Approximately one-quarter of all herbicides that have been marketed affect mitosis as a primary mechanism of action. All of these herbicides appear to interact directly or indirectly with the microtubule. Dinitroaniline and phosphoric amide herbicides inhibit microtubule polymerization from free tubulin subunits. Because of the loss of spindle and kinetochore microtubules, chromosomes cannot move to the poles during mitosis, resulting in cells exhibiting an arrested prometaphase configuration. Nuclear membranes re-form around the chromosomal masses to form lobed nuclei. Cortical microtubules, which influence cell shape, are also absent, and, as a result, the cell expands isodiametrically. In root tips and other structures that are normally elongated, these herbicides induce a characteristic club-shaped swelling. Pronamide and MON 7200 induce similar effects, except that tufts of microtubules remain at the kinetochore region of the chromosomes. The carbamate herbicides barban, propham, and chlorpropham alter the organization of the spindle microtubules so that multiple spindles are formed. Chromosomes move to many poles and multiple nuclei result. Abnormal branched cell walls partly separate the nuclei. Terbutol induces “star anaphase” chromosome configurations in which the chromosomes are drawn into an area at the poles in a star-like aggregation. DCPA's most dramatic effect is on phragmoplast microtubule arrays. Multiple, branched, and curved phragmoplasts are found after herbicide treatment. These disrupters should prove to be useful tools in investigations of the proteins and structures required for a successful cell division.