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Non-marine molluscs stand out as the major animal group under the most severe threat. Among the 8664 mollusc species evaluated for the IUCN Red List (version 2019-1), 300 are considered Extinct out of a total 872 listed Extinct species. However, only ~10% of molluscs have been evaluated and other assessments of the number of extinct species are much higher, 3000 to over 5000, almost exclusively non-marine species. As for most other groups, threats faced by non-marine molluscs are habitat loss, probably the most important, but also impacts of introduced species, exploitation, generally of less concern, and climate change, likely to have serious effects into the future. Oceanic island species, often narrowly endemic, are especially threatened and constitute a high proportion of recorded extinctions. Anthropogenic activities have caused non-marine mollusc extinctions since prehistory, but threats have increased greatly over the last few centuries and will probably continue to increase. Most mollusc species for which a population trend has been evaluated by IUCN are stable or declining; those few that are increasing are primarily introduced and invasive. Most threatened are oceanic island snails, North American and other freshwater bivalves and the diverse and highly endemic micro-snails of Southeast Asian limestone outcrops.
The mid-Maastrichtian carbon isotope event (MME), dated at ∼69 Ma, reflects a perturbation of the global carbon cycle that, in part, correlates with the enigmatic global extinction of ‘true’ (i.e., non-tegulated) inoceramid bivalves. The mechanisms of this extinction event are still debated.
While both the inoceramid extirpation and MME have been recorded in a variety of deep-sea sites, little is known about their expression in epicontinental chalk seas. In order to study the shallow-marine signature of the MME in this epicontinental shelf sea, we have generated quantitative foraminiferal assemblage data for two quarries (Hallembaye, NE Belgium; ENCI, SE Netherlands) in the Maastrichtian type area, complemented by a species-specific benthic δ13C record. In contrast to deep-sea records, no significant changes in benthic foraminiferal assemblages and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates are observed across the MME in the type-Maastrichtian area. At the Hallembaye quarry, the otherwise rare endobenthic species Cuneus trigona reaches a transient peak abundance of 33.3% at the onset of the MME, likely caused by a local transient change in organic matter flux to the seafloor. Nevertheless, high and near-constant species evenness shows that neither oxygen nor organic matter flux was limited across the extinction level or during the MME. Benthic foraminiferal data from the uppermost part of the studied section, above the MME, indicate a significant increase in food supply to the seafloor. Decreased amounts of terrigenous elements across this interval document a lesser riverine or aeolian influx, which means that the increased benthic productivity is linked to a different origin. Potentially, the continuous precipitation of chalk under nutrient-poor conditions in the Late Cretaceous chalk sea was enabled by efficient nutrient recycling in the water column. In shallower depositional settings, nutrient recycling took place closer to the seafloor, which allowed more organic matter to reach the bottom. These results provide insights in the importance of nutrient cycling for biological productivity in the NW-European chalk sea.
Exposure to infected healthcare workers (HCWs) is a source of hospital-acquired (HA) influenza. We estimated the risk of HA influenza for hospitalized patients by rate of influenza vaccine coverage (IVC) of HCWs.
A case–case negative control study nested in a prospective cohort was conducted in 2 French university hospitals during 2 influenza seasons. Each inpatient with influenza-like illness (ILI) provided a nasal swab sample that was systematically analyzed for influenza virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. An HA influenza case was a patient with a virological confirmation of influenza with onset of symptoms ≥72 hours after admission to the ward. The IVC rate of HCWs in each participating ward was calculated from the data provided by the occupational health departments. A mixed-effect logistic regression was performed with adjustments on patient sex, age, the presence of a potential source of influenza on the ward in the 5 days prior to the start of the ILI, type of ward and influenza season.
The overall HA influenza attack rate was 1.9 per 1,000 hospitalized patients. In total, 24 confirmed HA influenza cases and 141 controls were included. The crude odds ratio (OR) of HA influenza decreased from 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21–1.29) to 0.14 (95% CI, 0.03–0.63) when the IVC of HCWs increased from 20% to 40%. After adjustment, IVC ≥40% was associated with a risk reduction of HA influenza (aOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01–0.78).
Considering a limited sample size, influenza vaccination of HCWs is highly suggestive of HA flu prevention among hospitalized patients.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP), originally intended to cover 12 Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States and Vietnam), was arguably the largest and most economically significant regional trade agreement (RTA) ever concluded. Together, the original TPP signatories accounted for about 26% of world trade and 36% of world GDP. In early 2017, the United States withdrew from the TPP on the direction of the then-newly elected US President, Donald J. Trump, casting the agreement’s future into uncertainty.
Certain neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), namely apathy, depression, and anxiety demonstrated great value in predicting dementia progression, representing eventually an opportunity window for timely diagnosis and treatment. However, sensitive and objective markers of these symptoms are still missing. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the association between automatically extracted speech features and NPS in patients with mild neurocognitive disorders.
Speech of 141 patients aged 65 or older with neurocognitive disorder was recorded while performing two short narrative speech tasks. NPS were assessed by the neuropsychiatric inventory. Paralinguistic markers relating to prosodic, formant, source, and temporal qualities of speech were automatically extracted, correlated with NPS. Machine learning experiments were carried out to validate the diagnostic power of extracted markers.
Different speech variables are associated with specific NPS; apathy correlates with temporal aspects, and anxiety with voice quality—and this was mostly consistent between male and female after correction for cognitive impairment. Machine learning regressors are able to extract information from speech features and perform above baseline in predicting anxiety, apathy, and depression scores.
Different NPS seem to be characterized by distinct speech features, which are easily extractable automatically from short vocal tasks. These findings support the use of speech analysis for detecting subtypes of NPS in patients with cognitive impairment. This could have great implications for the design of future clinical trials as this cost-effective method could allow more continuous and even remote monitoring of symptoms.
Background: Sink drains can act as breeding grounds for multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, leading to outbreaks. Drains provide a protected humid environment where nutrient-rich substances are available. Recent and growing installation of water and energy conservation devices have led to increased frequency of drain blockage due to biofilm accumulation. Ineffective drainage may lead to backflow and accumulation of water in the sink during use, increasing the risk of contaminated aerosols formation or direct contamination of surrounding material and equipment. Cleaning and disinfection procedures of sink drains need to be improved to prevent amplification and dispersion of MDR bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate alternatives to reduce the biofilm and risk of contamination through aerosols. Methods: Sink drains from patient rooms were randomly selected in the neonatal intensive care unit of a 450-bed pediatric hospital. We tested 4 approaches: (1) new drain; (2) self-disinfecting heating-vibration drain; (3) chemical disinfection with 20 ppm chlorine for 30 minutes; and (4) thermal disinfection with > 90°C water for 30 minutes. A special device was used during disinfection to increase the disinfectant contact time with the biofilm. Treatments were conducted weekly, with prior sampling of drain water. Other drains were also sampled weekly, including a control drain with no intervention. Bacterial loads were evaluated using flow cytometry and heterotrophic plate counts. The drains were made of stainless steel, a heat-conductive material. Results: Preliminary results show that chlorine disinfection had a small impact (<1 log) on culturable bacteria at 48 hours after disinfection but not after a week or repeated weekly disinfection. Thermal disinfection using boiling water is promising, showing an important decrease of 4 log in culturable cells after 48 hours and a concentration still 100× lower 1 week after the disinfection. Repeated weekly thermal disinfection maintained lower culturable levels in the drain. No culturable cells were detected in water from the self-disinfecting drain 2 months after installation, whereas the new drain became fully colonized to concentrations similar to those of drains prior to interventions during the same period. Conclusions: Thermal disinfection of drains is a promising alternative to chlorine. This solution is interesting because it is nontoxic and easy to perform, requiring a small volume of hot water. The rapid recolonization of the new drain suggests that replacing contaminated drains is not a sustainable solution and would need to be paired with a thermal disinfection program to maintain low culturable cells.
Ms. L is having a regular ongoing follow-up with a psychiatrist in private practice for a history of bipolar disorder (BP). She reported a first major depressive episode at the age of 17 as well as one manic episode several years later. She had a last depressive episode 10 years ago and is currently stabilized under antipsychotic medication. Before being prescribed antipsychotics, she was under sodium valproate medication. She also reported a suicide attempt at the age of 11. In addition to her BP, she reported a dysthyroidia treated with L-thyroxine.
Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy is a technique for simultaneous imaging of the structure and dynamics of specimens in a liquid environment. The conventional sample geometry consists of a liquid layer tightly sandwiched between two Si3N4 windows with a nominal spacing on the order of 0.5 μm. We describe a variation of the conventional approach, wherein the Si3N4 windows are separated by a 10-μm-thick spacer, thus providing room for gas flow inside the liquid specimen enclosure. Adjusting the pressure and flow speed of humid air inside this environmental liquid cell (ELC) creates a stable liquid layer of controllable thickness on the bottom window, thus facilitating high-resolution observations of low mass-thickness contrast objects at low electron doses. We demonstrate controllable liquid thicknesses in the range 160 ± 34 to 340 ± 71 nm resulting in corresponding edge resolutions of 0.8 ± 0.06 to 1.7 ± 0.8 nm as measured for immersed gold nanoparticles. Liquid layer thickness 40 ± 8 nm allowed imaging of low-contrast polystyrene particles. Hydration effects in the ELC have been studied using poly-N-isopropylacrylamide nanogels with a silica core. Therefore, ELC can be a suitable tool for in situ investigations of liquid specimens.
Background: Nosocomial infections cause 4%–56% mortality in newborns. Several epidemiological studies have shown that transmission of opportunistic pathogens from the sink to the patient, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Serratia marcescens are associated with nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). In this project, we aimed to develop fast, accurate, and high-throughput multilocus sequence typing assays (HiMLST-Illumina) to detect opportunistic pathogens to assess their distribution in the sink environment of NICUs and their transfer to patients. Methods: Genome sequences of P. aeruginosa (n = 45), S. maltophilia (n = 23) and S. marcescens (n = 34) strains were retrieved from public genome databases to build their pangenomes, using the open-source PGAdb-builder server. The core genome was identified for each opportunistic pathogen and was searched for genes displaying the highest polymorphism. The minimal number of loci to include in a HiMLST-Illumina assay was determined by comparing topology of phylogenetic trees of concatenated loci based on genome similarity, computed as the average nucleotide identity (ANI) score. The primers used for HiMLST-Illumina schemes were designed in silico on a conserved domain and were tested on reference strains of each species. Results: Bioinformatics analyses showed that 3–4 loci (<300 base pairs per locus) distinguished strains with the same performances than ANI scores. The assays were tested using opportunistic pathogen isolates and environmental DNA originating from NICU sinks. The HiMLST-Illumina analysis of environmental DNA revealed the presence of at least 1 of the 3 studied opportunistic pathogens in 50% of sampled drains (n = 20). In a previous sampling, P. aeruginosa was isolated on selective culture media before and 48 hours after disinfection of a sink drain with chlorine. S. marcescens was also isolated from another sink 2 weeks after disinfection. Identification of the isolates was confirmed by HiMLST-Illumina analyses and will be typed to compare with clinical isolates. Conclusions: Initial in silico tests predict a high discriminating power of the HiMLST-Illumina method, suggesting that it would be possible to quickly identify strains of interest in a large number of samples. The power of this method is also in the possibility for molecular typing without a need for cultivation. Preliminary results suggest that sinks are readily colonized by opportunistic pathogens. This HiMLST-Illumina scheme will be applied in a 2-year intensive survey of NICUs in 3 hospitals in Montreal to evaluate the performance of new sink designs in limiting bioaerosol production and transmission of opportunistic pathogens to patients.
In this note, we study the hyperbolic stochastic damped sine-Gordon equation (SdSG), with a parameter β2 > 0, and its associated Gibbs dynamics on the two-dimensional torus. After introducing a suitable renormalization, we first construct the Gibbs measure in the range 0 < β2 < 4π via the variational approach due to Barashkov-Gubinelli (2018). We then prove almost sure global well-posedness and invariance of the Gibbs measure under the hyperbolic SdSG dynamics in the range 0 < β2 < 2π. Our construction of the Gibbs measure also yields almost sure global well-posedness and invariance of the Gibbs measure for the parabolic sine-Gordon model in the range 0 < β2 < 4π.
The equilibrium properties of allocation algorithms for networks with a large number of nodes with finite capacity are investigated. Every node receives a flow of requests. When a request arrives at a saturated node, i.e. a node whose capacity is fully utilized, an allocation algorithm may attempt to reallocate the request to a non-saturated node. For the algorithms considered, the reallocation comes at a price: either extra capacity is required in the system, or the processing time of a reallocated request is increased. The paper analyzes the properties of the equilibrium points of the associated asymptotic dynamical system when the number of nodes gets large. At this occasion the classical model of Gibbens, Hunt, and Kelly (1990) in this domain is revisited. The absence of known Lyapunov functions for the corresponding dynamical system significantly complicates the analysis. Several techniques are used. Analytic and scaling methods are used to identify the equilibrium points. We identify the subset of parameters for which the limiting stochastic model of these networks has multiple equilibrium points. Probabilistic approaches are used to prove the stability of some of them. A criterion of exponential stability with the spectral gap of the associated linear operator of equilibrium points is also obtained.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), constitute a major clinical component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There is a growing interest in BPSD as they are responsible for a large share of the suffering of patients and caregivers, and they strongly determine the patient’s lifestyle and management. Better detection and understanding of these symptoms is essential to provide appropriate management. This article is a consensus produced by the behavioral group of the European Alzheimer’s Disease Consortium (EADC). The aim of this article is to present clinical description and biological correlates of the major behavioral and psychological symptomatology in AD. BPSD is not a unitary concept. Instead, it should be divided into several symptoms or more likely: groups of symptoms, each possibly reflecting a different prevalence, course over time, biological correlate and psychosocial determinants. There is some clinical evidence for clusters within groups of BPSD. Biological studies indicate that patients with AD and BPSD are associated with variations in the pathological features (atrophy, brain perfusion/metabolism, histopathology) when compared to people with AD without BPSD. An individually tailored approach taking all these aspects into account is warranted as it may offer more, and better, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment opportunities.
Researchers tried to explain the overlap between anxiety and depression by suggesting that some items of self-administered questionnaires were badly selected and that both constructs should rather be considered as multidimensional. Thus, we hypothesise that the Spielberger trait anxiety inventory (TAI) includes items related to depression.
A non-clinical sample of 193 subjects filled out the TAI and the Hospitalised Anxiety–Depression Scale. Factors were postulated on the basis of item content and submitted to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
We found five factors: a 10-item anxiety factor containing three factors, a four-item unsuccessfulness factor correlated with the HADS anhedonia factor, and a six-item happiness factor.
The TAI scale encompasses measures of anxiety, depression and well-being. Consequently, the overlap with other measures of depression may result from item selection. This work awaits replication in independent normal and pathological samples.
The bipolar dimension of morningness–eveningness refers to the preferred times of day for achieving various activities (i.e. the phase of the circadian clock). It is validated from a biological point of view, associated with at least one gene and heritable through an epistatic mechanism. It has been used as a proxy to study the relationships between the circadian system, personality and psychopathology: there is a correlation between the evening orientation and depression, extraversion and, probably, impulsivity. Furthermore, there is a possible relationship with temperament in children as theorized by Thomas and Chess. In this paper, we expanded on the hypothesis that impulsive subjects are low in morningness by performing a factor analysis of the Composite Scale of Morningness, Cloninger’s temperament and character inventory, and Spielberger’s trait anxiety inventory in a sample of 129 males. The results can probably be extended to women. Morningness is negatively correlated with novelty seeking (which includes an impulsivity facet), positively correlated with persistence, and independent of character dimensions and trait anxiety. Future research may focus in the involvement of the circadian system in these personality dimensions and facets, and the benefits of adding chronotherapic manipulations in the treatment of the personality disorders.
Asking psychiatric in-patients about their drug consumption is unlikely to yield reliable results, particularly where alcohol and illicit drug use is involved. The main aim of this study was to compare spontaneous self-reports of drug use in hospitalized psychiatric patients to biological measures of same. A secondary aim was to determine which personal factors were associated with the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs as indicated by these biological measures.
The consumption of substances was investigated using biological measures (urine cotinine, cannabis, opiates, cocaine, amphetamines and barbiturates; blood carbohydrate-deficient transferrin [CDT] and gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]) in 486 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients, one day following their hospitalization. Patients’ self-reports of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs consumption were recorded. Socio-professional and familial data were also recorded.
The results show a low correlation between biological measures and self-reported consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Fifty-two percent of the patients under-reported their consumption of illicit drugs (kappa = .47). Patients with schizophrenia and personality disorders were more likely to disclose their illicit drug consumption relative to patients suffering from mood disorders and alcohol dependence. Fifty-six percent of patients underreported alcohol use, as evaluated by CDT (kappa = .2), and 37% underreported when using the CDT + GGT measure as an indicator. Smoking appeared to be reported adequately. In the study we observed a strong negative correlation between cannabis use and age, a strong correlation between tobacco and cannabis use, and correlations between tobacco, cannabis and alcohol consumption.
This study is the first to compare self-reports and biological measures of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug uses in a large sample of inpatients suffering from various categories of psychiatric illnesses, allowing for cross-diagnosis comparisons.
This study investigated metabolic, endocrine, appetite and mood responses to a maximal eating occasion in fourteen men (mean: age 28 (sd 5) years, body mass 77·2 (sd 6·6) kg and BMI 24·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m2) who completed two trials in a randomised crossover design. On each occasion, participants ate a homogenous mixed-macronutrient meal (pizza). On one occasion, they ate until ‘comfortably full’ (ad libitum) and on the other, until they ‘could not eat another bite’ (maximal). Mean energy intake was double in the maximal (13 024 (95 % CI 10 964, 15 084) kJ; 3113 (95 % CI 2620, 3605) kcal) compared with the ad libitum trial (6627 (95 % CI 5708, 7547) kJ; 1584 (95 % CI 1364, 1804) kcal). Serum insulin incremental AUC (iAUC) increased approximately 1·5-fold in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (mean: ad libitum 43·8 (95 % CI 28·3, 59·3) nmol/l × 240 min and maximal 67·7 (95 % CI 47·0, 88·5) nmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01), but glucose iAUC did not differ between trials (ad libitum 94·3 (95 % CI 30·3, 158·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 126·5 (95 % CI 76·9, 176·0) mmol/l × 240 min, P = 0·19). TAG iAUC was approximately 1·5-fold greater in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (ad libitum 98·6 (95 % CI 69·9, 127·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 146·4 (95 % CI 88·6, 204·1) mmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01). Total glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and peptide tyrosine–tyrosine iAUC were greater in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (P < 0·05). Total ghrelin concentrations decreased to a similar extent, but AUC was slightly lower in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (P = 0·02). There were marked differences on appetite and mood between trials, most notably maximal eating caused a prolonged increase in lethargy. Healthy men have the capacity to eat twice the energy content required to achieve comfortable fullness at a single meal. Postprandial glycaemia is well regulated following initial overeating, with elevated postprandial insulinaemia probably contributing.