21.215, P = 0.003), CD4 counts 50–199 cells/μl (OR: 6.303, 95% CI = 1.874–21.203, P = 0.003), co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) (OR: 2.703, 95% CI = 1.349–5.414, P = 0.005) or Penicillium marneffei (PM) (OR: 7.162, 95% CI = 3.147–15.299, P < 0.001). In Fujian, China, more than half inpatients with HIV were anaemic, but severe anaemia is infrequent. Lower CD4 counts, co-infection with TB or PM were independent risk factors for anaemia. Chinese HIV patients especially with TB, PM infection and low CD4 level should be routinely detected for anaemia to improve therapy.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3–4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4–29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using Multiplex 3, a hand-held canopy fluorescence sensor, to determine rice nitrogen (N) status at different growth stages. In 2013, a paddy rice field experiment with five N fertilizer treatments and two varieties was conducted in Northeast China. Field samples and fluorescence data were collected simultaneously at the panicle initiation (PI), stem elongation (SE), and heading (HE) stages. Four N status indicators, leaf N concentration (LNC), plant N concentration (PNC), plant N uptake (PNU) and N nutrition index (NNI), were determined. The preliminary results indicated that different N application rates significantly affected most of the fluorescence variables, especially the simple fluorescence ratios (SFR_G, SFR_R), flavonoid (FLAV), and N balance indices (NBI_G, NBI_R). These variables were highly correlated with N status indicators. More studies are needed to further evaluate the accuracy of rice N status diagnosis using fluorescence sensing at different growth stages.
We analyse the asymptotic behaviour of a biological system described by a stochastic competition model with $n$ species and $k$ resources (chemostat model), in which the species mortality rates are influenced by the fractional Brownian motion of the extrinsic noise environment. By constructing a Lyapunov functional, the persistence and extinction criteria are derived in the mean square sense. Some examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result.
A method was developed to predict numerically the damage of composite laminates with multiple plies under low-velocity impact loading. The Puck criterion for 3D stress states was adopted to model the intralaminar damage including matrix cracking and fibre breakage, and to obtain the orientation of the fracture plane due to matrix failure. According to interlaminar delamination mechanism, a new delamination criterion was proposed. The influence of transverse and through-thickness normal stress, interlaminar shear stress and damage conditions of adjacent plies on delamination was considered. In order to predict the impact-induced damage of composite laminates with more plies quickly and efficiently, an approach, which can predict the specific damage of several plies in a single solid element, was proposed by interpolation on the strains of element integration points. Moreover, the proposed model can predict specific failure modes. A good agreement between the predicted delamination shapes and sizes and the experimental results shows correctness of the developed numerical method for predicting low-velocity impact damage on composite laminates.
Floral organ development influences plant reproduction and crop yield. The mechanism of floral organ specification is generally conserved in angiosperms as demonstrated by the ‘ABC’ model. However, mechanisms underlying the development of floral organs in specific groups of species such as grasses remain unclear. In the genus Oryza (rice), a spikelet consists of a fertile floret sub-tended by a lemma, a palea, two sterile lemmas and rudimentary glumes. To understand how the lemma is formed, a curve-shaped lemma-distortion1 (ld1) mutant was identified. Genetic analysis confirmed that the ld1 mutant phenotype was due to a single recessive gene mutation. Using a large F2 population, the LD1 gene was mapped between markers Indel-7-15 and Indel-7-18, which encompassed a region of 15·6 kilo base pairs (kbp). According to rice genome annotations, two putative genes, LOC_Os07g32510 and LOC_Os07g32520, were located in this candidate region. However, DNA sequencing results indicated only 1 base pair (bp) substitution (T⇨C) was found in LOC_Os07g32510 between the wild-type and the ld1 mutant. Thus LOC_Os07g32510, encoding a DNA binding with one zinc finger (DoF) containing protein, was the candidate gene for LD1. Further analysis showed that mutation of the amino acid cysteine (C) to arginine (R) was likely to lead to zinc finger protein deactivation. Phylogenetic and conservation analysis of the gene from different species revealed that cysteine was critical to LD1 function. As a new gene controlling lemma development, the study of LD1 could provide insights into rice floral organ formation mechanisms.
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute contagious condition caused by a spectrum of human enteroviruses. HFMD reinfection is common in the absence of cross-protection from other virus subtypes. This study focused on reinfection in children in Anhui province, China between 2008 and 2013 using surveillance system data. We classified 8960 cases as reinfected, corresponding to a rate of 2·02%. The reinfection rate was higher in boys than in girls [odds ratio (OR) 1·27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·21–1·32, P < 0·001], children aged < 3 years (OR 3·82, 95% CI 3·58–4·07, P < 0·001), and children living in rural areas (OR 1·09, 95% CI 1·04–1·14, P = 0·001). The reinfection rate in children who were originally infected with non-enterovirus A71 (non-EVA71) enteroviruses was higher than those infected with EVA71 (OR 1·36, 95% CI 1·02–1·80, P = 0·034). Influential factors of reinfection rate included annual incidence (β coefficient = 0·715, P = 0·002) and the proportion of EVA71 in patients with mild HFMD (β coefficient = −0·509, P = 0·018). These results demonstrate that boys aged <3 years, especially those in rural areas or regions with a lower EVA71 proportion are more prone to reinfection, and specific health education programmes should be developed to protect these susceptible populations.
A balanced cavitation bubble is released near the rigid wall in the sound field generated by the incidence plane wave and its reflecting wave. With the modified boundary integral equation, the dynamics of bubble is solved considering the compressibility of fluid in this paper. Also the Bernoulli equation as the boundary condition for cavitation bubble in sound field is deduced using Euler equation. Since the arbitrary incidence angle of acoustic wave, the three-dimensional model is utilized. The bubble will expand or contract at first according to the initial phase of acting acoustic pressure on bubble surface. And during the contraction phase, the liquid jet with high speed will be generated pointing to rigid wall but be deflected to the incidence direction of acoustic wave. The oblique degree of jet will be affected by the incidence angle and initial distance between bubble center and rigid wall. The oscillation amplitude of bubble will be affected by the incidence amplitude and incidence frequency, but be limited by the rigid wall. Since the compressibility of fluid, the perturbation will propagate to the far-field. Thus the oscillation amplitude of bubble will be reduced.
To study the activation of caspase-9 and its potential influence in conditioning, longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (STN) and psoas minor (PMi) muscles were used to analyze the ratio of pro-apoptotic bax to anti-apoptotic bcl-2 in fresh tissues and observe the changes in ATP, cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-9 activity levels during storage at 4°C. Caspase-9 activity at 5 h is higher than the activity at 0 and 24 h in the muscles (P<0.001). The ATP content decreased between 0 and 3 h, between 8 and 14 h in the PMi and LT muscles (P<0.0001), whereas between 0 and 5 h, between 8 and 14 h in the STN muscle (P<0.0001). There is 60.2%, 55.3% and 43.1% available ATP in the STN, LT and PMi muscles at 5 h, respectively. The cytosolic cytochrome c level increased during 5 and 24 h storage in the LT and PMi muscles (P<0.0001), during 5 and 96 h in the STN muscle (P<0.0001). The cytosolic cytochrome c at 24 h (P<0.001) and ratio of bax to bcl-2 (P<0.05) was higher in the PMi than in other muscles. We concluded that the increase in cytosolic cytochrome c and available intracellular ATP should be responsible for the increase in caspase-9 activity; the activation of caspase-9 could be limited by the subsequent depletion of ATP; the postmortem release level of cytochrome c could be determined by the ratio of bax to bcl-2 in fresh tissues.
An adaptive algorithm is presented for the wavelength calibration of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). The new algorithm can identify emission lines of calibration lamp without manual interaction and then fit relationship between the pixel positions and the wavelengths by utilizing a polynomial function. In this study, experiments are performed both on the actual data observed by LAMOST and the simulated data to analyze the accuracy and the robustness.The experimental results show that the proposed automatic algorithm can perform the lines identification exactly and acquire the wavelength solution accurately. Thus, an applicable approach is provided for the wavelength calibration of LAMOST.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
An analytical iterative algorithm for fast computation of
scattering from multiple conductive cylinders is developed. It takes account
of the independent 1st-order, coupling 2nd-order and higher-order
scattering of multiple objects. The 1st-order scattering, as
independent scattering of a single object self, is derived by using the
expansion of cylindrical waves in local coordinate of the object, which are
solved by the boundary conditions. Exciting by the 1st-order scattering
from one object, the 2nd-order scattering of multi-objects are
obtained iteratively using the addition theorem of Hankel function and the
boundary conditions. The same approach is applicable to calculations of the
3rd-order and higher order scattering. It is found that the phase
differences caused by the cylinder centers indicate the scattering wave
interferences of multi-objects. Comparison with numerical MoM results well
validates the analytical iterative algorithm, which significantly
accelerates the scattering computation for wide-band frequencies f and
overall azimuth angles θ over 360°. In order to depress the ringing effect
caused by the abrupt change of scattering field in computed region to zero
field in uncomputed region, the Hamming window is used to make gradual
change of the scattering field to zero. Using FFT and 2D spline
interpolation, discrete scattering data over the $f-\theta$ plane yield uniform
discrete data over the X − Y plane. The image reconstruction is finally
performed for multiple conductive cylinders. The image can well identify the
positions and sizes of multi-objects.
Tibetan Mastiff is one of the most archaic, ferocious and the largest dogs in the world. A total of 140 individuals from four geographically separated populations in China (Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai and Beijing) were sampled and genetic diversity was assessed using 10 microsatellite loci on eight different chromosomes. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 13. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities, polymorphism information content and allelic richness were 0.69, 0.79, 0.76 and 7.59, respectively, indicating relatively high genetic diversity in Tibetan Mastiff. However, a highly significant deficiency in heterozygote was observed within populations (mean FIS = 0.11, bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.06, 0.17)) and total inbreeding (mean FIT = 0.12, bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.06, 0.18)), along with strong inbreeding coefficients within populations (Fis > 0.09), all of which suggested that intense inbreeding practices occurred in Tibetan Mastiff. Therefore, effective and appropriate breeding management projects in present Tibetan Mastiff will be desirable and urgent. Low genetic differentiation was obtained with a mean FST of 0.01 (bootstrap 95% confidence interval (0.007, 0.019)). Additionally, the four Tibetan Mastiff populations showed close relationships in the neighbor-joining polygenetic tree based on the coancestral genetic distances. Tibetan Mastiff was investigated by using microsatellite loci at the first time, which could facilitate the better understanding of present situation at the molecular level, breed conservation and utilization in Tibetan Mastiff.
To research the protective effect of melatonin against gentamicin ototoxicity.
Guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups. The first group received intramuscular gentamicin (120 mg/kg body weight/day) for 17 days. Over the same time period, a second group simultaneously received intramuscular gentamicin (120 mg/kg body weight/day) plus (on the other side) intramuscular melatonin (0.3 ml kg body weight/day). Two groups of controls were treated for 17 days with either intramuscular melatonin or intramuscular saline. After the 17 days, each animal underwent distortion product otoacoustic emission testing (both ears). The guinea pigs were sacrificed by decapitation just after the final injection. Their cochleae were used to produce a tissue section, surface preparation and scanning electron microscope preparation.
Distortion product otoacoustic emission testing indicated gentamicin-induced hearing loss at 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz in gentamicin-treated animals. Animals receiving melatonin co-therapy had significantly attenuated hearing loss and their cochleae showed lower rates of outer hair cell loss (comparing the same cochlear turns), compared with gentamicin-treated animals (p < 0.01).
These findings confirm the occurrence of outer hair cell loss after gentamicin treatment, and the attenuation of such loss following simultaneous melatonin injection, using the method of morphological evaluation. These results suggest that melatonin protects against gentamicin ototoxicity by interfering with cytotoxic mechanisms.
Ancient ivory, from the Chengdu Jinsha and Guanghan Sanxingdui sites in China, has been buried for several thousand years. In order to determine the degradation mechanisms and to provide a scientific basis for protecting them, these ancient ivory samples have been compared with modern ivory using infrared spectroscopy in the frequency range 400–4000 cm–1. By combining chemical analysis data we compare the crystallinity and crystal chemistry of the apatite component, as well as the structural characteristics of the ivory. These investigations showed that the ancient ivory consists almost entirely of hydroxyl-carbonate apatite as the predominant phase. Compared with the modern ivory, the PO43– and CO32– bands are stronger, the PO4RF values are obviously greater, and an extra OH– band at 3569 cm–1 is observed in the ancient ivory. These results indicate that there is a greater degree of apatite crystallinity in the ancient ivory and also imply that there has been incorporation and recrystallization of CO32– in the apatite during burial. Positive correlations have been found between the apatite crystallinity, CO32– and OH– ion contents, and burial time. The organic matter in ancient ivory has been lost or decomposed as the organic bands (e.g. at 1238 cm–1 and 1337 cm–1) have disappeared. This may be the main reason that ancient ivory is easily dewatered and readily friable after being unearthed.
A novel technique that combines laser thermoreflectance measurement with the 3-omega method is proposed for evaluating the heat capacity of low-k films and the heat resistance at the interface between the low-k film and Si substrate. It was demonstrated that the heat capacity of thin films and the heat resistance at the interface can be determined by obtaining the heat effusivity of the film from laser thermoreflectance measurements, the total heat resistance obtained with the 3-omerga method, and the film density and thickness found from x-ray reflectivity measurements. The heat capacity of SiOC films was determined to be Cp(SiOC) =1.1 kJ/kgK with interface heat resistance of Rint(SiOC) = -2.37×10−8 m2k/W, while the heat capacity of Th-ox films was determined to be Cp(Th−ox) =0.61 kJ/kgK with Rint(Th−ox) = +1.74×10−8 m2k/W. A DSC heat capacity measurement confirmed the reliability of the evaluated Cp data. XRR and TEM examinations revealed that the negative interface heat resistance exhibited by the SiOC films originated from a high density layer at the interface between the film and Si substrate; and the positive interface heat resistance displayed by the Th-ox films stemmed from atomic defects at the interface between the film and Si substrate. These results confirmed that this method is a reliable and effective method for evaluating the heat capacity of low-k films and the heat resistance at the interface.