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To quantify food/beverage advertising on television in Montreal (Quebec), to estimate and characterize children’s exposure, and to examine trends over time.
Television food advertising data were licensed for 19 food categories and 18 stations for May 2011, 2016 and 2019. The frequency of advertisements and the average number viewed per child aged 2-11 years overall, by food category and by station type (i.e. youth-appealing (n=3) and generalist (n=15) stations) was determined. The percent change in advertising and exposure between May 2011 and 2019 was calculated.
Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
This study used media data and did not directly involve human participants.
The total number of television advertisements increased by 11% between May 2011 (n=41,084) and May 2019 (n=45,406) however exposure to food/beverage advertisements decreased by 53%, going from 226 ads/child in May 2011 to 107 ads/child in May 2019. Overall, the most advertised food categories in both May 2011 and 2019 were fast food (29.8% and 39.2%, respectively) followed by chocolate (14.2%) in 2011 and savory snacks (9.7%) in 2019. In May 2019, children were predominantly exposed to unhealthy food categories such as fast food (41.3% of exposure), savory snacks (7.5%), chocolate (5.0%) and regular soft drinks (4.5%), and most (89.3%) of their total exposure occurred on generalist television stations.
Despite Quebec’s restrictions on commercial advertising directed to children under 13 years, Quebecois children are still frequently exposed to unhealthy food advertising on television. Government should tighten restrictions to protect children from this exposure.
To assess the effectiveness of the self-regulatory Canadian Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) in limiting advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages on children’s preferred websites in Canada.
Syndicated Internet advertising exposure data were used to identify the ten most popular websites for children (aged 2–11 years) and determine the frequency of food/beverage banner and pop-up ads on these websites from June 2015 to May 2016. Nutrition information for advertised products was collected and their nutrient content per 100 g was calculated. Nutritional quality of all food/beverage ads was assessed using the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and UK Nutrient Profile Models (NPM). Nutritional quality of CAI and non-CAI company ads was compared using χ2 analyses and independent t tests.
About 54 million food/beverage ads were viewed on children’s preferred websites from June 2015 to May 2016. Most (93·4 %) product ads were categorized as excessive in fat, Na or free sugars as per the PAHO NPM and 73·8 % were deemed less healthy according to the UK NPM. CAI-company ads were 2·2 times more likely (OR; 99 % CI) to be excessive in at least one nutrient (2·2; 2·1, 2·2, P<0·001) and 2·5 times more likely to be deemed less healthy (2·5; 2·5, 2·5, P<0·001) than non-CAI ads. On average, CAI-company product ads also contained (mean difference; 99 % CI) more energy (141; 141·1, 141·4 kcal, P<0·001, r=0·55), sugar (18·2; 18·2, 18·2 g, P<0·001, r=0·68) and Na (70·0; 69·7, 70·0 mg, P<0·001, r=0·23) per 100 g serving than non-CAI ads.
The CAI is not limiting unhealthy food and beverage advertising on children’s preferred websites in Canada. Mandatory regulations are needed.
To examine the association between skipping breakfast, daily energy, macronutrients and food intakes, and BMI in pre-school children.
A cross-sectional study using information on children’s food consumption and measured height and weight. Energy and macronutrient intakes of the children were derived from parent/day-care attendant’s responses to 24 h recall interviews and eating behaviour questionnaires.
Data obtained from a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1998.
One thousand five hundred and forty-nine children, with a mean age of 49 (sd 3·12) months.
Ten per cent of children ate breakfast on fewer than 7 days per week. This behaviour was associated with a lower diet quality and concentrated energy intakes through higher protein intakes at lunch and the consumption of snacks higher in energy and carbohydrate in the afternoon and evening; yet total daily energy intakes were not significantly different from those of pre-school children who ate breakfast every day. Breakfast skippers’ mean BMI increased as intake of energy, carbohydrates or servings of grain products increased; however, this was not the case for breakfast eaters. When Cole’s cut-off for overweight/obesity was used, overweight/obesity in breakfast skippers was related to the dinner-time consumption of approximately 3000 kJ (700 kcal) or more for energy intake, approximately 100 g or more of carbohydrates, or approximately 3 servings or more of grain products.
Eating breakfast every day is associated with having a healthy body weight, likely due to a more even distribution of energy intake across meals throughout the day.
To analyse the socio-economic factors related to breakfast eating, the association between breakfast eating and overweight, and to gain a more thorough understanding of the relationship between these two elements in a population-based cohort of 4.5-year-old children. We hypothesised that a relationship could be observed between breakfast skipping and overweight independently of socio-economic factors such as ethnicity, maternal education, single parenting and family income.
A population-based study whereby standardised nutritional interviews were conducted with each child's parent. The children's height and weight were taken by a trained nutritionist and parents were asked about their child's breakfast eating.
The analyses were performed using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (1998–2002), conducted by Santé Québec (Canada).
Subjects were 1549 children between the ages of 44 and 56 months, with a mean age of 49 months.
Almost a tenth (9.8%) of the children did not eat breakfast every day. A greater proportion of children with immigrant mothers (19.4% vs. 8.3% from non-immigrant mothers), with mothers with no high school diploma (17.5% vs. <10% for higher educated mothers) and from low-income families (15% for income of $39 999 or less vs. 5–10% for better income) did not eat breakfast every day. Not eating breakfast every day nearly doubled the odds (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2–3.2) of being overweight at 4.5 years when mother's immigrant status, household income and number of overweight/obese parents were part of the analysis.
Although our results require replication before public policy changes can be advocated, encouraging breakfast consumption among pre-school children is probably warranted and targeting families of low socio-economic status could potentially help in the prevention of childhood obesity.
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