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Regional and local studies suggest that the Tufted Puffin Fratercula cirrhata in North America is declining in portions of its range. However, whether the overall population is declining, or its range is contracting with little change to the overall population size, is unknown. To examine population trends throughout its North American range, we assembled 11 datasets that spanned 115 years (1905–2019) and included at-sea density and encounter estimates and at-colony burrow and bird counts. We assessed trends for the California Current, Gulf of Alaska, and Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands large marine ecosystems (LME). We found: (1) nearly uniform and long-term declines of Puffins breeding in the California Current ecosystem, with most ecosystem colonies surveyed, (2) declining trends at two large colonies and in one at-sea dataset in the Gulf of Alaska LME, with the fourth smaller colony exhibiting no significant trend, and (3) positive trends at four out of five colonies in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands ecosystem complex, with no detectable trend at the fifth very large colony. The general pattern of Tufted Puffin declines across the California Current and Gulf of Alaska LMEs may be attributable to a variety of factors, but additional study is needed to evaluate the relative influence of potential population drivers both independently and synergistically. Potential mechanisms driving population increases in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands ecosystem include reduced depredation and bycatch, intrinsic population growth, and immigration. We found strong evidence for declines in two of the three LMEs evaluated representing approximately three quarters of the species’ North American range. This region of decline includes the Gulf of Alaska LME, which contains a significant portion of the species’ estimated total North American population. Despite data limitations, our analysis coupled with more focused and local studies indicates that the Tufted Puffin is a species of conservation concern.
Many male prisoners have significant mental health problems, including anxiety and depression. High proportions struggle with homelessness and substance misuse.
This study aims to evaluate whether the Engager intervention improves mental health outcomes following release.
The design is a parallel randomised superiority trial that was conducted in the North West and South West of England (ISRCTN11707331). Men serving a prison sentence of 2 years or less were individually allocated 1:1 to either the intervention (Engager plus usual care) or usual care alone. Engager included psychological and practical support in prison, on release and for 3–5 months in the community. The primary outcome was the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), 6 months after release. Primary analysis compared groups based on intention-to-treat (ITT).
In total, 280 men were randomised out of the 396 who were potentially eligible and agreed to participate; 105 did not meet the mental health inclusion criteria. There was no mean difference in the ITT complete case analysis between groups (92 in each arm) for change in the CORE-OM score (1.1, 95% CI –1.1 to 3.2, P = 0.325) or secondary analyses. There were no consistent clinically significant between-group differences for secondary outcomes. Full delivery was not achieved, with 77% (108/140) receiving community-based contact.
Engager is the first trial of a collaborative care intervention adapted for prison leavers. The intervention was not shown to be effective using standard outcome measures. Further testing of different support strategies for prison with mental health problems is needed.
The COVID-19 pandemic and mitigation measures are likely to have a marked effect on mental health. It is important to use longitudinal data to improve inferences.
To quantify the prevalence of depression, anxiety and mental well-being before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, to identify groups at risk of depression and/or anxiety during the pandemic.
Data were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) index generation (n = 2850, mean age 28 years) and parent generation (n = 3720, mean age 59 years), and Generation Scotland (n = 4233, mean age 59 years). Depression was measured with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire in ALSPAC and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in Generation Scotland. Anxiety and mental well-being were measured with the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment-7 and the Short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale.
Depression during the pandemic was similar to pre-pandemic levels in the ALSPAC index generation, but those experiencing anxiety had almost doubled, at 24% (95% CI 23–26%) compared with a pre-pandemic level of 13% (95% CI 12–14%). In both studies, anxiety and depression during the pandemic was greater in younger members, women, those with pre-existing mental/physical health conditions and individuals in socioeconomic adversity, even when controlling for pre-pandemic anxiety and depression.
These results provide evidence for increased anxiety in young people that is coincident with the pandemic. Specific groups are at elevated risk of depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is important for planning current mental health provisions and for long-term impact beyond this pandemic.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) typically report a poorer treatment response than those who have not served in the Armed Forces. A possible explanation is that veterans often present with complex symptoms of PTSD. ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD (CPTSD) have not previously been explored in a military sample.
This study aimed to validate the only measure of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD, the International Trauma Questionnaire, and assess the rates of the disorder in a sample of treatment-seeking UK veterans.
A sample of help-seeking veterans (N = 177) was recruited from a national charity in the UK that provides clinical services to veterans. Participants completed measures of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD as well as childhood and adult traumatic life events. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the latent structure of PTSD and CPTSD symptoms, and rates of the disorders were estimated.
The majority of the participants (70.7%) reported symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of either PTSD or CPTSD. Results indicated the presence of two separate disorders, with CPTSD being more frequently endorsed (56.7%) than PTSD (14.0%). CPTSD was more strongly associated with childhood trauma than PTSD.
The International Trauma Questionnaire can adequately distinguish between PTSD and CPTSD within clinical samples of veterans. There is a need to explore the effectiveness of existing and new treatments for CPTSD in military personnel.
Recent years have seen an exponential increase in the variety of healthcare data captured across numerous sources. However, mechanisms to leverage these data sources to support scientific investigation have remained limited. In 2013 the Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, developed the Integrated CARdiac Data and Outcomes (iCARD) Collaborative with the goals of leveraging available data sources to aid in efficiently planning and conducting PHN studies; supporting integration of PHN data with other sources to foster novel research otherwise not possible; and mentoring young investigators in these areas. This review describes lessons learned through the development of iCARD, initial efforts and scientific output, challenges, and future directions. This information can aid in the use and optimisation of data integration methodologies across other research networks and organisations.
This study tested whether the association between interparental conflict and adolescent externalizing symptoms was moderated by a polygenic composite indexing low dopamine activity (i.e., 7-repeat allele of DRD4; Val alleles of COMT; 10-repeat variants of DAT1) in a sample of seventh-grade adolescents (Mean age = 13.0 years) and their parents. Using a longitudinal, autoregressive design, observational assessments of interparental conflict at Wave 1 predicted increases in a multi-informant measurement of youth externalizing symptoms 2 years later at Wave 3 only for children who were high on the hypodopaminergic composite. Moderation was expressed in a “for better” or “for worse” form hypothesized by differential susceptibility theory. Thus, children high on the dopaminergic composite experienced more externalizing problems than their peers when faced with more destructive conflicts but also fewer externalizing problems when exposed to more constructive interparental conflicts. Mediated moderation findings indicated that adolescent reports of their emotional insecurity in the interparental relationship partially explained the greater genetic susceptibility experienced by these children. More specifically, the dopamine composite moderated the association between Wave 1 interparental conflict and emotional insecurity 1 year later at Wave 2 in the same “for better” or “for worse” pattern as externalizing symptoms. Adolescent insecurity at Wave 2, in turn, predicted their greater externalizing symptoms 1 year later at Wave 3. Post hoc analyses further revealed that the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene was the primary source of plasticity in the polygenic composite. Results are discussed as to how they advance process-oriented Gene x Environment models of emotion regulation.
Mark Pearson, PhD, is professor of journalism and social media in the Griffith Centre for Social and Cultural Research, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.,
Joseph M. Fernandez, PhD and associate professor, is Discipline Lead of Journalism & Communication at Curtin University, Perth, Australia, and teaches media law.
The post-11 September 2001, era has unleashed a plethora of laws invoking national security and antiterrorism justifications that have severely compromised a range of human rights and civil liberties, including freedoms associated with expression and information access. Roach has described such laws as ‘hyper- legislation’ (2011, 310). Such legislation has inflicted oftenunjustified constraints upon journalists and journalism. The overly broad antiterrorism laws potentially ensnare reporters covering security matters and have inflicted repeated blows on investigative journalism in recent times (Weisbrot 2016). Insufficient attention, however, is paid to the potential for these constraints to be informed and moderated by the constitutional and human rights frameworks in which such laws are enacted. There has been inadequate resolve to protect the public interest by ensuring that journalists and journalism are able to properly perform their professional duties and obligations. This chapter uses archival research, analysis of statutes and case law to examine how freedom of expression constitutional and human rights provisions in the Five Eyes democracies have, in reality, offered minimal protection to journalists and their sources – particularly in Australia, where a constitutional protection for freedom of expression is lacking. The absence of strong protections or the rampant undermining of existing protections, in the face of what Agamben (2005, 1) describes as an ongoing ‘state of exception’ in the post– 9/11 war on terror, presents the need for new mechanisms to provide journalists and their confidential sources adequate protection to enable them to fulfil their professional obligations.
The authors argue that the long- held importance of freedom of expression in democracies supports the introduction of workable and explicit public interest defences to allow for the reporting of national security matters without endangering journalists or the sanctity of their obligations to confidential sources. The chapter undertakes a case study of Australia which, unlike the other Five Eyes intelligence alliance members – New Zealand, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States – has no explicit constitutional or human rights framework to compel the courts or the Parliament to recognize the adverse implications of legislation upon free expression or a free media.
It is well established within the research that both in Australia and internationally there have been significant problems with news media coverage of Muslims (Saeed 2003, 2007; Manning 2003; Nacos and Torres- Reyna 2003; Aly 2007; Manning 2006a, 2006b; Richardson 2001). Hussein Tahiri and Michele Grossman (2013) in their study of factors contributing to radicalization found that mainstream news media coverage of Muslims contributed to community tensions, social division and isolation. However, much less attention has been paid to ways in which the stereotypical and generalized reportage of Muslims can be addressed. There are three exceptions to this, including two reports and an edited handbook which tackled the issue from various perspectives. A report commissioned by the International Federation of Journalists entitled Getting the Facts Right: Reporting Ethnicity and Religion(Rupar 2012) identified the need for journalists to report factually and accurately, in particular on stories about acts of racism and intolerance, and when reporting stories that involve ethnic and religious groups. In addition, Verica Rupar (2012) identified that reports about tensions between communities should be covered sensitively, while avoiding negative stereotypical portrayals of members of religious groups. Importantly, they identified that news media reports about culturally and religious diverse groups should challenge those news sources who made intolerant remarks, and that journalists need to explore and challenge the assumptions that inspire such comments. The report called The Search for Common Ground: Muslims, non- Muslims and the UK media, produced by the Greater London Authority (Greater London Authority 2007), provided a series of professional style and conduct guides for journalists reporting on stories involving Muslims, while also suggesting that news media personnel should review their coverage of stories involving Muslims. That report also advised news organizations to hire journalists of Muslim heritage. In the United States, in a project funded by the US Social Science Research Council, Lawrence Pintak and Stephen Franklin (2013) produced an edited digital handbook, Islam for Journalists: A Primer on Covering Muslim Communities in America(Pintak and Franklin 2013). The edited compilation provided research and reporting techniques designed to facilitate more detailed and inclusive news media reportage of Muslims. The two reports and the handbook all emphasized the need for improved news media coverage of Muslims as well as the imperative for education and training for journalists covering such stories.
One of the most extensively studied aspects of phylogenetic tree shape is balance, which is the extent to which nodes divide a tree into clades of equal size. Several authors have stressed the importance of tree balance for understanding patterns of evolution. It has been remarked that paleontological studies commonly produce very unbalanced trees (also called pectinate cladograms or “Hennigian combs”). This claim is tested here by comparing the balance of 50 paleontological trees and 50 neontological trees, all taken from the recent literature. Each tree was reanalyzed from the published data matrix to ensure its accuracy. The results confirm that paleontological trees tend to be more imbalanced than neontological trees.
That paleontological trees are more imbalanced has been represented as a shortcoming of fossil data sets, but here it is argued that this is the expected result. Even under a simple Markovian model in which all speciations and extinctions occur randomly and with equal probability in all parts of the tree, trees based on taxa from a single time period (e.g., the present day) are generally more balanced than trees based on all taxa that ever existed within the clade. Computer simulation is used to calculate the expected balance and standard deviation of trees for up to 40 terminal taxa over the entire history of a model clade. The balance is measured using Colless's index, Ic, and the expected balance conforms well with published paleontological trees. The study underlines the difficulty of applying neontological tree statistics in paleontology.
Non-invasive survey in the Stonehenge ‘Triangle’, Amesbury, Wiltshire, has highlighted a number of features that have a significant bearing on the interpretation of the site. Geophysical anomalies may signal the position of buried stones adding to the possibility of former stone arrangements, while laser scanning has provided detail on the manner in which the stones have been dressed; some subsequently carved with axe and dagger symbols. The probability that a lintelled bluestone trilithon formed an entrance in the north-east is signposted. This work has added detail that allows discussion on the question of whether the sarsen circle was a completed structure, although it is by no means conclusive in this respect. Instead, it is suggested that it was built as a façade, with other parts of the circuit added and with an entrance in the south.
Integrated non-invasive survey in the Stonehenge ‘triangle’, Amesbury, Wiltshire, has highlighted a number of features that have a significant bearing on the interpretation of the site. Among them are periglacial and natural topographical structures, including a chalk mound that may have influenced site development. Some geophysical anomalies are similar to the post-holes in the car park of known Mesolithic date, while others beneath the barrows to the west may point to activity contemporary with Stonehenge itself. Evidence that the ‘North Barrow’ may be earlier in the accepted sequence is presented and the difference between the eastern and western parts of the enclosure ditch highlighted, while new data relating to the Y and Z Holes and to the presence of internal banks that mirror their respective circuits is also outlined.
Breeding dispersal subsequent to nest failure is hypothesised to be a behavioural response to danger posed by nest predators. We used histories and locations of male and female Snowy Plover Charadrius nivosus nests in northern California over a 10-year period to examine effects of nest fate, mate fidelity, residency, predator exclosures, and age on dispersal distance. Within years, females moved a median distance of 2.2 km after changing mates; males moved a median of 0.9 km. Between years, plovers moved the shortest distances when they retained a mate from the prior year and were successful in hatching eggs (males = 0.2 km, females = 0.3 km). Both females (13.0 km) and males (2.6 km) dispersed farther when mate change coincided with nest failure in the prior year. The observation that most plovers did not disperse far enough to move away from sites where predators are abundant and have strong effects on plover reproductive success suggests that effective predator management will be challenging.
We analysed all 1213 negligence claims made against contributing psychiatric services since the inception of the National Health Service Litigation Authority (NHSLA) in 1995 and until 1 June 2009. More than half (55%) were settled, at a cost of £47.2 million, 26% were closed without penalty and 19% were still in progress at the time of review. Five individual claims exceeded £1 million.
By allocating 43 NHSLA-assigned causes for a claim to the 11 stages of a generalised patient journey, we noted that assessment of patient risks was the single largest cause of claims (32%) and the single largest cost of settlements (£16.2 million, 34%).
At the individual level it is difficult to see patterns of errors, whereas increased volumes reveal systemic trends. This analysis presents a new perspective from which to improve patient safety.