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Here we investigate the effects of extensive sociality and mobility on the oral microbiome of 138 Agta hunter–gatherers from the Philippines. Our comparisons of microbiome composition showed that the Agta are more similar to Central African BaYaka hunter–gatherers than to neighbouring farmers. We also defined the Agta social microbiome as a set of 137 oral bacteria (only 7% of 1980 amplicon sequence variants) significantly influenced by social contact (quantified through wireless sensors of short-range interactions). We show that large interaction networks including strong links between close kin, spouses and even unrelated friends can significantly predict bacterial transmission networks across Agta camps. Finally, we show that more central individuals to social networks are also bacterial supersharers. We conclude that hunter–gatherer social microbiomes are predominantly pathogenic and were shaped by evolutionary tradeoffs between extensive sociality and disease spread.
The conception of this handbook goes way back, taking us more than five years until completion. It all began with an early plan to organize a symposium for the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP) for July 2016 in Yokohama, Japan. The intention was to bring together a group of international identity researchers, from within psychology and from neighboring disciplines, to see whether there were any new developments in identity theory and empirical research, and whether they had a common center or were drifting pieces moving in all kinds of directions (cf., for example, Nochi, 2016, or Watzlawik, 2016). This was the original idea. So, in the summer of 2015 we started contacting researchers we knew (and whom we did not know up to that moment), asking whether they would be interested in joining us for the symposium. Preparing the symposium was as stimulating as the actual gathering that took place on the afternoon of July 28 one year later under the header Identity and Identity Research in Psychology and Neighboring Disciplines. Janka Romero, the Commissioning Editor for Psychology at Cambridge University Press, had contacted us beforehand with the offer to talk about the potential to turn this into a book project, and we, the symposium participants, started following up the same night over dinner – not knowing that this would keep us busy for the next five years. We went through the usual editorial routines: developing a proposal, revising the proposal, and contacting old and new colleagues in the field, up to the point of delivering the full set of manuscripts in January 2021.
Contemplating the history of identity faces seemingly insurmountable challenges – mostly raising suspicion: from whose perspective and value for whom? This chapter assumes multiple histories of identity and proceeds in three steps. By sifting through how the term identity intersects in contemporary language use with neighboring concepts (such as self, subject/subjectivity, individual/authenticity, and consciousness/conscience), we filter out a core narrative for contemporary identity discourses. Basic to modern identity is the assumption of an interior navigation-bridge from where three kinds of decision-territories are navigated: (i) temporal stability and change; (ii) how to blend in and differentiate from others; and (iii) how to engage as agentive subject or as being subjected to forces in the world. In this narrative, the internal command-bridge is accessible by and to the self using (self-)reflective means. The central part of our contribution subjects this kind of identity narrative to a form of historical interrogation in relation to (i) how it came into being in a particular region (Europe) and at a particular time (the Enlightenment); (ii) which discourses were included and which ones were systemically excluded; and (iii) how it was possible that this identity narrative gained power in everyday sense-making in general and in the discipline of psychology in particular. In a final section, we consider whether there are ways to conceptualize alternative narratives of identity that can inspire innovative discourses to theorize and empirically investigate identity.
While 'identity' is a key concept in psychology and the social sciences, researchers have used and understood this concept in diverse and often contradictory ways. The Cambridge Handbook of Identity presents the lively, multidisciplinary field of identity research as working around three central themes: (i) difference and sameness between people; (ii) people's agency in the world; and (iii) how identities can change or remain stable over time. The chapters in this collection explore approaches behind these themes, followed by a close look at their methodological implications, while examples from a number of applied domains demonstrate how identity research follows concrete analytical procedures. Featuring an international team of contributors who enrich psychological research with historical, cultural, and political perspectives, the handbook also explores contemporary issues of identity politics, diversity, intersectionality, and inclusion. It is an essential resource for all scholars and students working on identity theory and research.
Electroless copper films are usually the first conducting layer on the insulating substrates of printed circuit boards. For this and other emerging applications, the internal stress of the copper layer is an important consideration both for film adhesion and film-substrate interaction. We have combined stress/strain analysis based on X-ray diffraction, which is sensitive to the strain of the copper crystallites, with a conventionally used technique that analyses the bending of the substrate (Deposit Stress Analyzer). Both techniques were implemented in such a way that the stress could be monitored continuously during the deposition of the films from the electroless plating bath as well as afterwards. These tests were carried out for three chemical formulations and the results from both techniques agree qualitatively. For one bath, the substrate bending method detects a 60 nm region of local stress at the film-surface interface.
Common folks “have” emotions and talk to others; and sometimes they make “their” emotions the topic of such talk. The emotions seem to be “theirs,” since they can be conceived of as private states (or events); and they can be topicalized, because we seem to be able to attribute or lend a conventionalized public form (such as a linguistic label or name) to some inner (and therefore nonpublic) state or event. This is the way much of our folk-talk and folk-thinking about emotions, the expression thereof, the role of language in these expressions, and communication in general are organized. However, as we have shown (Bamberg & Lindenberger 1984), such talk serves the purpose of communicating effectively and reaching mutual understanding.
In our commentary we elaborate on Barresi & Moore's use of language as a tool. In particular, we highlight the importance of cognitive linguistic research with its emphasis on the relation between morpnosyntax and intentional schemes. We also speculate about how language itself might play a role in children's integration of first and third person knowledge.
This study investigated the changing functions of evaluative devices in children's narratives. The evaluative devices included (a) references to ‘frames of mind’, particularly to emotions, (b) character speech, (c) ‘hedges’, (d) negative qualifiers, and (e) causal connectors. Narratives were elicited from a 24-picture story book. The subjects were three groups of native English-speaking Americans (12 per group): five- and nine-year-old children and college undergraduate students. A quantitative comparison revealed that (i) adults used evaluative devices three times as often as five-year-olds, and two-and-a-half times as often as the nine-year-old children; (ii) adults used significantly more references to ‘frames of mind’ and ‘hedges’ than the children; and (iii) whereas five-year-olds used each evaluative type equally often, nine-year-olds and adults used references to ‘frames of mind’ significantly more than the other four evaluation types. A second analysis, focusing specifically on the discourse functions of references to ‘frames of mind’ revealed that, early on, this particular device is used to express a local evaluative perspective on particular events, while with increasing age it is used to signal the hierarchial organization of the story events. These findings are discussed with regard to two non-linguistic developmental achievements, the formation of event schemas and the formation of a theory of mind.