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To test the feasibility of implementing and evaluating a healthier checkout pilot study in a convenience store chain.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted comparing a 3-month ‘healthier checkouts’ intervention in ten convenience stores which stocked eight healthier items in the checkout space and ten comparison stores assigned to continue stocking their current checkout space product mix. All aspects of the intervention were implemented by the retailer. The research team conducted in-person fidelity checks to assess implementation. Sales data were collected from the retailer in order to compare mean baseline to intervention sales of the eight healthier items in intervention and comparison groups while controlling for overall store sales.
Convenience store chain.
Twenty convenience stores in New Hampshire.
The increases in sales of healthier items between the baseline and intervention periods among the intervention and comparison stores were not statistically significant; however, the overall pattern of the results showed promising changes that should be expanded on in future studies. Intervention fidelity checks indicated that results may have been attenuated by variability in intervention implementation.
This study advances the evidence for effective promotion of healthier food purchases in the convenience store chain setting and adds to the current literature on retail checkout space interventions. Additional research is needed to confirm and expand these results.
In 2018, Minneapolis began phased implementation of an ordinance to increase the local minimum wage to $15/h. We sought to determine whether the first phase of implementation was associated with changes in frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V), whole-grain-rich foods, and foods high in added sugars among low-wage workers.
The Wages Study is a prospective cohort study of 974 low-wage workers followed throughout the phased implementation of the ordinance (2018–2022). We used difference-in-difference analysis to compare outcomes among workers in Minneapolis, Minnesota, to those in a comparison city (Raleigh, North Carolina). We assessed wages using participants’ pay stubs and dietary intake using the National Cancer Institute Dietary Screener Questionnaire.
Analyses use the first two waves of Wages data (2018 (baseline), 2019) and includes 267 and 336 low-wage workers in Minneapolis and Raleigh, respectively.
After the first phase of implementation, wages increased in both cities, but the increase was $0·84 greater in Minneapolis (P = 0·02). However, the first phase of the policy’s implementation was not associated with changes in daily frequency of consumption of F&V (IRR = 1·03, 95 % CI: 0·86, 1·24, P = 0·73), whole-grain-rich foods (IRR = 1·23, 95 % CI: 0·89, 1·70, P = 0·20), or foods high in added sugars (IRR = 1·13, 95 % CI: 0·86, 1·47, P = 0·38) among workers in Minneapolis compared to Raleigh.
The first phase of implementation of the Minneapolis minimum wage policy was associated with increased wages, but not with changes in dietary intake. Future research should examine whether full implementation is associated dietary changes.
To evaluate the association between three behavioural economics ‘nudges’ and store sales of promoted healthier foods.
Multiple interrupted time series.
Two predominantly rural counties in central North Carolina, USA.
Aggregated store transaction data from two grocery stores (one intervention, one control) and two convenience stores (one intervention, one control) were analysed using ANOVA to examine the association between three ‘nudges’ and store sales of promoted items. The nudges included: a ‘cognitive fatigue’ experiment, in which floor arrows guided customers to the produce sections; a ‘scarcity’ experiment, in which one sign in one area of the produce section portrayed a ‘limited amount’ message; and a ‘product placement’ experiment, where granola bars were moved into the candy bar aisle.
In convenience stores, there were no significant differences between sales of the promoted items during the intervention period for any of the nudges when implemented individually. However, compared with baseline sales, implementation of all three nudges simultaneously was associated with an increase in sales during the intervention period based on proportional computations (P = 0·001), whereas no significant changes in sales were observed in the control convenience store. Among the grocery stores, there were no significant differences in sales during the intervention period for any of the nudges or the combined intervention compared with baseline sales.
Implementing three nudges concurrently in a convenience store setting may increase sales of promoted items. However, before stores consider implementing these nudges to increase sales of nutritious foods, additional research is warranted.
Millions of US households experienced food insecurity in 2005. Research indicates that low wages and little social support contribute to food insecurity. The present study aimed to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between income and food insecurity.
Using a mail survey, we collected data on social support sources (social network, intimate partner and community) and social support functions from a social network (instrumental, informational and emotional). We used hierarchical logistic regression to examine the potential moderation of various measures of social support on the relationship between income and food insecurity, adjusting for potential confounding variables.
A stratified random sample of Oregonians aged 18–64 years (n 343).
We found no evidence of an association between social support and food insecurity, nor any evidence that social support acts as a moderator between income and food insecurity, regardless of the measure of social support used.
Although previous research suggested that social support could offset the negative impact of low income on food security, our study did not find support for such an effect.
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