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The Buffalo National River in northwest Arkansas preserves an extensive Quaternary record of fluvial bedrock incision and aggradation across lithologies of variable resistance. In this work, we apply optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating to strath and fill terraces along the Buffalo River to elucidate the role of lithology and climate on the development of the two youngest terrace units (Qtm and Qty). Our OSL ages suggest a minimum strath planation age of ca. 250 ka for the Qtm terraces followed by a ca. 200 ka record of aggradation. Qtm incision likely occurred near the last glacial maximum (LGM), prior to the onset of Qty fill terrace aggradation ca. 14 ka. Our terrace ages are broadly consistent with other regional terrace records, and comparison with available paleoclimatic archives suggests that terrace aggradation and incision occurred during drier and wetter hydrological conditions, respectively. Vertical bedrock incision rates were also calculated using OSL-derived estimates of Qtm strath planation and displayed statistically significant spatial variability with bedrock lithology, ranging from ~35 mm/ka in the higher resistance reaches and ~16 mm/ka in the lower resistance reaches. In combination with observations of valley width and terrace distribution, these results suggest that vertical processes outpace lateral ones in lithologic reaches with higher resistance.
Three-dimensional (3D) food printing is a rapidly emerging technology offering unprecedented potential for customised food design and personalised nutrition. Here, we evaluate the technological advances in extrusion-based 3D food printing and its possibilities to promote healthy and sustainable eating. We consider the challenges in implementing the technology in real-world applications. We propose viable applications for 3D food printing in health care, health promotion and food waste upcycling. Finally, we outline future work on 3D food printing in food safety, acceptability and economics, ethics and regulations.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Chronic low back pain (cLBP) is associated with gait impairments. Gait may serve as an important biomarker for improvement following therapy interventions; however, gait has not been sufficiently studied in relationship to pain and function in cLBP. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Adults with cLBP completed a two-minute-walk-test around a 37.5 m oval track while wearing an inertial measurement unit (IMUâ€”Lifeware LLC, Pittsburgh, PA) over the L5 spinous process. Step time average, step time variability, step length, and symmetry (harmonic ratio) were calculated based on linear trunk accelerations, and gait speed was calculated based on distance walked. Participants completed the PEG tool (Pain, Enjoyment, General activity; scores closer to 10 indicate worse pain) to quantify pain intensity/interference and the PROMIS Physical Function SF-6b tool (mean t-scores=50 +/- 10; higher scores indicate better function) to quantify physical function. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine strength of associations between gait and pain/physical function. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Eleven adults (8 female, age 40 +/- 17, pain duration≥3 months) with cLPB participated in this study after completing an informed consent process approved by the University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board. Participants with a history of cancer, spinal cord compression, discitis, or activity restrictions prohibiting them from protocol completion were excluded. The mean PEG scores and PROMIS Physical Function t-scores were 2.8 +/- 1.8 and 47.8 +/- 8.2 respectively. There was a moderate-strong correlation between step time average and PEG (r=0.67, p=0.02), and a moderate-strong correlation between gait speed and PROMIS Physical Function (r=0.62, p=0.04). There were no other significant associations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Gait speed and step time may be important movement biomarkers to consider when evaluating patients with cLBP. Generalizability of results are limited by the small study cohort and this cohort's relatively low pain burden and high level of physical function.
There has recently been an increased interest in studying the language development of non-western languages. This is not new - it began in 1960’s and continued into the 1980’s and 1990’s. The current renewed interest is much welcomed, and will benefit from many of the experimental methods and theoretical insights developed over the past decades.
Archaeologists tend to produce slow data that is contextually rich but often difficult to generalize. An example is the analysis of lithic microdebitage, or knapping debris, that is smaller than 6.3 mm (0.25 in.). So far, scholars have relied on manual approaches that are prone to intra- and interobserver errors. In the following, we present a machine learning–based alternative together with experimental archaeology and dynamic image analysis. We use a dynamic image particle analyzer to measure each particle in experimentally produced lithic microdebitage (N = 5,299) as well as an archaeological soil sample (N = 73,313). We have developed four machine learning models based on Naïve Bayes, glmnet (generalized linear regression), random forest, and XGBoost (“Extreme Gradient Boost[ing]”) algorithms. Hyperparameter tuning optimized each model. A random forest model performed best with a sensitivity of 83.5%. It misclassified only 28 or 0.9% of lithic microdebitage. XGBoost models reached a sensitivity of 67.3%, whereas Naïve Bayes and glmnet models stayed below 50%. Except for glmnet models, transparency proved to be the most critical variable to distinguish microdebitage. Our approach objectifies and standardizes microdebitage analysis. Machine learning allows studying much larger sample sizes. Algorithms differ, though, and a random forest model offers the best performance so far.
Reward processing has been proposed to underpin the atypical social feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous neuroimaging studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the specificity of atypicalities for social reward processing in ASD.
Utilising a large sample, we aimed to assess reward processing in response to reward type (social, monetary) and reward phase (anticipation, delivery) in ASD.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging during social and monetary reward anticipation and delivery was performed in 212 individuals with ASD (7.6–30.6 years of age) and 181 typically developing participants (7.6–30.8 years of age).
Across social and monetary reward anticipation, whole-brain analyses showed hypoactivation of the right ventral striatum in participants with ASD compared with typically developing participants. Further, region of interest analysis across both reward types yielded ASD-related hypoactivation in both the left and right ventral striatum. Across delivery of social and monetary reward, hyperactivation of the ventral striatum in individuals with ASD did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Dimensional analyses of autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) scores were not significant. In categorical analyses, post hoc comparisons showed that ASD effects were most pronounced in participants with ASD without co-occurring ADHD.
Our results do not support current theories linking atypical social interaction in ASD to specific alterations in social reward processing. Instead, they point towards a generalised hypoactivity of ventral striatum in ASD during anticipation of both social and monetary rewards. We suggest this indicates attenuated reward seeking in ASD independent of social content and that elevated ADHD symptoms may attenuate altered reward seeking in ASD.
Growth failure in infants born with CHD is a persistent problem, even in those provided with adequate nutrition.
To summarise the published data describing the change in urinary metabolites during metabolic maturation in infants with CHD and identify pathways amenable to therapeutic intervention
Studies using qualitative or quantitative methods to describe urinary metabolites pre- and post-cardiac surgery and the relationship with growth in infants with CHD.
Sources of evidence:
NICE Healthcare Databases website was used as a tool for multiple searches.
347 records were identified, of which 37 were duplicates. Following the removal of duplicate records, 310 record abstracts and titles were screened for inclusion. The full texts of eight articles were reviewed for eligibility, of which only two related to infants with CHD. The studies included in the scoping review described urinary metabolites in 42 infants. A content analysis identified two overarching themes of metabolic variation predictive of neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with anaerobic metabolism and metabolic signature associated with the impact on gut microbiota, inflammation, energy, and lipid digestion.
The results of this scoping review suggest that there are considerable gaps in our knowledge relating to metabolic maturation of infants with CHD, especially with respect to growth. Surgery is a key early life feature for CHD infants and has an impact on the developing biochemical phenotype with implications for metabolic pathways involved in immunomodulation, energy, gut microbial, and lipid metabolism. These early life fingerprints may predict those individuals at risk for neurodevelopmental abnormalities.
South Africa has embarked on major health policy reform to deliver universal health coverage through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI). The aim is to improve access, remove financial barriers to care, and enhance care quality. Health technology assessment (HTA) is explicitly identified in the proposed NHI legislation and will have a prominent role in informing decisions about adoption and access to health interventions and technologies. The specific arrangements and approach to HTA in support of this legislation are yet to be determined. Although there is currently no formal national HTA institution in South Africa, there are several processes in both the public and private healthcare sectors that use elements of HTA to varying extents to inform access and resource allocation decisions. Institutions performing HTAs or related activities in South Africa include the National and Provincial Departments of Health, National Treasury, National Health Laboratory Service, Council for Medical Schemes, medical scheme administrators, managed care organizations, academic or research institutions, clinical societies and associations, pharmaceutical and devices companies, private consultancies, and private sector hospital groups. Existing fragmented HTA processes should coordinate and conform to a standardized, fit-for-purpose process and structure that can usefully inform priority setting under NHI and for other decision makers. This transformation will require comprehensive and inclusive planning with dedicated funding and regulation, and provision of strong oversight mechanisms and leadership.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an acute neurologic syndrome where decreased blood flow and oxygen to the brain causes acute and chronic brain dysfunction. The only proven neuroprotective intervention for HIE is hypothermia treatment started within 6 hours of birth and 50% of survivors have long-term deficits. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pre-clinical adult stroke studies demonstrated that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates brain damage. Transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) is safe and feasible in infants and may improve the motor skill of bottle feeding. We hypothesize that a combined hypothermia-taVNS treatment shortly after HIE birth will have neuroprotective effects, improve motor function, attenuate infarct volume inflammation compared to hypothermia alone. The HIE model includes ligation of the right common carotid artery in postnatal day 7 (P7) rats followed by 90min hypoxia (8% oxygen) and 2hr hypothermia. taVNS or sham taVNS was administered using a bipolar electrode placed on the auricular concha region for 30min, [30sec trains, 0.5msec duration, 20Hz frequency, followed by 4.5min breaks] RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Experimental groups include +HIE/+taVNS, +HIE/-taVNS, and -HIE/-taVNS. To assess motor function, grasping reflex and forelimb grip strength tasks were assessed prior to surgery through P10. Infarct volume was assessed at 72h after injury by staining coronal sections with cresyl-violet. Thirty-four rat pups underwent surgery with an 8.82% mortality rate. taVNS was well tolerated by the P7 rats when delivered below perceptual threshold (0.4-1.1mA). There was no difference in elementary motor function or infarct volume between any group. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Future studies will include 2.5hr hypoxia for a more severe brain injury and a -HIE/+taVNS control group. These initial pre-clinical studies in neonates are important in determining whether taVNS may translate as a treatment to improve outcomes after neonatal HIE.
Chapter 13, “Sacred Dimensions: Death and Burial,” examines burial practices in Constantinople between the fourth century and the fifteenth century. Particular attention is given to aristocratic and imperial burial practice.
Passive microwave satellite observations are used to identify the presence of surface meltwater across Antarctica at daily intervals from July 1979 to June 2020, with a focus on ice shelves. Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have the highest number of annual days of melt, with a maximum of 89 days. Over the entire time period, there are few significant linear trends in days of melt per year. High melt years can be split into two distinct categories, those with high melt days in Dronning Maud Land and Wilkes Land, and those with high melt days in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Bellingshausen Sea sector of West Antarctica. The first pattern coincides with significant negative correlations between melt days and spring and summer Southern Annular Mode. Both patterns also form the primary modes of spatial and annual variability in the dataset observed by Principal Component Analysis. Areas experiencing extended melt for the first time in years tend to show large decreases in subsequent winter microwave emissions due to structural changes in the firn. We use this to identify the impact of novel melt events, particularly over the austral summers of 1991/92 and 2015/16 on the Ross Ice Shelf.
Rapid whole genome sequencing (rapid WGS) is a powerful diagnostic tool that is becoming increasingly practical for widespread clinical use. However, protocols for its use are challenging to implement. A significant obstacle to clinical adoption is that laboratory certification requires an initial research development phase, which is constrained by regulations from returning results. Regulations preventing return of results have ethical implications in cases which might impact patient outcomes. Here, we describe our experience with the development of a rapid WGS research protocol, that balanced the requirements for laboratory-validated test development with the ethical needs of clinically relevant return of results.
It was suggested that children's referent selection may not lay memory traces sufficiently strong to lead to retention of new word-object mappings. If this was the case we expect incorrect selections to be easily rectified through feedback. Previous work suggested this to be the case in toddlers at typical likelihood (TL) but not in those at elevated likelihood (EL) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Bedford et al., 2013). Yet group differences in lexical knowledge may have confounded these findings. Here, TL (N = 29) and EL toddlers (N = 75) chose one of two unfamiliar objects as a referent for a new word. Both groups retained the word-referent mapping above chance when their choices were immediately reinforced but were at chance after corrective feedback. The same pattern of results was obtained when children observed another experimenter make the initial referent choice. Thus, children's referent choices lay memory traces that compete with subsequent correction; these strong word-object associations are not a result of children actively choosing potential referents for new words.
To determine the utility of the Sofia SARS rapid antigen fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) to guide hospital-bed placement of patients being admitted through the emergency department (ED).
Cross-sectional analysis of a clinical quality improvement study.
This study was conducted in 2 community hospitals in Maryland from September 21, 2020, to December 3, 2020. In total, 2,887 patients simultaneously received the Sofia SARS rapid antigen FIA and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assays on admission through the ED.
Rapid antigen results and symptom assessment guided initial patient placement while confirmatory RT-PCR was pending. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the rapid antigen assay were calculated relative to RT-PCR, overall and separately for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Assay sensitivity was compared to RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values. Assay turnaround times were compared. Clinical characteristics of RT-PCR–positive patients and potential exposures from false-negative antigen assays were evaluated.
For all patients, overall agreement was 97.9%; sensitivity was 76.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71%–82%), and specificity was 99.7% (95% CI, 99%–100%). We detected no differences in performance between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. As RT-PCR Ct increased, the sensitivity of the antigen assay decreased. The mean turnaround time for the antigen assay was 1.2 hours (95% CI, 1.0–1.3) and for RT-PCR it was 20.1 hours (95% CI, 18.9–40.3) (P < .001). No transmission from antigen-negative/RT-PCR–positive patients was identified.
Although not a replacement for RT-PCR for detection of all SARS-CoV-2 infections, the Sofia SARS antigen FIA has clinical utility for potential initial timely patient placement.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
An intermediate-depth (1751 m) ice core was drilled at the South Pole between 2014 and 2016 using the newly designed US Intermediate Depth Drill. The South Pole ice core is the highest-resolution interior East Antarctic ice core record that extends into the glacial period. The methods used at the South Pole to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the National Science Foundation Ice Core Facility (NSF-ICF), and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NSF-ICF are described. The South Pole ice core exhibited minimal brittle ice, which was likely due to site characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to drill technology and core handling procedures.
As John Dewey observed, and contemporary moral psychology confirms, most of our moral deliberation and judgment operates via deeply rooted habits of perception, discrimination, and valuing over which we have little conscious control. These processes are intuitive, automatic, and seldom subject to reflective change. However, we are not just condemned to our reinforced biases, because we are also creatures whose brains exhibit a measure of plasticity, or what Dewey called “habits of flexibility.” Good moral deliberation, therefore, is intelligent reconstruction of habits, and the formation of new habits that make it possible for us to deal constructively with new moral problems that confront us. Moral deliberation of this sort is a process of dramatic imaginative rehearsal of possibilities for conscientiously transforming our habits, in order to deal with the new problems that arise from changed conditions. Conscientiousness is a flexible habit of reflective, empathic, and critical moral inquiry.
Identifying developmental endophenotypes on the pathway between genetics and behavior is critical to uncovering the mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental conditions. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored whether early disruptions in visual attention are a unique or shared candidate endophenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We calculated the duration of the longest look (i.e., peak look) to faces in an array-based eye-tracking task for 335 14-month-old infants with and without first-degree relatives with ASD and/or ADHD. We leveraged parent-report and genotype data available for a proportion of these infants to evaluate the relation of looking behavior to familial (n = 285) and genetic liability (using polygenic scores, n = 185) as well as ASD and ADHD-relevant temperament traits at 2 years of age (shyness and inhibitory control, respectively, n = 272) and ASD and ADHD clinical traits at 6 years of age (n = 94).
Results showed that longer peak looks at the face were associated with elevated polygenic scores for ADHD (β = 0.078, p = .023), but not ASD (β = 0.002, p = .944), and with elevated ADHD traits in mid-childhood (F(1,88) = 6.401, p = .013, $\eta _p^2$=0.068; ASD: F (1,88) = 3.218, p = .076), but not in toddlerhood (ps > 0.2). This pattern of results did not emerge when considering mean peak look duration across face and nonface stimuli. Thus, alterations in attention to faces during spontaneous visual exploration may be more consistent with a developmental endophenotype of ADHD than ASD. Our work shows that dissecting paths to neurodevelopmental conditions requires longitudinal data incorporating polygenic contribution, early neurocognitive function, and clinical phenotypic variation.