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The development of smart cities in South Africa has the potential to enrich quality of life, encourage economic growth and reduce the human ecological footprint. It can advance and elevate service delivery in urban areas by applying various information and communication technologies. However, despite the countless benefits available, smart cities are at risk for major cybersecurity breaches that can produce devastating consequences. Criminological theories provide a foundation for understanding and explaining the criminal activity. Advancements in computer technologies and increased use of electronic devices and the Internet have resulted in crimes committed in cyberspace. As such, criminology scholars have been forced to think differently about how crimes are committed in cyberspace and how theoretical perspectives can be advanced to explain these non-traditional crimes. This article contends that criminological theories can inform cybersecurity risks in smart cities. This paper is based on theoretical findings through a qualitative inquiry, and the data were analysed thematically. The authors illustrate the value of social learning theory, neutralization theory, code of the street theory, space transition theory, actor-network theory and integrated model theory in explaining cybersecurity risks in smart cities.
Maternal obesity programs the offspring to metabolic diseases later in life; however, the mechanisms of programming are yet unclear, and no strategies exist for addressing its detrimental transgenerational effects. Obesity has been linked to dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an adipokine, and treatment of obese individuals with DPPIV inhibitors has been reported to prevent weight gain and improve metabolism. We hypothesized that DPPIV plays a role in maternal obesity-mediated programming. We measured plasma DPPIV activity in human maternal and cord blood samples from normal-weight and obese mothers at term. We found that maternal obesity increases maternal and cord blood plasma DPPIV activity but only in male offspring. Using two non-human primate models of maternal obesity, we confirmed the activation of DPPIV in the offspring of obese mothers. We then created a mouse model of maternal high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, and found an early-life increase in plasma DPPIV activity in male offspring. Activation of DPPIV preceded the progression of obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring of HFD-fed mothers. We then administered sitagliptin, DPPIV inhibitor, to regular diet (RD)- and HFD-fed mothers, starting a week prior to breeding and continuing throughout pregnancy and lactation. We found that sitagliptin treatment of HFD-fed mothers delayed the progression of obesity and metabolic diseases in male offspring and had no effects on females. Our findings reveal that maternal obesity dysregulates plasma DPPIV activity in males and provide evidence that maternal inhibition of DPPIV has potential for addressing the transgenerational effects of maternal obesity.
South Africa has embarked on major health policy reform to deliver universal health coverage through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI). The aim is to improve access, remove financial barriers to care, and enhance care quality. Health technology assessment (HTA) is explicitly identified in the proposed NHI legislation and will have a prominent role in informing decisions about adoption and access to health interventions and technologies. The specific arrangements and approach to HTA in support of this legislation are yet to be determined. Although there is currently no formal national HTA institution in South Africa, there are several processes in both the public and private healthcare sectors that use elements of HTA to varying extents to inform access and resource allocation decisions. Institutions performing HTAs or related activities in South Africa include the National and Provincial Departments of Health, National Treasury, National Health Laboratory Service, Council for Medical Schemes, medical scheme administrators, managed care organizations, academic or research institutions, clinical societies and associations, pharmaceutical and devices companies, private consultancies, and private sector hospital groups. Existing fragmented HTA processes should coordinate and conform to a standardized, fit-for-purpose process and structure that can usefully inform priority setting under NHI and for other decision makers. This transformation will require comprehensive and inclusive planning with dedicated funding and regulation, and provision of strong oversight mechanisms and leadership.
South-east Asia's diverse coastal wetlands, which span natural mudflats and mangroves to man-made salt pans, offer critical habitat for many migratory waterbird species in the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Species dependent on these wetlands include nearly the entire population of the Critically Endangered spoon-billed sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and the Endangered spotted greenshank Tringa guttifer, and significant populations of several other globally threatened and declining species. Presently, more than 50 coastal Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) in the region (7.4% of all South-east Asian IBAs) support at least one threatened migratory species. However, recent studies continue to reveal major knowledge gaps on the distribution of migratory waterbirds and important wetland sites along South-east Asia's vast coastline, including undiscovered and potential IBAs. Alongside this, there are critical gaps in the representation of coastal wetlands across the protected area networks of many countries in this region (e.g. Viet Nam, Indonesia, Malaysia), hindering effective conservation. Although a better understanding of the value of coastal wetlands to people and their importance to migratory species is necessary, governments and other stakeholders need to do more to strengthen the conservation of these ecosystems by improving protected area coverage, habitat restoration, and coastal governance and management. This must be underpinned by the judicious use of evidence-based approaches, including satellite-tracking of migratory birds, ecological research and ground surveys.
Later Cambrian and earliest Ordovician trilobites and brachiopods spanning eight horizons from five localities within the Sông Mã, Hàm Rồng and Đông Sơn formations of the Thanh Hóa province of Việt Nam, constrain the age and faunal affinities of rocks within the Sông Đà terrane, one of several suture/fault-bounded units situated between South China to the north and Indochina to the south. ‘Ghost-like’ preservation in dolomite coupled with tectonic deformation leaves many of the fossils poorly preserved, and poor exposure precludes collecting within continuously exposed stratigraphic successions. Cambrian carbonate facies pass conformably into Lower Ordovician carbonate-rich strata that also include minor siliciclastic facies, and the recovered fauna spans several uppermost Cambrian and Lower Ordovician biozones. The fauna is of equatorial Gondwanan affinity, and comparable to that from South China, North China, Sibumasu and Australia. A new species of Miaolingian ‘ptychopariid’ trilobite, Kaotaia xuanensis, is described. Detrital zircon samples from Cambrian–Ordovician rocks of the North Việt Nam and Sông Đà terranes, and from Palaeozoic samples from the Trường Sơn sector of Indochina immediately to the south, contain a predominance of ages spanning the Neoproterozoic period and have a typical equatorial Gondwanan signature. We associate the Cambrian and Tremadocian of the Sông Đà terrane with areas immediately to the north of it, including the North Việt Nam terrane and the southern parts of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
Pneumatically activated systems enable myriad types of highly functional inflatables employing a wide range of architectural approaches affecting their form and function, making systematic conceptual design difficult. A new architectural class of pneumatically activated systems, constrained layer inflatable systems, consists of hierarchically architected flat layers of thin airtight bladders that are internally and/or externally constrained to generate a variety of functionalities. The highly hierarchical architectural structure of constrained layer inflatable systems coincides with the hierarchy of produced functions, providing an opportunity for the development of a functional architectural decomposition, capturing the inherent relationship between architectural and functional hierarchies. The basis of the approach is conveyed through the design of an example constrained layer inflatable system. This approach empowers the systematic understanding of the interrelated architectural and functional breakdown of constrained layer inflatable systems, enabling designers to iteratively analyze, synthesize, and re-synthesize the components of the system improving existing designs and exploring new concepts.
The Patient Registry for Adolescents and Adults with Stable Fontan Circulation aims to describe a contemporary cohort of Fontan patients who could be eligible for a clinical trial investigating macitentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist. This international, non-interventional, multicentre, cross-sectional, observational registry enrolled patients with “stable” Fontan circulation ≥10 years following extra-cardiac conduit or lateral tunnel procedure. Main exclusion criteria were NYHA functional class IV, reoperation of Fontan circulation, or signs of disease worsening. Patient characteristics at enrolment are described; available data were collected during a single registration visit. Of the 266 screened patients, 254 were included in this analysis. At enrolment, median (interquartile range) age was 24 (20;30) years, 37%/63% of patients were from the USA/Europe, 54% were male, 54%/47% had undergone extra-cardiac conduit/lateral tunnel procedures, and 95% were in NYHA functional class I or II. History of arrhythmia was more common in older patients and patients with lateral tunnel; overall prevalence was 19%. Most laboratory values were within the normal range but mean creatinine clearance was abnormally low (87.7 ml/min). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were used by 48% of patients and their use was associated with creatinine clearance <90 ml/min (p = 0.007), as was Fontan completion at an older age (p = 0.007). 53.4% of patients had clinical characteristics that could potentially meet an endothelin receptor antagonist trial’s eligibility criteria. The PREpArE-Fontan registry describes a cohort of patients who could potentially participate in an endothelin receptor antagonist trial and identified early subtle signs of Fontan failure, even in “stable” patients.
In the context of water waves, we consider a resonator with deep subwavelength resonance, analogue to the Helmholtz resonator in acoustics. In the shallow water regime, using asymptotic analysis, a one-dimensional model is derived in which the effect of the resonator is reduced to effective transmission conditions. These conditions clearly highlight two contributions. The first is associated with the dock on its own and it is responsible for a jump of the potential at the free surface. The second is due to the resonant cavity and it is responsible for a jump in the horizontal velocity. It involves as well the uniform amplitude within the resonant cavity with a transient dynamics explicitly given by the equation of a damped oscillator forced by the incident waves. The one-dimensional model is validated in the harmonic regime by comparison to direct two-dimensional numerics. It is shown to reproduce accurately the scattering coefficients and the amplitude within the resonator; interestingly, this remains broadly true for finite water depths. We further inspect the spatio-temporal behaviour of different types of wave packets interacting with the resonating and radiating cavity.
San Francisco (California USA) is a relatively compact city with a population of 884,000 and nine stroke centers within a 47 square mile area. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) transport distances and times are short and there are currently no Mobile Stroke Units (MSUs).
This study evaluated EMS activation to computed tomography (CT [EMS-CT]) and EMS activation to thrombolysis (EMS-TPA) times for acute stroke in the first two years after implementation of an emergency department (ED) focused, direct EMS-to-CT protocol entitled “Mission Protocol” (MP) at a safety net hospital in San Francisco and compared performance to published reports from MSUs. The EMS times were abstracted from ambulance records. Geometric means were calculated for MP data and pooled means were similarly calculated from published MSU data.
From July 2017 through June 2019, a total of 423 patients with suspected stroke were evaluated under the MP, and 166 of these patients were either ultimately diagnosed with ischemic stroke or were treated as a stroke but later diagnosed as a stroke mimic. The EMS and treatment time data were available for 134 of these patients with 61 patients (45.5%) receiving thrombolysis, with mean EMS-CT and EMS-TPA times of 41 minutes (95% CI, 39-43) and 63 minutes (95% CI, 57-70), respectively. The pooled estimates for MSUs suggested a mean EMS-CT time of 35 minutes (95% CI, 27-45) and a mean EMS-TPA time of 48 minutes (95% CI, 39-60). The MSUs achieved faster EMS-CT and EMS-TPA times (P <.0001 for each).
In a moderate-sized, urban setting with high population density, MP was able to achieve EMS activation to treatment times for stroke thrombolysis that were approximately 15 minutes slower than the published performance of MSUs.
The clinical course of psychotic disorders is highly variable. Typically, researchers have captured different course types using broad pre-defined categories. However, whether these adequately capture symptom trajectories of psychotic disorders has not been fully assessed. Using data from AESOP-10, we sought to identify classes of individuals with specific symptom trajectories over a 10-year follow-up using a data-driven approach.
AESOP-10 is a follow-up, at 10 years, of 532 incident cases with a first episode of psychosis initially identified in south-east London and Nottingham, UK. Using extensive information on fluctuations in the presence of psychotic symptoms, we fitted growth mixture models to identify latent trajectory classes that accounted for heterogeneity in the patterns of change in psychotic symptoms over time.
We had sufficient data on psychotic symptoms during the follow-up on 326 incident patients. A four-class quadratic growth mixture model identified four trajectories of psychotic symptoms: (1) remitting-improving (58.5%); (2) late decline (5.6%); (3) late improvement (5.4%); (4) persistent (30.6%). A persistent trajectory, compared with remitting-improving, was associated with gender (more men), black Caribbean ethnicity, low baseline education and high disadvantage, low premorbid IQ, a baseline diagnosis of non-affective psychosis and long DUP. Numbers were small, but there were indications that those with a late decline trajectory more closely resembled those with a persistent trajectory.
Our current approach to categorising the course of psychotic disorders may misclassify patients. This may confound efforts to elucidate the predictors of long-term course and related biomarkers.
Dopaminergic imaging is an established biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies, but its diagnostic accuracy at the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage remains uncertain.
To provide robust prospective evidence of the diagnostic accuracy of dopaminergic imaging at the MCI stage to either support or refute its inclusion as a biomarker for the diagnosis of MCI with Lewy bodies.
We conducted a prospective diagnostic accuracy study of baseline dopaminergic imaging with [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single-photon emission computerised tomography (123I-FP-CIT SPECT) in 144 patients with MCI. Images were rated as normal or abnormal by a panel of experts with access to striatal binding ratio results. Follow-up consensus diagnosis based on the presence of core features of Lewy body disease was used as the reference standard.
At latest assessment (mean 2 years) 61 patients had probable MCI with Lewy bodies, 26 possible MCI with Lewy bodies and 57 MCI due to Alzheimer's disease. The sensitivity of baseline FP-CIT visual rating for probable MCI with Lewy bodies was 66% (95% CI 52–77%), specificity 88% (76–95%) and accuracy 76% (68–84%), with positive likelihood ratio 5.3.
It is over five times as likely for an abnormal scan to be found in probable MCI with Lewy bodies than MCI due to Alzheimer's disease. Dopaminergic imaging appears to be useful at the MCI stage in cases where Lewy body disease is suspected clinically.
Background: Hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection (HA-CDI) rates are highly variable over time, posing problems for research assessing interventions that might improve rates. By understanding seasonality in HA-CDI rates and the impacts that other factors such as influenza admissions might have on these rates, we can account for them when establishing the relationship between interventions and infection rates. We assessed whether there were seasonal trends in HA-CDI and whether they could be accounted for by influenza rates. Methods: We assessed HA-CDI rates per 10,000 patient days, and the rate of hospitalized patients with influenza per 1,000 admissions in 4 acute-care facilities (n = 2,490 beds) in Calgary, Alberta, from January 2016 to December 2018. We used 4 statistical approaches in R (version 3.5.1 software): (1) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) to assess dependencies and trends in each of the monthly HA-CDI and influenza series; (2) cross correlation to assess dependencies between the HA-CDI and influenza series lagged over time; (3) Poisson harmonic regression models (with sine and cosine components) to assess the seasonality of the rates; and (4) Poisson regression to determine whether influenza rates accounted for seasonality in the HA-CDI rates. Results: Conventional ARIMA approaches did not detect seasonality in the HA-CDI rates, but we found strong seasonality in the influenza rates. A cross-correlation analysis revealed evidence of correlation between the series at a lag of zero (R = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.10–0.65) and provided an indication of a seasonal relationship between the series (Fig. 1). Poisson regression suggested that influenza rates predicted CDI rates (P < .01). Using harmonic regression, there was evidence of seasonality in HA-CDI rates (2 [2 df] = 6.62; P < .05) and influenza rates (2 [2 df] = 1,796.6; P < .001). In a Poisson model of HA-CDI rates with both the harmonic components and influenza admission rates, the harmonic components were no longer predictive of HA-CDI rates. Conclusions: Harmonic regression provided a sensitive means of identifying seasonality in HA-CDI rates, but the seasonality effect was accounted for by influenza admission rates. The relationship between HA-CDI and influenza rates is likely mediated by antibiotic prescriptions, which needs to be assessed. To improve precision and reduce bias, research on interventions to reduce HA-CDI rates should assess historic seasonality in HA-CDI rates and should account for influenza admissions.
The Interdisciplinary Network for Dementia Using Current Technology, INDUCT, is a Marie Sklodowska Curie funded International Training Network that aims to develop a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectorial educational research framework for Europe to improve technology and care for people with dementia, and to provide the evidence to show how technology can improve the lives of people with dementia. Within INDUCT (2016-2020) 15 Early Stage Researchers worked on projects in the areas of Technology to support every day life; technology to promote meaningful activities; and health care technology.
Three transversal objectives were adopted by INDUCT: 1) To determine the practical, cognitive and social factors needed to make technology more useable for people with dementia; 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of specific contemporary technology; and 3) To trace facilitators and barriers for implementation of technology in dementia care.
The main recommendations resulting from the research projects are integrated in a web-based digital Best Practice Guidance on Human Interaction with Technology in Dementia which will be presented at the congress. The recommendations are meant to be helpful for different target groups, i.e. people with dementia, their formal and informal carers, policy makers, designers and researchers, who can easily select the for them relevant recommendations in the Best Practice Guidance by means of a selection tool. The main aim of the Best Practice Guidance is to improve the development, usage and implementation of technology for people with dementia in the three mentioned technology areas.
This Best Practice Guidance is the result of the intensive collaborative partnership of INDUCT with academic and non-academic partners as well as the involvement of representatives of the different target groups throughout the INDUCT project.
Acknowledgements: The research presented was carried out within the Marie Sklodowska Curie International Training Network (ITN) action, H2020-MSCA-ITN-2015, grant agreement number 676265.
Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients. Probiotics have been studied as a measure to prevent CDI. Timely probiotic administration to at-risk patients receiving systemic antimicrobials presents significant challenges. We sought to determine optimal implementation methods to administer probiotics to all adult inpatients aged 55 years receiving a course of systemic antimicrobials across an entire health region. Methods: Using a randomized stepped-wedge design across 4 acute-care hospitals (n = 2,490 beds), the probiotic Bio-K+ was prescribed daily to patients receiving systemic antimicrobials and was continued for 5 days after antimicrobial discontinuation. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to identify barriers, and the implementation strategy was adapted to address the key identified barriers. The implementation strategy included clinical decision support involving a linked flag on antibiotic ordering and a 1-click order entry within the electronic medical record (EMR), provider and patient education (written/videos/in-person), and local site champions. Protocol adherence was measured by tracking the number of patients on therapeutic antimicrobials that received BioK+ based on the bedside nursing EMR medication administration records. Adherence rates were sorted by hospital and unit in 48- and 72-hour intervals with recording of percentile distribution of time (days) to receipt of the first antimicrobial. Results: In total, 340 education sessions with >1,800 key stakeholders occurred before and during implementation across the 4 involved hospitals. The overall adherence of probiotic ordering for wards with antimicrobial orders was 78% and 80% at 48 and 72 hours, respectively over 72 patient months. Individual hospital adherence rates varied between 77% and 80% at 48 hours and between 79% and 83% at 72 hours. Of 246,144 scheduled probiotic orders, 94% were administered at the bedside within a median of 0.61 days (75th percentile, 0.88), 0.47 days (75th percentile, 0.86), 0.71 days (75th percentile, 0.92) and 0.67 days (75th percentile, 0.93), respectively, at the 4 sites after receipt of first antimicrobial. The key themes from the focus groups emphasized the usefulness of the linked flag alert for probiotics on antibiotic ordering, the ease of the EMR 1-click order entry, and the importance of the education sessions. Conclusions: Electronic clinical decision support, education, and local champion support achieved a high implementation rate consistent across all sites. Use of a 1-click order entry in the EMR was considered a key component of the success of the implementation and should be considered for any implementation strategy for a stewardship initiative. Achieving high prescribing adherence allows more precision in evaluating the effectiveness of the probiotic strategy.
Funding: Partnerships for Research and Innovation in the Health System, Alberta Innovates/Health Solutions Funding: Award
This article reviews the advancements and prospects of liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and analysis methods in understanding the nucleation, growth, etching, and assembly dynamics of nanocrystals. The bonding of atoms into nanoscale crystallites produces materials with nonadditive properties unique to their size and geometry. The recent application of in situ liquid cell TEM to nanocrystal development has initiated a paradigm shift, (1) from trial-and-error synthesis to a mechanistic understanding of the “synthetic reactions” responsible for the emergence of crystallites from a disordered soup of reactive species (e.g., ions, atoms, molecules) and shape-defined growth or etching; and (2) from post-processing characterization of the nanocrystals’ superlattice assemblies to in situ imaging and mapping of the fundamental interactions and energy landscape governing their collective phase behaviors. Imaging nanocrystal formation and assembly processes on the single-particle level in solution immediately impacts many existing fields, including materials science, nanochemistry, colloidal science, biology, environmental science, electrochemistry, mineralization, soft condensed-matter physics, and device fabrication.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To describe principles, best practices, and techniques recommended to instill deep understanding of the application and interpretation of statistical techniques and statistical inference among translational scientists and trainees, that best support the concepts of scientific Rigor, Reproducibility and Reporting. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Each of the six New York City Area Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Research Design (BERD) resources have strong educational programs, novel curricular components, and creative strategies, implemented by award winning educators. To capitalize on shared knowledge, innovation, and resources, the six teams formed the New York City Area BERD Collaborative (NYC-ABC) comprised of BERD resources from Mt. Sinai, Cornell, Einstein, Columbia, Rockefeller, and NYU. The collaborative suggests principles, concepts, tools and approaches to support the concepts of scientific Rigor, Reproducibility and Reporting in translational science. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Principles:
Value of team science approach and including biostatisticians early and often.
Carefully designing experiments to reduce bias and increase precision.
Trainees’ focus is often on “statistical significance” and the p-value. Consequences of data dredging/p-hacking, and the impact of sample size and other factors on statistical significance.
Emphasizing the effect size and answering the scientific hypothesis when reporting results.
Statistical code used to produce results should be well annotated and raw data posted online to enhance reproducibility.
Incorporate effective multiple modalities (i.e. didactic, demonstrative, hands on workshops, applications, and tools).
Approach from “the drivers’ seat” perspective, rather than strictly mathematical.
Endorse flipped classroom approach
DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Like any complex discipline, biostatistical education can be approached from several dimensions, but it remains essential to focus on fundamental goals of science. We remind our trainees that the goal of science is to create knowledge, not to “find significance”. Deep understanding of inferential methods and proper interpretation of results are key. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: None.
Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are key components of modern electronics and are regularly utilized as their primary power source. Understanding the electrical and mechanical properties of electrode materials plays a major role in the performance improvement of LIBs. In this article, we provide research using PinPoint™ scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) to effectively measure both electrical and mechanical properties of LIB electrode surfaces at a much higher quality in a high-vacuum environment than in ambient conditions. The data collected in this experiment demonstrate that this technique is an effective means for measuring the quantitative and qualitative topographical, electrical and mechanical data of advanced materials with improved image quality and data accuracy.