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Little is known about the relationship between sentence production and phonological working memory in school-age children. To fill this gap, we examined how strongly these constructs correlate. We also compared diagnostic groups’ working memory abilities to see if differences co-occurred with qualitative differences in their sentences.
We conducted Bayesian analyses on data from seven- to nine-year-old children (n = 165 typical language, n = 81 dyslexia-only, n = 43 comorbid dyslexia and developmental language disorder). We correlated sentence production and working memory scores and conducted t tests between groups’ working memory scores and sentence length, lexical diversity, and complexity.
Correlations were positive but weak. The dyslexic and typical groups had dissimilar working memory and comparable sentence quality. The dyslexic and comorbid groups had comparable working memory but dissimilar sentence quality.
Contrary to literature-based predictions, phonological working memory and sentence production are weakly related in school-age children.
The Southern dietary pattern, derived within the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort, is characterised by high consumption of added fats, fried food, organ meats, processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages and is associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics of individuals with high adherence to this dietary pattern. We analysed data from REGARDS, a national cohort of 30 239 black and white adults ≥45 years of age living in the USA. Dietary data were collected using the Block 98 FFQ. Multivariable linear regression was used to calculate standardised beta coefficients across all covariates for the entire sample and stratified by race and region. We included 16 781 participants with complete dietary data. Among these, 34·6 % were black, 45·6 % male, 55·2 % resided in stroke belt region and the average age was 65 years. Black race was the factor with the largest magnitude of association with the Southern dietary pattern (Δ = 0·76 sd, P < 0·0001). Large differences in Southern dietary pattern adherence were observed between black participants and white participants in the stroke belt and non-belt (stroke belt Δ = 0·75 sd, non-belt Δ = 0·77 sd). There was a high consumption of the Southern dietary pattern in the US black population, regardless of other factors, underlying our previous findings showing the substantial contribution of this dietary pattern to racial disparities in incident hypertension and stroke.
This chapter explores the relationship between human rights and health and social care. It begins by setting out the main international mechanisms and the obligations that these place on governments. It then discusses the impact of international and domestic human rights instruments through an examination of developments in social care policy, and with regard to reproductive healthcare rights in Northern Ireland. It also highlights issues relating to devolution and the implementation of human rights in the UK.
International mechanism relating to the right to health and social care
In 2015, the principles of a human rights-based approach to health were endorsed in the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015), including the target of universal health coverage. However, the right to the highest attainable standard of health has long been internationally recognised as a fundamental human right. In 1946, the constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) set out the principles which it described as basic to happiness, harmonious relations and the security of all peoples. These included the statement that: ‘The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition’ (WHO, 1946: 1). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations in 1948, for example, refers to the:
right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. (Article 25)
Since then, a number of other human rights treaties have recognised the right to health. The most authoritative statement of the right to health is set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (United Nations, 1966). Article 12 of the Covenant recognises ‘the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health’.
A relatively new common feature of the devolved administrations has been the emergence of outcome-based frameworks as key components of their policy-making processes. This trend has received comparatively little analysis or comment in academic work on devolved policy-making, and existing work has tended to focus mainly on other policy dimensions (Birrell, 2009; Cairney, 2011; Birrell and Gormley-Heenan, 2016; Cole and Stafford, 2015; Cairney et al, 2016). Coverage in more specialist forms in reports or articles is limited, as is any comparative analysis. There are a range of different outcomes-based models or frameworks (Penna and Williams, 2005) rooted in different methodological positions, including in England specific NHS, adult social care and public health outcomes frameworks. Therefore the use of the generic term ‘outcomesbased approaches’ in government narratives in all three countries has not helped provide clarity.
In the devolved jurisdictions there has been much attention on the influence of the outcomes- or results-based accountability methodology developed and promoted by Friedman (2005). Based on population measures and indicators, the Friedman model has been used in performance management, particularly in the US. Key features of the approach include working backwards from a set of desired outcomes and the use of three performance categories: ‘How much did we do?’, ‘How well did we do it?’ and ‘Is anyone better off?’ Although not extensively adopted by the Westminster government, the outcomesbased accountability (OBA) approach has been used by some local authorities in England, particularly with regard to children's services and education. This chapter is mainly concerned with the introduction and use of OBA in policy-making in the three devolved administrations where there has been divergence in its use and in the nature and scope of approaches. It examines the emergence of outcomes-based approaches in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the rationale for their adoption and arguments about benefits and criticisms. Conceptual and definitional issues associated with OBA are considered as are the choice and use of indicators and the policy implications arising from its use.
Development of outcomes-based approaches in the devolved Administrations
Scotland led the way in using an outcomes-based approach that has come to be associated with a Scottish approach to public sector performance (Cook, 2017a).
The referendum vote for Remain in Scotland and Northern Ireland and the small majority for Leave in Wales immediately attracted much attention to the position of the devolved governments on Brexit negotiations and to the impact of Brexit on their jurisdictions. As the core of devolved powers relate to social policy, identifying the impact of leaving the EU on aspects of social policy is highly significant. This article examines the impact of EU programmes, funding, directives and regulations as delivered in recent years, noting the nature of the participation of the devolved administrations in EU decision making. The post-referendum concerns of the devolved governments and their approaches to Brexit and Brexit negotiations are explained. Also discussed are the likely major changes as well as possible changes that will take place in the operation of devolution after Brexit.
Typhoon Haiyan hit the Philippines in November 2013 and left a trail of destruction. As part of its emergency response, Médecins Sans Frontières distributed materials for reconstructing houses and boats as standardized kits to be shared between households. Community engagement was sought and communities were empowered in deciding how to make the distributions. We aimed to answer, Was this effective and what lessons were learned?
A cross-sectional survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted in May 2014 and included all community leaders and 269 households in 22 barangays (community administrative areas).
All houses were affected by the typhoon, of which 182 (68%) were totally damaged. All households reported having received and used the housing material. However, in 238 (88%) house repair was incomplete because the materials provided were insufficient or inappropriate for the required repairs.
This experience of emergency mass distribution of reconstruction or repair materials of houses and boats led by the local community was encouraging. The use of “standardized kits” resulted in equity issues, because households were subjected to variable degrees of damage. A possible way out is to follow up the emergency distribution with a needs assessment and a tailored distribution. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:285–289)
Since the establishment of devolution for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland in 1999, a major feature has been the prominence of social policy in terms of the nature of devolved powers and in terms of devolved expenditure (Chaney and Drakeford, 2004; Mooney et al, 2006; Birrell, 2009). This was again demonstrated in the various programmes for government published following the 2011 elections for the devolved assemblies and the Scottish Parliament. There was originally a degree of policy continuity from the previous administrations, produced by rather similar electoral outcomes. In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) moved from a position as a minority government to forming the government with a majority (Cairney, 2011). In Wales, a Labour–Plaid Cymru coalition changed to a Labour administration, but with only 50% of the Assembly members. Northern Ireland continued with its form of compulsory coalition or power-sharing, consisting of a four-party executive, later a five-party executive, although with two parties, the Democratic Unionists and Sinn Fein, in a dominant position. The establishment of a UK Conservative–Liberal Democratic coalition brought an incongruence to the party and ideological alignments between the UK and the devolved governments and the increased possibility of major policy divergence. Three other debates were to have an important influence on the development of social policy. First, there was a debate on the future of devolution under the coalition government: this was to mean that a settled direction for the future of devolved policies and the meaning of the union was not clear (Jeffery et al, 2010). Second, there was a debate on the enhancements and changes in devolved powers: in Scotland, the debate on the powers of a Scottish government related to the campaign for independence for Scotland and the referendum; a major debate also commenced in Wales on the extension of legislative powers; while completing the devolution of justice and policing and some other limited extensions dominated the Northern Ireland debate. Third, there was an extensive debate on the financial arrangements and increasing fiscal devolution and responsibilities.
Context for proposals and action on financial and constitutional powers
A number of contextual factors were important for the operation of devolution under the coalition government in relation to social policy.
There is an emerging evidence base about best practice in supporting
recovery. This is usually framed in relation to general principles, and
specific pro-recovery interventions are lacking.
To develop a theoretically based and empirically defensible new
pro-recovery manualised intervention – called the REFOCUS
Seven systematic and two narrative reviews were undertaken. Identified
evidence gaps were addressed in three qualitative studies. The findings
were synthesised to produce the REFOCUS intervention, manual and
The REFOCUS intervention comprises two components: recovery-promoting
relationships and working practices. Approaches to supporting
relationships comprise coaching skills training for staff, developing a
shared team understanding of recovery, exploring staff values, a
Partnership Project with people who use the service and raising patient
expectations. Working practices comprise the following: understanding
values and treatment preferences; assessing strengths; and supporting
goal-striving. The REFOCUS model describes the causal pathway from the
REFOCUS intervention to improved recovery.
The REFOCUS intervention is an empirically supported pro-recovery
intervention for use in mental health services. It will be evaluated in a
multisite cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940).
In analysing governance and social policy in Northern Ireland in the period of devolution 1999–2002 Eithne McLaughlin described and predicted the dominance of a lowest common denominator approach to the formulation of social policies. This paper examines the period of restored devolution 2007–11 using this thesis. It identifies the trends in the development of social policies after 2007 and examines social policy-making by the government under five categories. Having established the reasons for this complex approach to social policy formulation, consideration is also given to the outcomes of the policy process.
How does the demand for lobbying reflected by government policy activity influence the use of lobbying strategies and tactics? The authors examine this question by assessing how the complexity of the policy space affects the political action committee (PAC) system. They hypothesize that the complexity of the policy space indirectly affects the size and activity of the PAC system through its direct effect on interest organization density. The authors test this hypothesis within the health sector using a unique data set that connects individual interest organizations registered to lobby U.S. state legislatures with active PACs in the state. It appears that social, economic, and political measures of policy space complexity influence the size of the lobbying community, which in turn influences the size and activity of the PAC community.
1. This paper confirms and extends several observations during the past 20 years that, despite many reports to the contrary, the rat is not unduly resistant to initial infection with tubercle bacilli provided they lodge in the lungs.
2. The pattern of pathogenesis in the rat is probably closest to the now classical picture in the mouse, i.e. the response of a species with a low hypersensitivity potential. The pathology of the lesions agreed closely with the descriptions of Wessels (1941) and Kumashiro (1958b) resembling the mouse in most respects but, unlike the mouse, including the production of giant cells.
3. When tested by footpad inoculation with 1/3·5 Old Tuberculin a positive reaction was demonstrated, commencing between 2 and 5 weeks after infection and persisting for several weeks. A fatal systemic reaction could often be induced with large doses of tuberculin given intraperitoneally.
4. In a few cases loss of allergy was shown to be associated with a terminal anergic flare of the type observed previously in mice and guinea-pigs.
Working within a large geographic area, McDonald Observatory lacks the resources to send staff to present professional development workshops to teachers – and only limited numbers of teachers have the resources to attend workshops at our observatory. Our solution is the development of a new program to bring the workshop to teachers in their own communities through videoconferencing. Each workshop location has a co-facilitator who prepared for his/her duties through an orientation/training session held at McDonald Observatory. At the observatory, they experienced a variety of activities and selected the ones most suitable for the grade-levels of the teachers in their region; they recruit the teachers for the local workshop. Each videoconference session includes pre/post assessment of the participants, an interactive videoconference with an expert presenter, and assistance from the co-facilitator who manages the materials and assists with the activities. Through use of this technology, we expect to reach 500 teachers. An independent evaluator is preparing formative and summative evaluation for the project.
The Program Group for the World-wide Development of Astronomy (PG-WWDA) is one of nine Commission 46 program groups engaged with various aspects of astronomical education or development of astronomy education and research in the developing world. In the case of PG-WWDA, its goals are to promote astronomy education and research in the developing world through a variety of activities, including visiting astronomers in developing countries and interacting with them by way of giving encouragement and support.
Feminist theology is a global theology, or rather, a family of contextual
theologies committed to the struggle for justice for women and the transformation
of society. It is therefore a critical theology of liberation engaged in the
reconstruction of theology and religion in the service of this transformation
process, in the specificity of the many contexts in which women live. Whereas in
European and North American contexts the term 'feminist theology' is most
frequently accepted, in other parts of the globe, in order to heighten visibility,
recognise identity and respect the diversity of experiences and goals, the
different theologies of Asian, African and Latin American women have acquired
their own distinctiveness, together with Womanist theology (the theology of the
United States black American women and women of colour), and Mujerista theology
(the liberation theology of Hispanic women). Increasingly emergent is the
spirituality of, for example, indigenous American Indian women and indigenous
Indian women in Latin America, as well as of aboriginal women in Australia, New
Zealand and the Pacific.
If there is a commonality of purpose in all this diversity, it is the liberation
of humankind together with all sentient life. The words of the American poet
Adrienne Rich are widely inspirational:
This paper provides the first analysis of imports and exports of fish leather by the USA. Estimates of minimum levels of trade were obtained from the records of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service for 1997–2001, and possible conservation consequences were considered. Data show that imported leather items used the skins of at least 51 types of fish. Of the 41 identified to species level, six were freshwater fish, eight diadromous and 27 were fully marine. Eels and hagfishes (marketed as ‘eelskin’; eight named species), stingrays (10 named species) and sharks (15 named species) dominated the trade. An average of 725 000 fish-leather products, worth over US$ 6 million, was imported each year to the USA. A significant decline in fish leather imports over the five-year period studied derived largely from changes in ‘eelskin’ imports. Fish leather in the USA was reportedly sourced primarily from the Republic of Korea, mainland China and Thailand, although the records were flawed. About 93% of leather products were obtained from wild fish. Exports from the USA totalled approximately 5% of imports by volume. Many of the fish species comprising the largest imports for leather were characterized by low resilience to exploitation, with one-third of known species considered threatened or near threatened by the World Conservation Union (IUCN). This pilot assessment indicates the need for better record keeping if sustainability of fish exploitation for leather is to be evaluated.
The Program Group for the World-wide Development of Astronomy (PGWWDA) is one of nine Comm. 46 program groups engaged with various aspects of astronomical education or development of astronomy education and research in the developing world. In the case of PGWWDA, its goals are to promote astronomy education and research in the developing world through a variety of activities, including visiting astronomers in developing countries and interacting with them by way of giving encouragement and support.