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Schizophrenia is a complex and heterogeneous syndrome with high clinical and biological stratification. Identifying distinctive subtypes can improve diagnostic accuracy and help precise therapy. A key challenge for schizophrenia subtyping is understanding the subtype-specific biological underpinnings of clinical heterogeneity. This study aimed to investigate if the machine learning (ML)-based neuroanatomical and symptomatic subtypes of schizophrenia are associated.
A total of 314 schizophrenia patients and 257 healthy controls from four sites were recruited. Gray matter volume (GMV) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores were employed to recognize schizophrenia neuroanatomical and symptomatic subtypes using K-means and hierarchical methods, respectively.
Patients with ML-based neuroanatomical subtype-1 had focally increased GMV, and subtype-2 had widespread reduced GMV than the healthy controls based on either K-means or Hierarchical methods. In contrast, patients with symptomatic subtype-1 had severe PANSS scores than subtype-2. No differences in PANSS scores were shown between the two neuroanatomical subtypes; similarly, no GMV differences were found between the two symptomatic subtypes. Cohen’s Kappa test further demonstrated an apparent dissociation between the ML-based neuroanatomical and symptomatic subtypes (P > 0.05). The dissociation patterns were validated in four independent sites with diverse disease progressions (chronic vs. first episodes) and ancestors (Chinese vs. Western).
These findings revealed a replicable dissociation between ML-based neuroanatomical and symptomatic subtypes of schizophrenia, which provides a new viewpoint toward understanding the heterogeneity of schizophrenia.
The gut microbiota plays an important role in animals’ survival in their local environments. The intertidal rocky shore is a key interface of oceanic, atmospheric and terrestrial environments, and the transmission modes of microbes between an intertidal host and the environment are complex and largely ignored. In the present study, we characterized the gut microbiota of the intertidal snail Nerita yoldii, which is experiencing a northward range shift under the combined impacts of climate change and anthropogenic seascape transformation, and also determined the nearby environmental microbiota on the rock and in the seawater at five locations along the snail's distribution range in China. The gut microbial communities were significantly different from the environmental microbial communities, and the dominant phyla were Tenericutes, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria in the gut, rock and seawater microbial communities, respectively. At the genus level, Mycoplasma, with a relative abundance of 48.0 ± 10.2%, was the dominant genus in the gut microbial community, however, the relative abundances of this genus on the rock and in the water were low. These results imply that the gut microbial community of the intertidal snail N. yoldii is relatively independent from the environmental microbial community, and the dominant genus Mycoplasma in the gut, that is rare in the environment, can potentially assist the snail living in the harsh intertidal environment, especially at its northernmost distribution range edge.
A CoNiCrAlTaHfY/Co composite coating was prepared on the etched C/C composites by using duplex vapor phase surface alloying treatments, i.e., Co alloying and Co–Ni–Cr–Al–Ta–Hf–Y alloying. Microstructures and oxidation behavior of the coated C/C composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result showed that the CoNiCrAlTaHfY/Co composite coating, 25 μm in thickness, was compact and composed of CrCoTa, AlCo2Ta, AlxCry, AlxNiy, and Co. The coating adhesion can be enhanced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition etching of matrix surface and adding a Co intermediate layer between the CoNiCrAlTaHfY top layer and C/C composites substrate. The honeycomb structure after etching was helpful to alloying element absorb and diffuse into substrate surface, and the composite coating continuation was improved by the Co buffer layer. After exposing in air for 180 min at 1000 °C, the bulk C/C composites volatilized while the loss rate of coated C/C composites was 0.82%, showing an improved oxidation resistance. Mixed oxides mainly containing Al2O3 and Cr2O3 were formed in the composite coating surface and protected the C/C composites from oxidation in air.
A new microtensile test device using a magnetic-solenoid force actuator was developed to evaluate the mechanical properties of microfabricated polysilicon thin films that were 100–660 mm long, 20–200 μm wide, and 2.4-μm thick. It was found that the measured average value of Young's modulus, 164 GPa ± 1.2 GPa, falls within the theoretical bounds. The average fracture strength is 1.36 GPa with a standard deviation of 0.14 GPa, and the Weibull modulus is 10.4–11.7. Statistical analysis of the specimen size effects on the tensile strength predicated the size effects on the length, the surface area, and the volume of the specimens. The fracture strength increases with an increase of the ratio of surface area to volume. In such cases, the size effect can be corrected to the ratio of the surface area to volume as the governing parameter. The test data accounts for the uncertainties in mechanical properties and may be used to enhance the reliability and design of polysilicon microelectromechanical systems devices.
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