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To evaluate the impact of changes in import tariffs on sweetened beverages.
Interrupted time series analysis was used to examine sweetened beverage tariff increases of 40–60 % in 2008 and to 75 % in 2012, and an approximately 11 % decrease in 2014 when an excise tax replaced the tariff. Post-tax trends were compared with a counterfactual modelled on the pre-tax trend for: quarterly price of an indicator beverage, monthly beverage import volumes (both 2001–2017) and quarterly sales volumes (2012–2017). In a controlled analysis, taxed beverage imports were compared with a sugary snacks control.
In the first year, after the 2008 tariff increase the price of the selected indicator soft drink increased by 7·3 % (95 % CI 6·3 %, 8·3 %) but after the 2012 tariff increase it decreased by 13·9 % (95 % CI –14·9 %, –12·8 %). At the same time, the import volumes of taxed beverages decreased by 13·2 % (95 % CI –38·1 %, 17·8 %) and 2·9 % (95 % CI –41·6 %, 72·5 %), respectively, and decreased by 24·8 % (95 % CI –36·9, –9·8) and 10·2 % (95 % CI –37·1, 37·5) in the controlled analysis. After the 2014 tax decrease, the price of the indicator soft drink decreased by 23·6 % (95 % CI –26·0 %, –21·1 %), sweetened beverage imports increased by 4·5 % (95 % CI –39·5 %, 156·0 %) and sales of full-sugar soft drinks increased by 31 % (95 % CI –21 %, 243 %).
The increased import tariffs on sweetened beverages appeared to be effective for reducing import volumes, but this was partly reversed by the reduced tax/tariff in 2014.
Over the past decade, a growing interest has developed on the archaeology, palaeontology, and palaeoenvironments of the Arabian Peninsula. It is now clear that hominins repeatedly dispersed into Arabia, notably during pluvial interglacial periods when much of the peninsula was characterised by a semiarid grassland environment. During the intervening glacial phases, however, grasslands were replaced with arid and hyperarid deserts. These millennial-scale climatic fluctuations have subjected bones and fossils to a dramatic suite of environmental conditions, affecting their fossilisation and preservation. Yet, as relatively few palaeontological assemblages have been reported from the Pleistocene of Arabia, our understanding of the preservational pathways that skeletal elements can take in these types of environments is lacking. Here, we report the first widespread taxonomic and taphonomic assessment of Arabian fossil deposits. Novel fossil fauna are described and overall the fauna are consistent with a well-watered semiarid grassland environment. Likewise, the taphonomic results suggest that bones were deposited under more humid conditions than present in the region today. However, fossils often exhibit significant attrition, obscuring and fragmenting most finds. These are likely tied to wind abrasion, insolation, and salt weathering following fossilisation and exhumation, processes particularly prevalent in desert environments.
We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of brief weight-loss counselling by dietitian-trained practice nurses, in a high-income-country case study.
A literature search of the impact of dietary counselling on BMI was performed to source the ‘best’ effect size for use in modelling. This was combined with multiple other input parameters (e.g. epidemiological and cost parameters for obesity-related diseases, likely uptake of counselling) in an established multistate life-table model with fourteen parallel BMI-related disease life tables using a 3 % discount rate.
New Zealand (NZ).
We calculated quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained and health-system costs over the remainder of the lifespan of the NZ population alive in 2011 (n 4·4 million).
Counselling was estimated to result in an increase of 250 QALY (95 % uncertainty interval −70, 560 QALY) over the population’s lifetime. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was 2011 $NZ 138 200 per QALY gained (2018 $US 102 700). Per capita QALY gains were higher for Māori (Indigenous population) than for non-Māori, but were still not cost-effective. If willingness-to-pay was set to the level of gross domestic product per capita per QALY gained (i.e. 2011 $NZ 45 000 or 2018 $US 33 400), the probability that the intervention would be cost-effective was 2 %.
The study provides modelling-level evidence that brief dietary counselling for weight loss in primary care generates relatively small health gains at the population level and is unlikely to be cost-effective.
Electron and proton microprobes, along with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to study the microstructure of the contemporary Al–Cu–Li alloy AA2099-T8. In electron probe microanalysis, wavelength and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry were used in parallel with soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) to characterize the microstructure of AA2099-T8. The electron microprobe was able to identify five unique compositions for constituent intermetallic (IM) particles containing combinations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. A sixth IM type was found to be rich in Ti and B (suggesting TiB2), and a seventh IM type contained Si. EBSD patterns for the five constituent IM particles containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn indicated that they were isomorphous with four phases in the 2xxx series aluminium alloys including Al6(Fe, Mn), Al13(Fe, Mn)4 (two slightly different compositions), Al37Cu2Fe12 and Al7Cu2Fe. SXES revealed that Li was present in some constituent IM particles. Al SXES mapping revealed an Al-enriched (i.e., Cu, Li-depleted) zone in the grain boundary network. From the EBSD analysis, the kernel average misorientation map showed higher levels of localized misorientation in this region, suggesting greater deformation or stored energy. Proton-induced X-ray emission revealed banding of the TiB2 IM particles and Cu inter-band enrichment.
The ability to maintain social relationships and networks, and to participate in widely enjoyed social activities, is as central to Townsend's conception of relative poverty as it is to definitions of social exclusion (Townsend, 1979; Levitas, 2006; Levitas et al, 2007). These relationships and activities matter because they form part of the ‘customary norms’ or expectations of us as members of our society. In this sense, they are an end in themselves. At the same time, social networks and activities can be a means to other ends. Our social networks can offer access to support when we need it, both emotional and practical. Supportive social contacts can in turn have important positive impacts on physical and mental health and on well-being. Social networks can provide access to information, particularly about employment opportunities, helping us to get on as well as get by. People living on low incomes can find these networks invaluable but they can equally find them to be a source of onerous demands on already stretched resources.
Many factors can act as barriers to social participation and lead to people becoming socially isolated or excluded. Low income is a key barrier to the maintenance of social networks and participation in social activities. The inability to afford to participate in a range of widely practised and valued social activities forms part of the core deprivation measure in the PSE-UK study for this reason. Other barriers include personal factors such as ill health and disability, or time pressures arising from paid work or unpaid caring responsibilities. The overall aim of this chapter is to explore how social contact and participation varies in relation to a wide range of factors, with a particular focus on poverty and material constraint in restricting participation. We exploit the wide range of measures of participation available within the PSE-UK survey, including measures of social contact with family and with friends, perceptions of social support, satisfaction with personal relationships, and participation in common social activities.
The importance of social connections
Household resources have a direct impact on social networks and activities. Indeed, in Townsend's (1993) conception of relative poverty, participation in customary social activities and the maintenance of social networks are seen as basic expectations of members of a society so that the inability to afford to do so is a marker or defining feature of poverty.
A nonrandomized, retrospective comparison of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia between an academic hospital setting (n=53) and a community hospital setting (n=245) within a single healthcare system was performed. Despite infectious disease consultations, S. aureus bacteremia management recommendations based on Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines were not followed as closely in the community hospital setting. The community hospital setting requires management standardization for patients with S. aureus bacteremia.
The “Hidden Landscape of a Roman Frontier” is a collaborative research project run and jointly funded by Canterbury Christ Church University (CCCU) and Historic Environment Scotland (HES). Intended to run for a 3-year period, it began in October 2015. The project focuses on the landscape archaeology, history, and heritage management of the Roman frontier in Scotland, part of the “Frontiers of the Roman Empire” transnational UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008. The project's primary data-set is comprised of aerial LiDAR at 0.5-m resolution covering the World Heritage Site, combined with terrestrial laser-scanning coverage for the forts at Bar Hill and Rough Castle and the fortlet at Kinneil. All data was commissioned under the auspices of the Scottish Ten Project; the aerial data was captured in spring 2010, the terrestrial data in July 2013 and April 2016. The project also draws upon a number of supplemental data sources, including the National Monuments Record of Scotland (https://canmore.org.uk/), geophysical survey data, archive aerial images, colour infra-red imagery, and additional LiDAR data from the UK Environment Agency.
This chapter will focus in on technology itself as much as music and will look at the transition in music technology, especially during the second half of the twentieth century, with the gradual introduction and eventual takeover of digital recording and computers. Lest some readers become concerned that this takeover is complete and absolute, let us acknowledge at the outset that the analog remains, from do-it-yourself electronics and circuit bending experiments to the necessity of speakers and microphones.
The story of the move from analog to digital technology is one of accumulating change rather than a single handover point, with a number of salient aspects. First, there was a substantial miniaturization of electronic components in the second half of the twentieth century, following the invention of the transistor (as developed at Bell Labs from 1947, though there are precedents). Second, digital signal processing research earlier in the century gradually made it into practical devices, which came to a head in audio consumer terms around 1982 – the introduction of the CD – but admits pre-cursors much further back. The rise of digital technology also has close links to the rise of the computer following the Second World War, through 1970s video games to a mass market in the 1980s for home computers.
We hope you've found much to engage you in this introduction to electronic music. We could hardly explore every path, but have pointed out a few routes; the further reading and listening suggestions in the chapters will lead you on many interesting musical journeys. The final suggestions for this chapter are a collection of some further alternative histories, theories, ideas, and music to pursue. We'd like to take the opportunity in the paragraphs remaining to us to point to a few further trends and movements in electronic music, perhaps because they were given less attention elsewhere in the book or are worth acknowledging as ongoing sites of scholarship and musical activity.
There is certainly a mass interest in electronic music history, evidenced by articles and programs on electronic music in popular media, and often associated with the avid technology-rich cultures of the present. Retro movements pore over the inspiring examples, and missed opportunities, of the past, spending more time with, say, 8-bit music, than the accelerating technology curve allowed in the 1980s. Enthusiasts collect and restore old equipment; Phil Cirocco describes in great detail a loving restoration of a 1940 Novachord, a romantic adventure in electronics, metal, and wood, set against a peril of “black tar” contamination of the unit by old capacitors. There is a continuing use of legacy equipment, such as in the analog studio room at The Hague's Institute of Sonology, amongst many other institutions keeping alive tape and analog synthesizer tradition. Long-term maintenance is an active issue in the fast-paced technology world, especially for software; open source software has a potentially greater chance of survival, as seen by the long existence of the Music 1 descendant Csound. Propellerheads’ proprietary Rebirth software, originally released in 1997, has been discontinued and is now given tribute in an online museum (www.rebirthmuseum.com), though it has also recently re-appeared in the form of an iPhone app.
At the Eurovision Song Contest in 1980, the synthesizer trio Telex performed Belgium's entry. They appeared, swaying, in dapper scarves, in front of a large unplugged modular synthesizer, and sang a deliberately inane tune, appropriately entitled “Euro-vision.” Typical of the humor of the band, they were aiming for last place and zero points, but were in turn ironically scuppered by Portugal's award of ten points and were dragged into third from last.
Kraftwerk, the rather more famous German synthesizer band, who pioneered the all-synthesizer ensemble as a force in popular music, also had an underlying sense of humor and humanity. Their albums may seem to be continuing the progressive rock tradition of concept albums, taking on such technological themes as Autobahn (1974), Radio-Activity (1975), Trans-Europe Express (1977), The Man-Machine (1978), and Computer World (1981), though they are really tightly prepared and marketed packages. Although some longer tracks appear well beyond the duration of a three-minute pop song, the extended improvisation of the German experimental music scene that Kraftwerk grew out of is left far behind in their more well-known work. Their longer tracks promote a mold of extended dance workouts and minimalist tapestries in pop. Exploring a powerful array of analog and later digital equipment, however rigid the sequencing, they emphasized the human being amongst the technology. Their design harks back to earlier eras, such as the clear link to the film Metropolis (1927) in die-Mensch Maschine, or the doubly meant radio and atomic age of the punning title Radio-Activity.