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To evaluate prenatal care knowledge of Brazilian community health workers (CHWs).
Routine prenatal care is critical for reducing health risks in women and their children. One of the responsibilities of primary healthcare providers is the provision of prenatal care. The CHWs, with their frequent contact with populations, work to improve health outreach efforts and therefore may be key role players in prenatal care.
This was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was developed to ascertain the degree of knowledge regarding prenatal care of CHWs, including: (1) general responsibilities of CHWs; (2) the initial contact with a pregnant woman; (3) examinations and vaccinations recommended for pregnant women; (4) pregnancy complications and signs of labor; and (5) lifestyle considerations for pregnant women. Responses were categorized into levels for knowledge. Demographic data were also collected. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Proportions of subjects with different levels of knowledge were compared according to each demographic variable, separately for each block of knowledge, using the χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests.
In total, 194 CHWs were interviewed. Overall, the majority of the CHWs presented high levels of knowledge in blocks 1 (43%), 2 (59%) and 5 (83%). However, in block 3 the proportions of subjects with high levels of knowledge regarding examinations and vaccinations were 35 and 40%, respectively. Only 24% of the participants presented a high level of knowledge in block 4. Stratified data analyses suggest that females were statistically more likely to have high levels of knowledge, whereas no statistically significant differences were found for the other demographic variables. Health services are already routinely using the questionnaire.
The results suggest that CHWs, especially female CHWs, have an important role in assisting pregnant women in the community. The study indicates the areas of knowledge that require more specific attention from training providers.
We present the status of an ongoing project to map the detailed chemical abundances of stars across the main body of the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). The Sgr dSph is the closest known dwarf galaxy, and is being tidally destroyed by its interaction with the Milky Way (MW), leaving behind a massive stellar stream. Sgr dSph is a chemically outstanding object, with peculiar abundance ratios, clear center-outskirts abundance gradients, and spanning more than 3 orders of magnitude in metallicity. We present here detailed abundances from UVES@VLT spectra for more than 50 giants across 8 fields along the major and minor axes of Sgr dSph, and 5 more outside the galaxy main body, but possibly associated to its stellar stream.
We present our latest 3D model atmospheres for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars computed with the CO5BOLD code. The stellar parameters are representative of hot turn-off objects (Teff ~ 6250 K, log g = 4.0, [Fe/H]=−3). The main purpose of these models is to investigate the role of 3D effects on synthetic spectra of the CH G-band (4140-4400 Å), the CN BX-band (3870-3890 Å), and several UV OH transitions (3122-3128 Å). By comparison with the synthetic spectra from standard 1D model atmospheres (assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, LTE), we derive 3D abundance corrections for carbon and oxygen of up to −0.5 and −0.7 dex, respectively.
We have developed a method allowing to extract DIBs from cool star spectra, based on combinations of stellar synthetic, telluric transmission (when necessary), and DIB profile models. It is applicable when the star temperature, surface gravity and metallicity have been previously estimated. Such a method aims at extracting extensive data from stellar spectroscopic surveys such as the Gaia-ESO Survey in progress at the VLT. The method has been applied to several strong DIBs detected towards stars from various programs and located at various distances from the solar neighborhood to the Galactic Bulge. Here we illustrate the extraction of the 8620 Å DIB, and compare its strength to the one of the 6284 Å band, both for nearby and bulge stars.
Medium to high-resolution stellar spectroscopic surveys can potentially be used to build DIB databases by means of automated methods of analysis. Multiplex spectrographs increase strongly those potentialities and allow small-scale variability studies. Because measurements of the stellar parameters are generally the primary goal of the surveys, synthetic spectra can be computed and used to extract DIBs from late-type star data. Large datasets should allow deeper investigations on the DIB variability in response to stellar radiation fields, DIB reddening relationships, and help localizing interstellar clouds. Here we describe our attempts to build and test automated methods adapted to both early and late type stars.
We present a critical review of the construction of 3D model atmospheres with emphasis on modeling challenges. We discuss the basic physical processes which give rise to the effects which set 3D models apart from 1D standard models. We consider elemental abundances derived from molecular features, and the determination of the microturbulence with 3D models. The examples serve as illustration of the limitations inherent to 1D, however, also to 3D modeling. We find that 3D models can provide constraints on the microturbulence parameter, and predict substantial corrections for abundances derived from molecular species.
We present a new determination of the solar nitrogen abundance making use of 3D hydrodynamical modelling of the solar photosphere, which is more physically motivated than traditional static 1D models. We selected suitable atomic spectral lines, relying on equivalent width measurements already existing in the literature. For atmospheric modelling we used the co5bold 3D radiation hydrodynamics code. We investigated the influence of both deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE effects) and photospheric inhomogeneities (granulation effects) on the resulting abundance. We also compared several atlases of solar flux and centre-disc intensity presently available. As a result of our analysis, the photospheric solar nitrogen abundance is A(N) = 7.86 ± 0.12.
In this talk, we review the basic assumptions and physics covered by classical 1D LTE model atmospheres. We will focus on ATLAS and MARCS models of F-G-K stars and describe what resources are available through the web, both in terms of codes and model-atmosphere grids. We describe the advances made in hydrodynamical simulations of convective stellar atmospheres with the CO5BOLD code and what grids and resources are available, with a prospect of what will be available in the near future.
It has recently been suggested that the peculiar cluster Pal 1 is associated to the Canis Major dwarf galaxy, which existence is still at the center of a debate. Our first measurement of the cluster’s chemical abundance ratios allows us to examine this association and to advance further in the clarification of Pal 1 possible origin.
The family Thorectidae includes 23 valid genera and 130 species, characterized by the presence of laminated fibres and diplodal choanocytye chambers. Currently the genus Thorecta comprises approximately 20 valid species, distributed mainly in the Indo-Pacific. We describe here a new species of Thorecta that is the only valid species of the genus described in the Atlantic Ocean so far. Samples were collected by trawling on board of the RV ‘Astro Garoupa’ in Potiguar Basin, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Norte State, north-eastern Brazil. Thorecta atlantica sp. nov. is greyish-brown to dark brownish-grey and presents a distinctive globular or clavulate shape, with 1–2 large apical oscules that open to deep atria. It was found between 61 and 160 m depth. A literature survey suggests that many species referred to Thorecta should be relocated to different genera due to absence of diagnostic characters, and that the genus Thorecta should group only 11 species: T. carteri, T. marginalis, T. prima, T. lata, T. farlovi, T. meandrina, T. polygona, T. reticulata, T. tuberculata, T. vasiformis and T. atlantica sp. nov. The tortuous history of the genus is an example of the damage that poorly-described species can cause to classification. Detailed descriptions of fresh material, well illustrated by photographs and including as many characters as possible, are essential tools for the clarification of the systematics of Thorecta in the future.
We have chosen the name of GYES, one of the mythological giants with one hundred arms,
offspring of Gaia and Uranus, for our instrument study of a multifibre spectrograph for
the prime focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Such an instrument could provide an
excellent ground-based complement for the Gaia mission and a northern complement to the
HERMES project on the AAT. The CFHT is well known for providing a stable prime focus
environment, with a large field of view, which has hosted several imaging instruments, but
has never hosted a multifibre spectrograph. Building upon the experience gained at GÉPI
with FLAMES-Giraffe and X-Shooter, we are investigating the feasibility of a high
multiplex spectrograph (about 500 fibres) over a field of view one degree in diameter. We
are investigating an instrument with resolution in the range 15 000 to 30 000, which
should provide accurate chemical abundances for stars down to 16th magnitude and radial
velocities, accurate to 1 km s-1 for fainter stars. The study is led by
GÉPI-Observatoire de Paris with a contribution from Oxford for the study of the
positioner. The financing for the study comes from INSU CSAA and Observatoire de Paris.
The conceptual study will be delivered to CFHT for review by October 1st 2010.