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Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a potentially life-threatening condition characterised by the growth of exophytic lesions within the larynx and trachea. The principal aim of management is maintenance of an adequate airway by surgical debulking. Several adjuvant therapies have been used to varying effect to reduce the burden of this disease and increase the interval between debulking procedures. The most severe cases present in children aged under three years, who are therefore most likely to need adjuvant therapies. The current evidence base on adjuvant treatments relating to children who present aged under three years has been reviewed.
A literature review of articles in Cochrane, PubMed and Embase databases was carried out. Given the rarity of the condition in this age group, all the literature relates to case reports and case series.
Results and conclusion
The following adjuvant therapies have been used in children who presented under three years of age: quadrivalent human papilloma virus vaccine, intralesional cidofovir, pegylated interferon, alpha-interferon, cimetidine and cetuximab.
In clinical practice, differentiating Bipolar Disorder (BD) from unipolar depression is challenging due to the depressive symptoms, which are the core presentations of both disorders. Patients with BD are often misdiagnosed during depressive episodes resulting in a delay in proper treatment and a poor management of their condition.
The aim of the present study is to discriminate between unipolar depression and BD using a panel of RNA edited blood biomarkers.
Depressed patients were classified according to clinical scores in MADRS and IDSC-30 depression scales. After blood collection and RNA extraction, we used whole-transcriptome sequencing to identify differential A-to-I editing events, and Targeted Next Generation Sequencing to validate those biomarkers.
We discovered 646 variants differentially edited between depressed patients and control in a discovery cohort of 57 participants. After using stringent criteria and biological pathway analysis, 6 biomarker candidates were singled out and tested in a validation cohort of 160 patients suffering from unipolar depression and 95 BD patients in a depressive episode, which allowed a differential diagnosis of BD with an AUC of 0.935 and high specificity (Sp=84.6%) and sensitivity (Se=90.9%).
We have shown that a combination of 6 blood RNA editing-related biomarkers allows to discriminate unipolar and bipolar depression This 6 BMKs panel may be crucial to improve BD diagnosis and orientate the treatment therefore addressing the needs of millions of patients suffering from misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment for their diseases. This will change the game for the management of patients.
Anticholinergic medications block cholinergic transmission. The central effects of anticholinergic drugs can be particularly marked in patients with dementia. Furthermore, anticholinergics antagonise the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, the main dementia treatment.
This study aimed to assess anticholinergic drug prescribing among dementia patients before and after admission to UK acute hospitals.
352 patients with dementia were included from 17 hospitals in the UK. All were admitted to surgical, medical or Care of the Elderly wards in 2019. Information about patients’ prescriptions were recorded on a standardised form. An evidence-based online calculator was used to calculate the anticholinergic drug burden of each patient. The correlation between two subgroups upon admission and discharge was tested with Spearman’s Rank Correlation.
Table 1 shows patient demographics. On admission, 37.8% of patients had an anticholinergic burden score ≥1 and 5.68% ≥3. At discharge, 43.2% of patients had an anticholinergic burden score ≥1 and 9.1% ≥3. The increase was statistically significant (rho 0.688; p=2.2x10-16). The most common group of anticholinergic medications prescribed at discharge were psychotropics (see Figure 1). Among patients prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors, 44.9% were also taking anticholinergic medications.
This multicentre cross-sectional study found that people with dementia are frequently prescribed anticholinergic drugs, even if also taking cholinesterase inhibitors, and are significantly more likely to be discharged with a higher anticholinergic drug burden than on admission to hospital.
Conflict of interest
This project was planned and executed by the authors on behalf of SPARC (Student Psychiatry Audit and Research Collaborative). We thank the National Student Association of Medical Research for allowing us use of the Enketo platform. Judith Harrison was su
Performance characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection assays are understudied within contexts of low pre-test probability, including screening asymptomatic persons without epidemiological links to confirmed cases, or asymptomatic surveillance testing. SARS-CoV-2 detection without symptoms may represent presymptomatic or asymptomatic infection, resolved infection with persistent RNA shedding, or a false positive test. This study assessed positive predictive value of SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays by retesting positive specimens from five pre-test probability groups ranging from high to low with an alternate assay.
A total of 122 rRT-PCR positive specimens collected from unique patients between March and July 2020 were retested using a laboratory-developed nested RT-PCR assay targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene followed by Sanger sequencing.
Significantly fewer (15.6%) positive results in the lowest pre-test probability group (facilities with institution-wide screening having ≤ 3 positive asymptomatic cases) were reproduced with the nested RdRp gene RT-PCR assay than in each of the four groups with higher pre-test probability (individual group range 50·0% to 85·0%).
Large-scale SARS-CoV-2 screening testing initiatives among low pre-test probability populations should be evaluated thoroughly prior to implementation given the risk of false positives and consequent potential for harm at the individual and population level.
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) is considered as a treasure house of nutrients and it is one of the major vegetables widely spread all over tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world. Yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) and enation leaf curl virus are the most destructive diseases of okra as they affect both crop growth and yield. Due to the frequent breakdown of resistance and lack of a stable source of resistance in the cultivated species, interspecific hybridization is considered as a reliable approach for durable resistance. Cultivated species from The United States Department of Agriculture and wild accessions from The National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources were screened at YVMV hotspot (Guntur, Andhra Pradesh) to identify the potential donors for disease resistance. Accessions IC141032 and IC141012 were found to be free from both viruses and categorized as resistant lines. Interspecific hybridization between A. tetraphyllus and A. esculentus revealed a high crossability index of around 80% when A. esculentus was utilized as a female parent. The bottleneck of hybrid sterility was partially overcome by the colchicine treatment of interspecific F1 hybrids. Good seed set was observed when raw colchiploids were backcrossed to the recurrent parent.
Over 3 months, we provided monthly education to internal medicine residents and distributed resources regarding penicillin-allergy history taking. Allergy information in the electronic record was updated more often during the intervention compared to the period before the intervention (16.1% vs 10.9%; P = .02). Education and interdepartmental collaboration have the potential to affect provider behavior.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
Investigate an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among operating room staff utilizing contact tracing, mass testing for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and environmental sampling.
Operating room staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing.
Epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted including contact tracing, environmental surveys, and sampling and review of the operating room schedule for staff-to-staff, staff-to-patient, and patient-to-staff SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
In total, 24 healthcare personnel (HCP) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, including nurses (29%), surgical technologists (25%), and surgical residents (16%). Moreover, 19 HCP (79%) reported having used a communal area, most commonly break rooms (75%). Overall, 20 HCP (83%) reported symptomatic disease. In total, 72 environmental samples were collected from communal areas for SARS-CoV-2 genomic testing; none was positive. Furthermore, 236 surgical cases were reviewed for transmission: 213 (90%) had negative preoperative SARS-CoV-2 testing, 21 (9%) had a positive test on or before the date of surgery, and 2 (<1%) did not have a preoperative test performed. In addition, 40 patients underwent postoperative testing (mean, 13 days to postoperative testing), and 2 returned positive results. Neither of these 2 cases was linked to our outbreak.
Complacency in infection control practices among staff during peak community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is believed to have driven staff-to-staff transmission. Prompt identification of the outbreak led to rapid interventions, ultimately allowing for uninterrupted surgical service.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This project demonstrates that addressing low-value care, which has the potential to cause patient harm, relies on novel data tools and collaboration between health system and research stakeholders. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Reducing low-value care, or patient care that offers no net benefit in specific clinical scenarios, is an important approach to improving value as it can simultaneously lower health care spending and improve quality. We describe an initiative to identify such care in a large statewide employer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Claims data for self-funded University of California (UC) Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plan members during 2019 were abstracted from the University of California Health (UCH) Clinical Data Warehouse, a unique central database that includes electronic medical record data from >5 million patients across UC medical campuses and all claims from UC self-funded health plans. UCH spans six academic health systems across California. The Milliman MedInsight Health Waste Calculator, a proprietary algorithm-based software tool, was used to identify low-value care and estimate associated spending. The HWC measures 48 low-value services using recommendations from the Choosing Wisely Campaign, the US Preventive Services Task Force, and other clinical specialty guidelines. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 43,882 members of the UC PPO, 11,174 (25.4%) received at least one low-value service. The HWC identified 50,103 eligible services and classified 35% as low-value. Total spending on low-value services ranged between $2,209,516 and $5,089,866, based on a more or less conservative estimate. Across the five sites, the proportion of low-value services ranged from 31% to 39%. Five services comprised 65% of costs from low-value care: annual EKGs, preoperative baseline labs for low-risk surgeries, vitamin D deficiency screening, imaging for eye disease, and headache imaging. The top five services by order frequency were annual EKGs, vitamin D tests, preoperative labs, antibiotics for upper respiratory infections, and imaging for eye disease. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Low-value care is prevalent and costly within a large statewide employer. Collaborative multidisciplinary partnerships between employers, health systems, informatics, and researchers can leverage existing data to identify opportunities for improving the value of care for covered populations.
To stop transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in association with myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) at a cardiology clinic.
Outbreak investigation and quasispecies analysis of HCV hypervariable region 1 genome.
Outpatient cardiology clinic.
Patients undergoing MPI.
Case patients met definitions for HBV or HCV infection. Cases were identified through surveillance registry cross-matching against clinic records and serological screening. Observations of clinic practices were performed.
During 2012–2014, 7 cases of HCV and 4 cases of HBV occurred in 4 distinct clusters among patients at a cardiology clinic. Among 3 case patients with HCV infection who had MPI on June 25, 2014, 2 had 98.48% genetic identity of HCV RNA. Among 4 case patients with HCV infection who had MPI on March 13, 2014, 3 had 96.96%–99.24% molecular identity of HCV RNA. Also, 2 clusters of 2 patients each with HBV infection had MPI on March 7, 2012, and December 4, 2014. Clinic staff reused saline vials for >1 patient. No infection control breaches were identified at the compounding pharmacy that supplied the clinic. Patients seen in clinic through March 27, 2015, were encouraged to seek testing for HBV, HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus. The clinic switched to all single-dose medications and single-use intravenous flushes on March 27, 2015, and no further cases were identified.
This prolonged healthcare-associated outbreak of HBV and HCV was most likely related to breaches in injection safety. Providers should follow injection safety guidelines in all practice settings.
The crystal structure of tamsulosin hydrochloride has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and optimized using density functional techniques. Tamsulosin hydrochloride crystallizes in space group P21 (#4) with a = 7.62988(2), b = 9.27652(2), c = 31.84996(12) Å, β = 93.2221(2)°, V = 2250.734(7) Å3, and Z = 4. In the crystal structure, two arene rings are connected by a carbon chain oriented roughly parallel to the c-axis. The crystal structure is characterized by two slabs of tamsulosin hydrochloride molecules perpendicular to the c-axis. As expected, each of the hydrogens on the protonated nitrogen atoms makes a strong hydrogen bond to one of the chloride anions. The result is to link the cations and anions into columns along the b-axis. One hydrogen atom of each sulfonamide group also makes a hydrogen bond to a chloride anion. The other hydrogen atom of each sulfonamide group forms bifurcated hydrogen bonds to two ether oxygen atoms. The powder pattern is included in the Powder Diffraction File™ as entry 00-065-1415.
There is a high rate of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with epilepsy. However, the impact of surgical treatment of refractory epilepsy on psychopathology remains under investigation. We aimed to examine the impact of epilepsy surgery on psychopathology and quality of life at 1-year post-surgery in a population of patients with epilepsy refractory to medication.
This study initially assessed 48 patients with refractory epilepsy using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory 89 (QOLIE-89) on admission to an Epilepsy Monitoring Unit (EMU) as part of their pre-surgical assessment. These patients were again assessed using the SCID-I, QOLIE-89 and HADS at 1-year follow-up post-surgery.
There was a significant reduction in psychopathology, particularly psychosis, following surgery at 1-year follow-up (p < 0.021). There were no new cases of de novo psychosis and surgery was also associated with a significant improvement in the quality of life scores (p < 0.001).
This study demonstrates the impact of epilepsy surgery on psychopathology and quality of life in a patient population with refractory surgery. The presence of a psychiatric illness should not be a barrier to access surgical treatment.
The detrimental systemic effects of cigarette smoking are well established. Though less pronounced in the field of otology, they are proposed to contribute to the global burden of unaddressed hearing loss. Recently, in efforts to stop smoking, individuals have used electronic cigarettes of which the long-term safety data are largely unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette effects in the field of otology.
Relevant articles were identified by a National Institute for Health and Care Excellence healthcare database literature search and by scanning the references of relevant articles and reviews.
A total of 473 articles were identified, with 43 articles included in the review after trials were excluded.
Cigarette smoking is associated with recurrent otitis media, otitis media with effusion and sensorineural hearing loss in children exposed to second-hand smoke. In adults, it is associated with active and aggressive chronic suppurative otitis media, worse tympanoplasty success rates, increased post-operative complications and sensorineural hearing loss that is more pronounced in the long term and at high frequencies. The effects of e-cigarettes in otology are largely unknown.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
To investigate the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using whole-genome sequencing.
Investigation of MSSA epidemiology in a NICU.
Single-center, level IV NICU.
Universal S. aureus screening was done using a single swab obtained from the anterior nares, axilla, and groin area of infants in the NICU on a weekly basis. Core genome multilocus sequence type (cgMLST) analysis was performed on MSSA isolates detected over 1 year (2018–2019).
In total, 68 MSSA-colonized infants were identified, and cgMLSTs of 67 MSSA isolates were analyzed. Overall, we identified 11 cgMLST isolate groups comprising 39 isolates (58%), with group sizes ranging from 2 to 10 isolates, and 28 isolates (42%) were unrelated to each other or any of the isolate groups. Cases of infants colonized by MSSA were scattered throughout the 1-year study period, and isolates belonging to the same cgMLST group were typically detected contemporaneously, over a few weeks or a few months. Overall, 13 infants (19.7%) developed MSSA infections: bacteremia (n = 3), wound infection (n = 5), conjunctivitis (n = 4), and cellulitis (n = 1). We detected no association between these clinically manifest infections and specific cgMLST groups.
Although MSSA isolates in infants in a NICU showed high diversity, most were related to other isolates, albeit within small groups. cgMLST facilitates an understanding of the complex transmission dynamics of MSSA in NICUs, and these data can be used to inform better control strategies.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has accounted for more than 25 000 cases in Ireland with approximately 28% of the clusters in nursing homes as of June 2020. The older population is the most vulnerable to serious complications from this illness and over 90% of deaths due to COVID-19 to date have been in patients over the age of 65. Continuing to provide routine care within nursing homes in these challenging times is an essential part of ensuring that presentations to hospitals for non-essential reasons are minimized. In this article, we describe a project being undertaken by a rural Psychiatry of Old Age Service in the northwest of Ireland. We aim to provide ordinary care in extraordinary times by using mobile tablets within the nursing homes and long-stay facilities in our region for remote video consultations during the COVID-19 crisis.
To evaluate whether incorporating mandatory prior authorization for Clostridioides difficile testing into antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist workflow could reduce testing in patients with alternative etiologies for diarrhea.
Single center, quasi-experimental before-and-after study.
Tertiary-care, academic medical center in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Adult and pediatric patients admitted between September 11, 2019 and December 10, 2019 were included if they had an order placed for 1 of the following: (1) C. difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in patients hospitalized >72 hours and received laxatives, oral contrast, or initiated tube feeds within the prior 48 hours, (2) repeat molecular multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GIPAN) testing, or (3) GIPAN testing in patients hospitalized >72 hours.
A best-practice alert prompting prior authorization by the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) for EIA or GIPAN testing was implemented. Approval required the provider to page the ASP pharmacist and discuss rationale for testing. The provider could not proceed with the order if ASP approval was not obtained.
An average of 2.5 requests per day were received over the 3-month intervention period. The weekly rate of EIA and GIPAN orders per 1,000 patient days decreased significantly from 6.05 ± 0.94 to 4.87 ± 0.78 (IRR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56–0.93; P = .010) and from 1.72 ± 0.37 to 0.89 ± 0.29 (IRR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37–0.77; P = .001), respectively.
We identified an efficient, effective C. difficile and GIPAN diagnostic stewardship approval model.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We sought to examine: 1) variability in center acceptance patterns for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates, 2) impact of this acceptance behavior on candidate survival, and 3) post-transplantation outcomes in candidates who accepted first rank offer vs. previously declined offer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this retrospective cohort study, the US national transplant registry was queried for all match runs of adult candidates listed for isolated heart transplantation between 2007-2017. We examined center acceptance rates for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates and accounted for covariates in multivariable logistic regression. Competing risks analysis was performed to assess the relationship between center acceptance rate and waitlist mortality. Post-transplantation outcomes (patient survival and graft failure) between candidates who accepted their first-rank offers vs those who accepted previously declined offers were compared using Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 19,703 unique organ offers, 6,302 (32%) were accepted for first-ranked candidates. After adjustment for donor, recipient, and geographic covariates, transplant centers varied markedly in acceptance rates (12%-62%) of offers made to first-ranked candidates. Lowest acceptance rate centers (<25%) associated with highest cumulative incidence of waitlist mortality. For every 10% increase in adjusted center acceptance rate, waitlist mortality risk decreased by 27% (SHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.80). No significant difference was observed in 5-year adjusted post-Tx survival and graft failure between hearts accepted at the first-rank vs lower-rank positions. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wide variability in heart acceptance rates exists among centers, with candidates listed at low acceptance rate centers more likely to die waiting. Similar post-Tx survival suggests previously declined allografts function as well as those accepted at first offer. Center-level decision is a modifiable behavior associated with waitlist mortality.
Emerging research suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) may be associated with an increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental and mental health outcomes in offspring. Using data from the Raine Study, we investigated whether MIA during pregnancy was associated with increased behavioral and emotional problems in offspring longitudinally across development.
Mothers (Generation 1; N = 1905) were classified into the following categories: AAAE (Asthma/Allergy/Atopy/Eczema; N = 1267); infection (during pregnancy; N = 1082); no AAAE or infection (N = 301). The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was administered for offspring at ages 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the effect of maternal immune status on CBCL scores.
AAAE conditions were associated with significant increases in CBCL Total (β 2.49; CI 1.98–3.00), Externalizing (β 1.54; CI 1.05–2.03), and Internalizing (β 2.28; CI 1.80–2.76) scores. Infection conditions were also associated with increased Total (β 1.27; CI 0.77–1.78), Externalizing (β 1.18; CI 0.70–1.66), and Internalizing (β 0.76; CI 0.28–1.24) scores. Exposure to more than one AAAE and/or infection condition was associated with a greater elevation in CBCL scores than single exposures in males and females. Females showed greater increases on the Internalizing scale from MIA, while males showed similar increases on both Internalizing and Externalizing scales.
MIA was associated with increased behavioral and emotional problems in offspring throughout childhood and adolescence. This highlights the need to understand the relationship between MIA, fetal development, and long-term outcomes, with the potential to advance early identification and intervention strategies.
Some clinicians consider depot antipsychotics to be stigmatizing and coercive. Former coercion studies have predominantly considered hospital admission rather than medication. This cross-sectional study investigated patients' perspectives of coercion for depot and oral antipsychotics.
72 participants, with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder on voluntary maintenance medication were randomly selected for further in-depth interviews as a sub-sample from an antipsychotic attitudinal study. The MacArthur Admission Experience (short form) was adapted to explore coercion regarding medication. Scores were compared for formulation groups (depot versus oral).
Only 9 (12.5%) had no concerns about coercion. Coercion scores were higher for depot than oral in terms of total score (mean 4.39 vs 2.80, p=0.027), perceived coercion (2.52 vs 1.73, p=0.041) and negative pressures subscales (1.17 vs 0.33, p=0.009). No significant differences were found for the “voice” subscale (0.70 vs 0.73) and affective reactions. Specifically, more participants on depot felt that people try to force them to take medication (30% vs 2%, p<0.001).
To our knowledge, this is study is unique in that it reports specifically on coercion regarding both depot and oral antipsychotics, using systematic quantitative methodology. Participants felt that treatment with depots was more coercive than with oral antipsychotics and was associated with a relative lack of true autonomy. One reason for this might be that depots are “given” rather than “taken”; thus the “power of others” may be seen as more potent. Greater perceived coercion may explain why some consider depots to be a more stigmatizing form of treatment.