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Human pregnancies contain large amounts of water in several compartments, including the fetal body, the placenta and membranes, and the amniotic fluid (AF). This water circulates within the conceptus and also between fetus and mother. Normal acquisition and circulation of water is critical to fetal health and development, and abnormal amounts of water, evidenced as insufficient (oligohydramnios) or excessive (polyhydramnios) amounts of AF, are associated with impaired fetal outcome, even in the absence of structural fetal abnormalities. This chapter will review the current understanding of water flow to the fetus and into and out of the amniotic cavity, and the evidence suggesting that the fetus may regulate AF volume.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.