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In the present study, a method was developed for determining the alimentary tract Ca absorption capacity of ruminant animals by measuring the absorption rate of Sr after the administration of an oral dose of strontium chloride acting as a tracer analogue of Ca. A close correlation between the absorption rates of the two tracers was observed upon simultaneous administration of an oral dose of stable Sr and radioactive calcium (r 0·98). The Ca absorption capacity of the rumen and small intestine was determined separately by either directing the solution into the rumen or by diverting it into the post-ruminal tract by vasopressin-induced closure of the ruminoreticular groove. The animals were treated with 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 administered via subcutaneously implanted mini-osmotic pumps. The effect of elevated plasma 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol concentrations on the Ca absorption capacity of the alimentary tract was then determined. An increased rate of Sr absorption was observed in both the rumen and small intestine of sheep after treatment, although it is unclear whether the rumen possesses the same vitamin D-dependent Ca absorption pathway as the small intestine.
Depression is common among older populations with cataract. However, the impact of cataract surgery on depression in both developed and developing countries remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of cataract surgery on depressive symptoms and to examine the association between objective visual measures and change in depressive symptoms after surgery among a Vietnamese population in Ho Chi Minh City.
A cohort of older patients with bilateral cataract were assessed the week before and one to three months after first eye surgery only or first- and second-eye cataract surgeries. Visual measures including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereopsis were obtained. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Descriptive analyses and a generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis were undertaken to determine the impact of cataract surgery on depressive symptoms.
Four hundred and thirteen participants were recruited into the study before cataract surgery. Two hundred and forty-seven completed the follow-up assessment after surgery. There was a significant decrease (improvement) of one point in the depressive symptoms score (p = 0.04) after cataract surgery, after accounting for potential confounding factors. In addition, females reported a significantly greater decrease (improvement) of two points in depressive symptom scores (p = 0.01), compared to males. However, contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, and stereopsis were not significantly associated with change in depressive symptoms scores. First-eye cataract surgery or both-eye cataract surgery did not modify the change in depressive symptoms score.
There was a small but significant improvement in depressive symptoms score after cataract surgery for an older population in Vietnam.
The present paper explores the level of evidence required to justify giving dietary advice to the public. There are important practical differences between the development of public health nutrition guidelines and guidelines for clinical practice. While the gold standard for evidence for clinical practice guidelines is a meta-analysis of a number of randomised controlled trials, this is often unrealistic and sometimes unethical for the evaluation of public health nutrition interventions. Hence, epidemiological studies make up the bulk of evidence for nutrition guidelines. Tea and coffee are an interesting case study in relation to this issue. They are two of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide, yet there is little dietary advice on their use. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and several diseases is discussed. The available studies, predominantly epidemiological, together with animal and in vitro studies, indicate that coffee and tea are both safe beverages. However, tea is the healthier option because it has a possible role in the prevention of several cancers and CVD. While the evidence for such relationships is not strong, the public will continue to drink both tea and coffee, and will continue to ask nutritionists to make recommendations. It is therefore argued that advice should be given on the best available data, as waiting for complete data to become available could have severe consequences for public health.
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