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Helicoverpa punctigera (Wallengren), the native budworm, is an important highly polyphagous pest that has caused serious damage on a wide variety of crops in Australia. In Australia, its range overlaps that of its congener, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), a notorious invasive pest globally. We used CLIMEX, a bioclimatic niche modelling software package, to estimate the potential geographical distribution of H. punctigera under current and future climates (A1B scenario). Under both current and future climate conditions, the model indicates that H. punctigera could establish throughout the tropics and subtropics. Comparing the potential distributions under each climate scenario revealed that in the future its potential distribution is likely to shift poleward and into higher altitudes, into areas that are currently too cold as observed in the South of Brazil, Europe, North America, South East Asia, and South Pacific Islands including New Zealand. The projected potential distribution can inform pre- and post-border biosecurity strategies for the management of this pest in each country.
The growing prevalence and impact of cancer on the family system calls for a palliative care approach with the family as the unit of care. This study aimed at providing an overview of the intervention programs that have been developed to offer support to the family caregivers of oncologic patients receiving palliative care.
Sixteen articles were included in the final review, encompassing (i) studies focused on intervention programs with family caregivers of cancer patients in palliative care, (ii) studies including a pre- and post-test evaluation of the intervention program, (iii) and studies whose cancer patients were at least 18 years old.
A great heterogeneity was verified with respect to care settings, number of sessions, outcome measures, or timing of assessment within the reviewed programs. These findings mirrored the complexity of the palliative care approach, which is difficult to standardize. Nonetheless, some interventions with different features accomplished good and sometimes similar results. The studies’ main outcomes were clustered in five categories: psychological symptomatology, general quality of life, caregiving role, family relational variables, and bereavement/grief. Moreover, 44% of the main outcomes were psychological symptomatology of family caregivers, with an emphasis toward anxiety and depression. Also shown was a growing emergence of technology use among these interventions.
Significance of results
Results revealed a scarcity of family-oriented programs and lack of certified mental health professionals as interventionists. Future studies and interventions should focus on the positive outcomes of the caregiving experience and must acknowledge the cultural differences when trying to replicate programs. Considering that there is no precise formula for dealing with terminal illness and grief, we submit that family-centered and systemic lenses are excellent approaches for support during this adjustment process. In conclusion, the present study advocates for increased investment in the field, underscoring the importance of family caregivers’ mental health.
Tall fleabane [Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker] is commonly invasive in agricultural fields, reducing yield in various infested crops. The current study investigates the genetic diversity within and between a significant number of invasive C. sumatrensis biotypes in soybean fields in southern, southeastern and midwestern Brazil, using microsatellites as molecular markers. High and low observed and expected heterozygosity estimated in microsatellite loci supported our hypothesis that different levels of genetic diversity may be detected within biotypes from different invaded fields. Analysis of a significant number of biotypes in several fields showed high and low genetic diversity not associated with the geographic distribution, bottleneck effect and susceptibility to glyphosate. A deficit of heterozygous plants, high genetic divergence and moderate allele transference were also observed. Allele fixation was different in the different biotypes. The bottleneck effect was seen in biotypes with reduced genetic diversity and in biotypes with highest genetic diversity. Data on genetic diversity, bottleneck effect, and glyphosate resistance showed contrasts in biotypes from nearby invaded fields. Our study showed different genetic diversity levels in biotypes from invaded areas under the same climatic conditions.
The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has improved with the search of novel antigens; however, their performance is limited when samples from VL/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients are tested. In this context, studies conducted to identify more suitable antigens to detect both VL and VL/HIC coinfection cases should be performed. In the current study, phage display was performed using serum samples from healthy subjects and VL, HIV-infected and VL/HIV-coinfected patients; aiming to identify novel phage-exposed epitopes to be evaluated with this diagnostic purpose. Nine non-repetitive and valid sequences were identified, synthetized and tested as peptides in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments. Results showed that three (Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4) peptides showed excellent performance to diagnose VL and VL/HIV coinfection, with 100% sensitivity and specificity values. The other peptides showed sensitivity varying from 50.9 to 80.0%, as well as specificity ranging from 60.0 to 95.6%. Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4 also showed a potential prognostic effect, since specific serological reactivity was significantly decreased after patient treatment. Bioinformatics assays indicated that Leishmania trypanothione reductase protein was predicted to contain these three conformational epitopes. In conclusion, data suggest that Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4 could be tested for the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV coinfection.
The growth in the number of aged people in the population is considered a worldwide phenomenon, with direct consequences in health systems. The literature indicates an increase in the diagnosis of mental disorders and the use of psychotropic drugs for that population, as well as frequent complaints regarding to cognition.
To analyze the possible relationship between cognitive decline and use of psychiatric drugs in elderly with mental disorders, assisted by psychiatric outpatient clinics, city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Quantitative, exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional research, with 59 participants.Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected through semi-structured clinical interviews and medical records. To screen for cognitive decline, the Mini Mental State Examination was used.
Majority of females, with a mean age of 66.75 ± 0.63 years, married, up to 8 years of completed studies and living with family members. The prevalence of depressive disorders was higher (52.54%), with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant use in 67.8%. Most were using 2 or more psychotropics the most prevalent combination being benzodiazepines and antidepressants. 52.5% of the elderly reported cognitive complaints and 45.8% presented Mini Mental scores, suggesting cognitive decline. It was associated with depressive disorders and the consumption of 2 or more psychotropics.
Although there is evidence that psychotropic drugs represent effective strategies for the treatment of mental disorders, the use for this group of elderly should be carefully analyzed, due to the predisposition or worsening of cognitive decline, with impairment to the quality of life of this population.
Music has been said to be emotion’s language. Research confirms a link between music structure and triggered emotions.
To assess the relationship between selected music excerpts and the emotions trigged, in order that the former will be used in future research.
An anonymous study was performed in April 2019 on 65 subjects of both sexes, aged 19-
33 (mean=21,09; SD=3,05).Subjects listened 4 excerpts of music, believed to be related either to excitement or to calmness, and answered to a questionary on emotion’s triggered by each exposure.
Regarding to the music excerpts that were believed to induce excitement 80% of the subjects mentioned exciting emotions, 78% enjoyed the music while 78% didn’t knew them. For the ones that were believed to induce calmness 69% of the subjects mentioned calm emotions, 84% enjoyed the music and 62% didn’t knew the music. In an excerpt of music related to calmness, we observed association between knowing the music and the emotion trigged (p=0,027). The triggered emotion responses were independent of liking the music (P>0,05).
In our study, independent of liking the music, the participants reported to have perceived the expected emotions triggered by musical excerpts, showing this to be a phenomenon related to music structure. Calmness perception may be also influenced by previous knowledge of the music and related experiences. The role of individual perceptions will be looked for in following studies.
COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and its main symptoms are fever, dry cough and difficulty breathing. It spread to several countries, which led the World Health Organization to decree, on March 11, 2020, a pandemic state that deeply affected Brazil. Due to the impossibility of leaving the house, the routine of children with autism was changed. Children in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have a qualitative deficit in social interaction. Clinical and daily observations reinforce several scientific studies that defend the importance of maintaining a routine as stable as possible for people with ASD, without this stability they may become emotionally disorganized, feel discomfort or even irritability.
Investigate the impact caused by social distancing on the development of children and adolescents with autism.
An online questionnaire based on the DIR/Floortime basic map of emotional functional capacity development was distributed in Brazil from April to May, 2020. The results were analyzed using SPSS software.
Results obtained from 122 questionnaires showed that after 30 days of quarantine 20% of children no longer had the characteristic of being able to remain calm and organized for at least 2 minutes; 11% no longer initiates interactions with their parents; 27% demonstrated more protests and anger than before the social distancing; 18% demonstrated more emotions such as anger, fear and intimacy, 28% began to understand their limits and 12% of the children are using greater facial expression during the social distancing.
This study brings results that can help to understand the processes in a child with autism.
Major depressive disorder is a highly prevalent clinical condition, affecting more than 300 million individuals worldwide. About 1/3 of patients with MDD fail to achieve remission despite treatment with multiple antidepressants and are considered to have treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Novel antidepressants with rapid and sustained effects on mood and cognition could represent a breakthrough in the TRD and may potentially improve or save lives. Psilocybin, a classic hallucinogen, more commonly found in the Psilocybe mushrooms has a combined serotonergic and glutamatergic action. The preliminary evidence of antidepressant effects of psilocybin-assisted therapy indicates the potential of psilocybin-assisted therapy as a novel antidepressant intervention.
The authors elaborate a narrative literature review about the effects of Psilocybin-based therapy on patients diagnosed with treatment-resistant depression.
PubMed database searched using the terms “Treatment-Resistant Depression AND Psilocybin” and targeting clinical trials. References of selected articles and review articles were also assessed.
2 articles evaluate psilocybin effects in 32 patients with TRD and showed that two doses of psilocybin alongside psychological support significantly reduces depressive symptoms. All patients presented some reduction in symptoms from baseline to one week after the second dose and reproduced immediate and substantial improvements in depression that ultimately could sustain up to 6 months.
Psilocybin-assisted therapy is a very appealing new possibility in the treatment of depression. However, due to the small populations of the existing trials, future studies are needed to prove this positive association and to fully understand Psilocybin’s mechanisms of actions and effects.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent clinical condition with a leading cause of disability worldwide. Unfortunately, about 1/3 of patients with MDD fail to achieve remission despite treatment with multiple antidepressants and are considered to have treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Research showed abnormalities in glutamatergic transmission in neural circuits and antidepressant efficacy with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, ketamine.
The authors elaborate a narrative literature review on the intranasal esketamine as a new-class antidepressant.
PubMed database searched using the terms “treatment-resistant depression” and “esketamine”.
Ketamine, synthetized from PCP, acts as an antagonist of NMDA receptor, reducing Central Nervous System excitability. One limitation of ketamine for treating depression is that requires intravenous administration, reducing its applicability in outpatient settings. Esketamine, the S-enantiomer of ketamine, developed as an intranasal formulation has a higher affinity for the NMDA receptor. The evidence of the rapid antidepressant effect of intranasal esketamine was first made by Lapidus et al, that demonstrated intranasal esketamine ability to reduce depressive symptomatology. However, some recent studies reported significant acute cardiovascular, psychotomimetic and neurological side-effects. Thus, drug formulation, delivery device, insufflation technique, and individual factors seem to contribute importantly to the tolerability and efficacy of the intranasal administration rote.
There is the need to develop novel treatments providing effective, more rapid-acting, and sustained relief of depressive symptoms, especially in patients with TRD. Intranasal esketamine has shown antidepressant effects in patients with TRD but further investigation is required to strongly reinforce this potential and safety.
Due to the current global background of the COVID-19 pandemic, mental health is an important factor to be promoted. In spite of the subjectivity of the psychological impact brought by this pandemic, the population has undergone several sudden and meaningful changes in psychic integrity. Therefore, the League of Psychiatry and Mental Health of a Brazilian public university emerges with the aim of complementing the curriculum of Psychiatric Medicine, along with promoting mental health inside and outside the university.
Hold online events and disseminate informative material to help students, mental health professionals and general community interested in the topic.
The League did a member recruitment with academics from different health areas, who prepared and published booklets and folders with informations promoting mental health. And also, promoted speeches on online platforms from May 2020 to October 2020 with psychiatrists, psychologists and renowned professionals in Brazil.
Eighteen lectures were held on topics such as “Grief in the pandemic and its implications in mental health”; “Preventing suicide in the pandemic”, among others, that had a relevant role for those who were in a vulnerable emotional state at the time. As for publications, a national reach was possible, which served as a source for the cultivation of a good psychic health to face the pandemic.
More than 13.600 people participated in the promoted proposals, In addition to providing positive feedbacks to the League, with the improvement of knowledge in the field of Psychiatry and Mental Health, reaching the proposed objectives.
The gut microbiota constitute the largest and most diverse community in the body which is primarily responsible for the maintenance of the intestinal wall integrity and the protection against pathogens. Besides having an important role in the regulation of host energy metabolism, the gut microbiota can also influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavioral and might contribute to the development of psychiatry disorders.
The authors elaborated a narrative literature review to understand how gut microbiota can influence depression.
Using PubMed as the database, a research was conducted about how Gut Microbiota relates with Depression.
The microbiota-gut-brain axis encompasses the strong bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the CNS. Multiple mechanisms may be involved in this bilateral communication, including immune, endocrine and neural pathways. Permutations in the gut microbiome composition trigger microbial lipopolysaccharides production that activates inflammatory responses. Cytokines send signals to the vagus nerve, which links the process to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that consequently causes behavioral effects. Beyond this, gut microbiota have the capacity to produce many neurotransmitters and neuromodulators such as serotonin and can induce the secretion of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an important plasticity-related protein that promotes neuronal growth, development and survival.
Neuroinflammatory processes like those that occur in depression are deeply modulated by peripheral inflammatory stimuli, especially those from the intestinal microbiota. However, the knowledge is currently limited and the information available is not enough to understand the exact mechanisms. Therefore, more studies are required to show how gut microbiota influences the human brain.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Concomitant psychiatric diseases are frequent in MS, with depression and anxiety disorders constituting the majority. The presence of psychotic disorders with MS is rare. Several studies have reported that psychotic symptoms usually develop after the neurological signs of MS and they are mostly linked to the side effects of treatment with interferon or with corticosteroids.
The authors report here the case of patient with MS without psychiatric history that developed psychotic symptoms.
Beside the medical record of the patient a non-systematic search of the literature was carried out in the databases Pubmed and Google Scholar with the terms “Multiple Sclerosis”, “Multiple Sclerosis treatment ”and“ Neuropsychiatric symptoms ”.
A 38 years old woman with MS, with no psychiatry history developed paranoid and reference delusions, several months after starting interferon beta-1a therapy. The inferferon therapy was stopped and the patient was started Risperidone 3 mg id with a rapid but only partial remission of the psychotic symptoms. The patient presented high blood levels of prolactine and the MRI showed a pituitary microadenome. The Risperidone was switched to Aripiprazol 15 mg also with partial remission of the psychtic symptons.
It is not possible to attribute our patient’s psychotic symptoms entirely to his Interferon therapy or to MS lesion load, but the occurrence during treatment, no psychiatric history and the rapid but parcial resolution with discontinuing suggest that Interferon therapy was at least contributory to the clinical picture.
In late 2019, an epidemic outbreak emerges in China caused by a new coronavirus with high transmission and human infection potential which in March 2020, was characterized by WHO as a pandemic. The lockdown has repercussions on the population’s well-being, reflected in their food choices. There is a tendency to increase the consumption of energy dense food, rich in fat and carbohydrates, which are related to an increased risk of depression.
The main goal of this non-systematic literature review was to understand the impact of the Mediterranean Diet on Mental Health promotion in SARSCoV-2 pandemic.
Literature from Pubmed database were searched, with the following keywords: COVID-19, Depression, Anxiety, Mental Health and Mediterranean Diet.
Studies indicate that a diet based on the Mediterranean Diet is associated with a decreased risk of developing depressive symptoms, especially when there is moderate to high adherence to this dietary pattern. High consumption of plant and fish foods, reduced consumption of sugary products, processed and red meats and the use of olive oil as a fat source, are principles of the Mediterranean diet, associated with an improvement in endothelial function, increased levels of eicosanoids and serotonin synthesis and regulation of serotonin which seem to explain this protective effect.
In addition to decreasing the risk of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, comorbidities associated with the most serious disease of COVID-19, the Mediterranean Diet seems to play an important role in promoting mental health, with a decreased risk of developing depressive symptoms.
This study aimed to determine the requirements of standardized ileal digestible (SID) methionine (Met) + cysteine (Cys) of 15–30 kg barrows, maintaining or increasing the 1:1 ratio between SID Met and SID Cys. Seventy crossbred barrows averaging 15.2 ± 0.54 kg of live weight were allotted in a randomized block design 2 × 3 + 1 factorial scheme, with five replicates and two animals per pen. Treatments consisted of maintaining or increasing the 1:1 ratio between SID Met and SID Cys, three levels of SID Met + Cys (5.8, 6.4 and 7.0 g/kg) and a basal diet containing the lowest SID Met + Cys level (5.2 g/kg), formulated to provide a 1:1 ratio of SID Met (2.6 g/kg) and SID Cys (2.6 g/kg). Performance, blood parameters, longissimus dorsi muscle depth, backfat thickness and S–S linkages in the bristles were evaluated. The best average daily gain was estimated at 6.61 g/kg of SID Met + Cys, without maintaining the 1:1 ratio between sulphur amino acids (SAA). The daily intake of SID Met + Cys increased due to dietary SID Met + Cys levels, maintaining or increasing the same ratio between SAA. Plasma glucose increased and total cholesterol decreased according to SID Met + Cys levels, without maintaining the same ratio between the SAA. The requirement of SID Met + Cys for 15–30 kg barrows was 6.61 g/kg (7.88 g/day) for an optimum average daily gain, with no need to maintain the same ratio between the SAA.
The nanoencapsulation of biocomposites with anthelmintic action has been proposed as an alternative for improving their efficiency. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of carvacryl acetate nanoencapsulated with biopolymers (nCVA) in the control of sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. CVA was nanoencapsulated with chitosan/chichá gum and characterized in terms of its efficacy of encapsulation (EE), yield and zeta potential. The acute toxicity of nCVA was evaluated in mice. For the fecal egg count reduction test, 40 animals were divided into four groups (n = 10) and orally administered the following treatments: G1, 250 mg kg−1 CVA; G2, 250 mg kg−1 nCVA; G3, chitosan/chichá gum (negative control) and G4, 2.5 mg kg−1 monepantel (positive control). Feces were collected on days 0 and 16 posttreatment to determine the eggs per gram of feces (epg). The EE and yield of nCVA were 72.8 and 57.5%, respectively. The nanoparticles showed a size of 764.5 ± 302.5 nm, and the zeta potential at pH 3.2 was +22.0 mV. nCVA presented a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 2609 mg kg−1. By 16 days posttreatment, CVA, nCVA and monepantel reduced the epg by 52.9.7, 71.5 and 98.7%, respectively, and the epg of sheep treated with nCVA differed from that of the negative control (P > 0.05) but did not differ from that of sheep treated with CVA. In conclusion, the nanoencapsulation of CVA reduced its toxicity, and nCVA showed anthelmintic activity.
This study aimed to understand stigma in relation to people living with dementia in São Paulo, Brazil. A critical narrative inquiry methodology was used. Home-based semi-structured interviews were conducted between January and March 2020 with six people living with dementia and 15 family carers. Data analysis was conducted using inductive and deductive techniques. The latter was informed by Link and Phelan's sociological theory of stigma. We found that dementia was commonly viewed by people living with dementia as part of ageing and carers reported low levels of knowledge and awareness about the condition. To avoid negative reactions from people, people living with dementia managed the negative views of dementia by minimising and normalising the condition, by expressing their ability to live an active life, and by emphasising the positive impacts of dementia in their lives. Fear of negative reactions appeared to lead to a selective disclosure of their diagnosis. Among carers, stigmatising attitudes coincided with a strong willingness to provide good care, to protect the person cared for, as well as to understand and validate their own caring experiences, rather than to cause any harm. In doing so, however, carers ended up depersonalising and infantilising people living with dementia, underestimating their capacities, demanding ‘obedience’ and restricting the person's freedom. There is a need to increase awareness about dementia and to provide support and training on person-centred and ethical care for carers in Brazil.
Identifying dietary patterns in different environments attended by children is relevant to guide public politics. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors associated with dietary patterns of children under 2 years of age in childcare centres and at homes. This transversal study was enrolled in municipal childcare centres of Guaratuba, Paraná, Brazil. Food consumption data from 256 children were obtained by the food record method. From the consumption data, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis using the principal component method in each environment. ‘Traditional’ patterns were observed in both environments; the ‘less healthy’ pattern was found only at homes. Other patterns identified in childcare centres include ‘snacks’, ‘nutritive’ and ‘pasta and meats’; at homes, it was possible to identify patterns such as ‘milk and cereals’ and ‘mixed’. Children over 12 months presented higher scores for all the patterns in both environments. Obese children had lower scores for all the patterns in childcare centres. There was an association between maternal age below 21 years and higher adherence to a ‘less healthy’ pattern, maternal level of education less than 8 years and lower adherence to the ‘mixed’ pattern and lower familiar income per capita and higher adherence to the ‘snacks’ and ‘traditional’ patterns in childcare centres. In conclusion, adherence to dietary patterns was associated with socio-economic, demographic variables and nutritional status and further studies are needed, especially those with a longitudinal design, enabling the monitoring of dietary patterns.
This work aimed to evaluate the effects of sire's and dam's biological type, dam's age class at calving and individual heterozygosis, and to estimate variance components for weaning weight adjusted to 210 days (WW210) in beef cattle of different breed groups. Records of 13 687 animals, obtained from 2000 to 2007, were used. Bulls from the biological types Zebu (N), Adapted (A), British (B), Continental (C) and ¼N|¼A|¼B|¼C were mated with purebred zebu (N) and crossbred females (½C|½N and ½B|½N). Dam age at calving was 3–12 years. The influence of several effects on WW210 was tested using the least square method. Variance component analysis was performed using a Bayesian approach. The model included contemporary group, dam's age class at calving, sire's and dam's biological types as systematic effects, animal's age and individual heterozygosis as linear covariates, and direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and residual effects as random effects. The progeny of bulls from biological type B and the crossbred cows showed higher WW210 means. Cows at 6–7 years old weaned heavier calves. Direct and maternal heritability estimates for WW210 were 0.5 ± 0.04 and 0.1 ± 0.02, respectively. Calves with 100% individual heterozygosis weighed on average 25.98 kg more at weaning compared to progenies from pure breeds. Sire's and dam's biological types influence the WW210 of the crossed progenies. Crossbred cows produce heavier calves compared to biological type N cows. These results and the obtained direct and maternal heritabilities suggest it is possible to choose the lines of sires and dams that could be used to make the crosses to obtain progenies with better performance for WW210.
The retention of human milk (HM) fat in nasogastric probes of infusion pumps can be observed during the feed of infants unable to suck at the mother’s breast. The lack of homogenisation of HM could contribute to the fat holding. Therefore, the present study evaluated (i) the influence of homogenisation on milk fat retaining in infant feeding probes and (ii) the in vivo effect of the homogenisation on lipid absorption by Wistar rats. The animals were fed with HM treated following two processing conditions, that is, pasteurised and homogenised–pasteurised. The animals were randomly subdivided into four experimental groups: water-fed (control), pasteurised milk, homogenised–pasteurised milk and pasteurised–skimmed milk. The results of food consumption, mass body gain, corporate metrics and plasma blood levels of total cholesterol did not show any difference (P < 0·05) among the three types of HM used in the experiments. The liver, intestine and intra-abdominal adipose tissue of the four groups of animals presented normal and healthy histology. The composition of fatty acids in the brain tissue of animals fed with homogenised HM increased when compared with the groups fed with non-homogenised HM. These values were 11·08 % higher for arachidonic acids, 6·59 % for DAH and 47·92 % for nervous acids. The ingestion of homogenised HM promoted higher absorption of milk nutrients. Therefore, the addition of the homogenisation stage in HM processing could be an alternative to reduce fat retention in probes and to improve the lipids’ absorption in the body.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.