To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This book is the first self-contained exposition of the fascinating link between dynamical systems and dimension groups. The authors explore the rich interplay between topological properties of dynamical systems and the algebraic structures associated with them, with an emphasis on symbolic systems, particularly substitution systems. It is recommended for anybody with an interest in topological and symbolic dynamics, automata theory or combinatorics on words. Intended to serve as an introduction for graduate students and other newcomers to the field as well as a reference for established researchers, the book includes a thorough account of the background notions as well as detailed exposition – with full proofs – of the major results of the subject. A wealth of examples and exercises, with solutions, serve to build intuition, while the many open problems collected at the end provide jumping-off points for future research.
The World Health Organization recommends that low birth weight infants receive donor human milk (DHM) when mother’s milk is not available. Systematic reviews have been published regarding clinical outcomes of infants receiving DHM, as well as the impact of pasteurization on the composition of DHM; however, information about milk bank donors has not been systematically assessed.
We conducted a systematic scoping review of original research articles about milk bank donors published before August 2020.
A total of 28 studies were included across a variety of geographies: United States (n=8), Brazil (n=7), Spain (n=4), India (n=2), and single studies in France, Norway, Poland, Italy, Taiwan, Korea, and China. Study variables were grouped into 6 main categories: Donor Demographics (n=19), Clinical Characteristics (n=20), Donor Experiences (n=16), Donation Patterns (n=16), Lifestyle Characteristics (n=4), and Lactation/Breastfeeding History (n=8). Some demographic characteristics were commonly reported across regions, while other, including gender and race were infrequently explored. Factors that might influence the composition of DHM, including birth timing (term or preterm), milk type (colostrum, transition or mature), and maternal diet were not regularly studied. Other gaps in the literature included: donors’ motivations and barriers to donation; lactation and breastfeeding history, including factors that influence donors to pump and amass surplus milk; and donation patterns, including whether donors are also selling milk to corporations or sharing milk with peers.
What is known about milk bank donors in different geographies is often limited to a single study, with heterogeneity in the variables reported.
This paper defends a conception of epistemic value that I call the “Simpliciter Conception.” On it, epistemic value is a kind of value simpliciter and being of epistemic value implies being of value simpliciter. I defend this conception by criticizing two others, what I call the Formal Conception and the Hybrid Conception. While those conceptions may be popular among epistemologists, I argue that they fail to explain why anyone should care that things are of epistemic value and naturally undercuts disputes about what is of epistemic value. I end by sketching and locating my conception within some increasingly popular views in meta-normativity.
In the early days of the first global wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the potential for a post-viral syndrome to manifest following COVID-19 infection was highlighted.
It was pointed out that an early intervention applying management techniques used in patients with CFS/ME appeared to help reduce the fatigue related symptoms of Long COVID.
Here we present an analysis of a consecutive case series of the first twenty patients’ data collected. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of this mode of treatment for Long COVID.
Face to face treatment sessions with the practitioners occurred once a week, involving effleurage and other manual articulatory techniques.
The individuals being treated also undertook a daily self-massage along with gentle mobility exercises and alternating warm and cool gel packs on the upper spine, to encourage a reduction of spinal inflammation and further aid lymph drainage of the brain and spine.
Symptom severity was recorded using the self-reported 54-item Profile of Fatigue Related States (PFRS).
The mean age of the men was 41.8 years with a range of 29.1-53.1 years with the corresponding mean age for women being 39.3 years with a range of 28.3-50.4 years.
The average time interval between onset of Coronavirus symptoms and start of treatment for Long COVID was just over 20 weeks. The average number of treatment sessions was similar at 9.7 in men and 9.4 in women.
The change in Profile of Fatigue Related States (PFRS) score was similar in men with a significant decrease (-45%) as in women (-52%) (F 4.8, p < 0.001).
None of the individuals had any prior diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome.
All were new attendees to the clinic at the time of initial assessment.
Our findings indicate that this intervention based on massage and mobility exercises significantly reduced fatigue related to Long COVID.
It may be that early intervention and supportive treatments at the end of the acute phase of COVID-19 can help overcome acute phase symptoms and prevent them becoming chronic/enduring.
Manen et al. provide here a reply to the critical comment published by A. J. Ammerman regarding their article “The Neolithic Transition in the Western Mediterranean: a complex and non-linear diffusion process—the radiocarbon record revisited,” published in 2019 in Radiocarbon. They also use this occasion to reaffirm the need to elaborate novel interpretive frameworks that combine both geo-chronological and cultural data.
Knowledge of the long relationship between gender equality and economic growth is hampered by the lack of information and resources on the various dimensions of gender equality. This paper is a first attempt to assess the size of the gender gap and investigate its relationship with economic growth from a historical perspective. Exploiting a unique census-based dataset of 86 French counties in the mid-nineteenth century, I construct a historical gender gap index measuring the size of the gap between men and women in three critical areas: economic opportunities, educational attainment, and health. A county comparison allows me to identify the strengths and weaknesses of French counties in closing the gender gap. I find that France can be divided into two main areas, the North and the South. In particular, the Northern counties that have done most to narrow the gap display better economic performance. Boys' and girls' education and family structures appear to be crucial determinants of gender equality. Gender equality is positively and significantly associated with economic performance. Accounting for the multi-dimensions of gender equality is crucial for economic development.
More than 250 Pleistocene vertebrate trace fossil sites have been identified on the Cape south coast of South Africa in aeolianites and cemented foreshore deposits. These discoveries, representing the epifaunal tracks of animals that moved over these sand substrates, complement traditional body fossil studies, and contribute to palaeo-environmental reconstruction. Not described in detail until now, but also important faunal components, are the infaunal traces of animals that moved within these sandy substrates. Six golden mole burrow trace sites (Family Chrysochloridae) have been identified on the Cape south coast. In addition, three sites, including one on the Cape southeast coast, have been identified that show evidence of sand-swimming, probably by a golden mole with a means of locomotion similar to that of the extant Eremitalpa genus. Such traces have not been described in detail in the global ichnology record, and merit the erection of a new ichnogenus Natatorichnus, with two ichnospecies, N. subarenosa ichnosp. nov and N. sulcatus ichnosp. nov. Care is required in the identification of such traces, and the orientation of the trace fossil surface needs to be determined, to avoid confusion with hatchling turtle tracks. Substantial regional Pleistocene dune environments are inferred from these sand-swimming traces.
In the past, food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) were derived nearly exclusively by using systematic reviews on diet–health relationships and translating dietary reference values for nutrient intake into foods. This approach neglects many other implications that dietary recommendations have on society, the economy and environment. In view of pressing challenges, such as climate change and the rising burden of diet-related diseases, the simultaneous integration of evidence-based findings from different dimensions into FBDGs is required. Consequently, mathematical methods and data processing are evolving as powerful tools in nutritional sciences. The possibilities and reasons for the derivation of FBDGs via mathematical approaches were the subject of a joint workshop hosted by the German Nutrition Society (DGE) and the Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) in September 2019 in Bonn, Germany. European scientists were invited to discuss and exchange on the topics of mathematical optimisation for the development of FBDGs and different approaches to integrate various dimensions into FBDGs. We concluded that mathematical optimisation is a suitable tool to formulate FBDGs finding trade-offs between conflicting goals and taking several dimensions into account. We identified a lack of evidence for the extent to which constraints and weights for different dimensions are set and the challenge to compile diverse data that suit the demands of optimisation models. We also found that individualisation via mathematical optimisation is one perspective of FBDGs to increase consumer acceptance, but the application of mathematical optimisation for population-based and individual FBDGs requires more experience and evaluation for further improvements.
The rising popular belief that gluten is unhealthy has led to growth in gluten avoidance in people without coeliac disease. Little information is available on their dietary profiles and their dietary behaviours. Our aim was to compare the consumption of organic foods between gluten avoiders and non-avoiders, and their places of food purchase. We described their sociodemographic and dietary profiles. The study population included participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort who completed both a food exclusion questionnaire and an organic semi-quantitative FFQ (n 23 468). Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were compared using multivariable adjusted ANCOVA models. Associations between gluten avoidance and organic food consumption as well as places of food purchase were investigated with multivariable logistic regression. Participants avoiding gluten were more likely to be women and had a healthier dietary profile. Organic food consumption was higher among gluten avoiders (48·50 % of total diet for total avoiders, 17·38 % for non-avoiders). After adjustments for confounders, organic food consumption and purchase in organic stores were positively associated with gluten avoidance: adjusted OR (aOR)Q5 v.Q1 organic food = 4·95; 95 % CI 3·70, 6·63 and aORorganic stores v.supermarkets = 1·82; 95 % CI 1·42, 2·33 for total avoiders. Our study highlights that individuals avoiding gluten are high organic consumers and frequently purchase their foods in organic stores which propose an extended offer of gluten-free food. Further research is needed to determine the underlying common motivations and the temporality of the dietary behaviours of healthy people avoiding gluten.
Though imagination and memory have much in common, philosophers of memory have so far had little to say about imagination. This has recently begun to change, as research on episodic memory as a form of imaginative mental time travel analogous to episodic future thought has threatened to undermine the view – standard in the philosophy of memory – that memory is sharply distinct from imagination. Covering a cluster of interrelated issues (including the objects of mental time travel, the reference of episodic thought, the epistemic openness of the future, the directness of our knowledge of the past, and immunity to error through misidentification in episodic memory and episodic future thought), this chapter surveys the debate between discontinuists, who argue that episodic remembering and episodic future thinking are processes of fundamentally different kinds, and continuists, who argue that the fact that they have distinct temporal orientations constitutes the only important difference between them – and hence that episodic memory is ultimately just a kind of episodic imagination.
Modalists think that knowledge requires forming your belief in a “modally stable” way: using a method that wouldn't easily go wrong (i.e. safety), or using a method that wouldn't have given you this belief had it been false (i.e. sensitivity). Recent Modalist projects from Justin Clarke-Doane and Dan Baras defend a principle they call “Modal Security,” roughly: if evidence undermines your belief, then it must give you a reason to doubt the safety or sensitivity of your belief. Another recent Modalist project from Carlotta Pavese and Bob Beddor defends “Modal Virtue Epistemology”: knowledge is a belief that is maximally modally robust across “normal” worlds. We'll offer new objections to these recent Modalist projects. We will then argue for a rival view, Explanationism: knowing something is believing it because it's true. We will show how Explanationism offers a better account of undermining defeaters than Modalism, and a better account of knowledge.
We define a new class of shift spaces which contains a number of classes of interest, like Sturmian shifts used in discrete geometry. We show that this class is closed under two natural transformations. The first one is called conjugacy and is obtained by sliding block coding. The second one is called the complete bifix decoding, and typically includes codings by non-overlapping blocks of fixed length.
Agitation is a common symptom in schizophrenia and bipolar mania, causing marked distress and posing considerable risks for patients. Intramuscular formulations of psychotropic medication can provide a fast acting treatment of severe agitation in patients with acute episodes of schizophrenia or mania. As effective as these treatments are, particular antipsychotics can be associated with a heightened risk of dystonia and related Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS). Patients presenting to emergency care settings are also likely to have coexisting intoxications and medical conditions that may contribute to this risk.
The aim of this observational prospective study was to document the safety and effectiveness of all IM psychotropic drugs during the 24 hours following an initial injection in acutely agitated patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorder under naturalistic conditions.
Two-hundred-thirty-two (232) participating investigator sites (12 European countries) observed 1940 patients (mean age: 39 y, 42% female, 66% schizophrenia diagnosis). The primary endpoint was the occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), further endpoints were clinical severity measured by PANSS-EC and CGI-S. A total of 1311 (68%) patients received a monotherapy injection at baseline. Within 24 hours after the first injection, 190 (10%) of all 1940 patients experienced EPS. All intramuscular psychotropic drugs were shown to be effective in reducing measures of acute agitation.
This study provides favourable results on EPS related adverse events and effectiveness of intramuscular psychotropic medication for the management of acute agitation in patients within a naturalistic setting during the first 24 hours of treatment.
Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with schizophrenia in some settings with evidence suggesting that male and female offspring might be affected differently.
In an outbreak of violence in 1941, at least 180 Jews died in Baghdad; rapes, beatings and property damage injured hundreds more in other towns. We questioned whether this stress might be reflected in any change in schizophrenia incidence in people born in 1941.
We studied admissions to psychiatric hospitals in 39,606 men and 41,208 women, parents of the population-based Jerusalem cohort. We used proportional hazards models to estimate relative incidence of schizophrenia in various groups, over time. Subjects were followed from age in 1950 or immigration, till age at first hospital admission, death or 2004. Schizophrenia was defined by discharge diagnosis, ICD-10 = F20–F29 at any hospital event. Models controlled for secular and cyclic time trends.
For all years combined, the 3,679 male immigrants from Iraq showed a schizophrenia incidence similar to other men (relative risk RR = 0.92, 95% confidence limits 0.67–1.26). But for 141 men born in Iraq in 1941, RR = 4.12 (1.67–10.2, p = .0021 based on 6 cases), compared with men from Iraq born in all other years. Among other men, RR for 1941 births was 1.21 (0.78–1.88,). Women from Iraq showed no significant findings.
These findings enlarge on long-term consequences of ethnic violence. They raise intriguing questions about the relative resilience of the sexes, but should be interpreted cautiously, given that all subjects in this cohort had been able to reproduce.
To compare CATIE, a randomized double blind study, and SOHO, a 3-year prospective non-randomized observational European study of outpatients with schizophrenia, on the Number Needed to Treat (NNT) for all-cause medication discontinuation. NNTs place data into a clinically meaningful context - the number of patients needed to be treated with one antipsychotic instead of another to prevent one negative outcome, defined here as one additional medication discontinuation for any cause.
Rate of medication discontinuation for any cause during the 18 months post initiation was calculated for patients newly initiated on olanzapine (N=4247), risperidone (N=1549), quetiapine (N=583), amisulpride (N=256), clozapine (N=274), oral typicals (N=471) or depot typicals (N=348). Cox models were employed to adjust for treatment group differences at baseline. NNTs with their 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared with published NNTs for CATIE (Phase 1).
The NNTs for all-cause discontinuation of olanzapine vs. each studied atypical antipsychotic during the 18 month following medication initiation in SOHO were comparable to CATIE: 4.3(95% CI: 3.6–5.3) for olanzapine vs. quetiapine (5.5 in CATIE); 16.1(11.0–28.1) for olanzapine vs. risperidone (10.1 in CATIE); 6.9(5.2–10.1) for olanzapine vs. oral typicals (9.0 in CATIE for olanzapine vs. perphenazine).
The NNTs for all-cause medication discontinuation based on CATIE appeared comparable to NNTs based on SOHO. The NNTs for olanzapine therapy were consistently better when compared to each studied atypical antipsychotic (except clozapine) and when compared to typical antipsychotics. Results should be interpreted conservatively, due to the observational design of SOHO.
We assessed the subjective quality of life (QOL) of 30 deficit schizophrenic patients compared to 112 nondeficit schizophrenic patients. The deficit patients did not differ in term of QOL, total score of positive symptoms, general psychopathology from the nondeficit patients. This result suggested an absence of impact of primary negative symptoms on the subjective QOL in schizophrenic patients.
Sinistrality, characterized by an excess of non-right-handedness, has been reported in schizophrenic patients, but the findings are controversial.
As sinistrality could be linked to a failure of hemisphere specialization in schizophrenia that would translate into language disorders, sinistrality was found out in disorganized and positive schizophrenic patients characterized by language disorders.
Seventy-three schizophrenic patients (DSM IV) and 81 controls were evaluated with the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Patients were evaluated and classified into five subtypes (deficit, positive, disorganized, mixed and residual) with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome.
Disorganized patients had a significantly more severe sinistrality in comparison to the deficit, residual and mixed subtypes and controls. A negative correlation was found between the disorganization and the EHI scores (r = – 0.34; P < 0.01). A significantly more severe sinistrality was also observed in the positive subtype in comparison to controls, but there was no correlation between hallucinatory and EHI scores (r = 0.06).
The findings provided further evidence that the defects in the normal process of lateralization observed in schizophrenia affects primarily disorganized patients.
Recently, attention has focused on a potential link between schizophrenia and diabetes, with speculation that this potential associationis stronger in patients who are prescribed atypical antipsychotics. Pharmacoepidemiological studies can help to evaluate this potential association. Source data on the incidence of diabetes in patients treated with antipsychotics is available in the FDA MedWatch database, prescription claims databases and other patient registries. These data indicate that antipsychotic drugs may increase the risk of developing diabetes and that there may be an interaction with age. However, current data are insufficient to accurately assess potential differences in the risk of diabetes between users of individual antipsychotic medications. In addition, antipsychotic treatment-emergent diabetes has several distinct features, notably relating to age of onset, gender ratio, rate of deterioration of glycaemic control, and independence from initial treatment emergent weight gain. Nonetheless, guidelines for the control of risk factors for diabetes developed for the general population appear to be applicable to patients with schizophrenia.
Adding another antipsychotic to a treatment regimen was previously used in evaluating the medication's efficacy. Supplementation of depot antipsychotics with oral antipsychotics is particularly meaningful because depot formulations are typically chosen for patients struggling with adherence to oral antipsychotics. This post-hoc analysis assessed supplementation of olanzapine long-acting injection (olanzapine-LAI) with oral olanzapine.
Subjects and methods
We used 12 months of data from an open-label, single-arm extension study of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 931) treated with olanzapine-LAI. The prevalence, duration, time to first supplementation, and best predictors of oral supplementation were assessed.
Oral supplementation occurred in 21% of patients for a median of 31 days with mean modal dose of 10.8 mg/day. Mean time to first supplementation was shorter for patients who were at least moderately ill at baseline compared to less ill patients (47 vs. 97 days, p < 0.001). Best predictors of oral supplementation included a more severe illness profile at baseline, lower olanzapine-LAI dose prior to oral supplementation, supervised living arrangements, and being African-American.
Supplementation of olanzapine-LAI appears to be infrequent, of relatively short duration, and reserved for more severely ill patients who may require a targeted rescue medication due to signs of impending relapse.