To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Peer support interventions for dietary change may offer cost-effective alternatives to interventions led by health professionals. This process evaluation of a trial to encourage the adoption and maintenance of a Mediterranean diet in a Northern European population at high CVD risk (TEAM-MED) aimed to investigate the feasibility of implementing a group-based peer support intervention for dietary change, positive elements of the intervention and aspects that could be improved. Data on training and support for the peer supporters; intervention fidelity and acceptability; acceptability of data collection processes for the trial and reasons for withdrawal from the trial were considered. Data were collected from observations, questionnaires and interviews, with both peer supporters and trial participants. Peer supporters were recruited and trained to result in successful implementation of the intervention; all intended sessions were run, with the majority of elements included. Peer supporters were complimentary of the training, and positive comments from participants centred around the peer supporters, the intervention materials and the supportive nature of the group sessions. Attendance at the group sessions, however, waned over the intervention, with suggested effects on intervention engagement, enthusiasm and group cohesion. Reduced attendance was reportedly a result of meeting (in)frequency and organisational concerns, but increased social activities and group-based activities may also increase engagement, group cohesion and attendance. The peer support intervention was successfully implemented and tested, but improvements can be suggested and may enhance the successful nature of these types of interventions. Some consideration of personal preferences may also improve outcomes.
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a peer support intervention to encourage adoption and maintenance of a Mediterranean diet (MD) in established community groups where existing social support may assist the behaviour change process. Four established community groups with members at increased Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk and homogenous in gender were recruited and randomised to receive either a 12-month Peer Support (PS) intervention (PSG) (n 2) or a Minimal Support intervention (educational materials only) (MSG) (n 2). The feasibility of the intervention was assessed using recruitment and retention rates, assessing the variability of outcome measures (primary outcome: adoption of an MD at 6 months (using a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS)) and process evaluation measures including qualitative interviews. Recruitment rates for community groups (n 4/8), participants (n 31/51) and peer supporters (n 6/14) were 50 %, 61 % and 43 %, respectively. The recruitment strategy faced several challenges with recruitment and retention of participants, leading to a smaller sample than intended. At 12 months, a 65 % and 76·5 % retention rate for PSG and MSG participants was observed, respectively. A > 2-point increase in MDS was observed in both the PSG and the MSG at 6 months, maintained at 12 months. An increase in MD adherence was evident in both groups during follow-up; however, the challenges faced in recruitment and retention suggest a definitive study of the peer support intervention using current methods is not feasible and refinement based on the current feasibility study should be incorporated. Lessons learned during the implementation of this intervention will help inform future interventions in this area.
Adhering to a Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with reduced CVD risk. This study aimed to explore methods of increasing MD adoption in a non-Mediterranean population at high risk of CVD, including assessing the feasibility of a developed peer support intervention. The Trial to Encourage Adoption and Maintenance of a MEditerranean Diet was a 12-month pilot parallel group RCT involving individuals aged ≥ 40 year, with low MD adherence, who were overweight, and had an estimated CVD risk ≥ 20 % over ten years. It explored three interventions, a peer support group, a dietician-led support group and a minimal support group to encourage dietary behaviour change and monitored variability in Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) over time and between the intervention groups, alongside measurement of markers of nutritional status and cardiovascular risk. 118 individuals were assessed for eligibility, and 75 (64 %) were eligible. After 12 months, there was a retention rate of 69 % (peer support group 59 %; DSG 88 %; MSG 63 %). For all participants, increases in MDS were observed over 12 months (P < 0·001), both in original MDS data and when imputed data were used. Improvements in BMI, HbA1c levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the population as a whole. This pilot study has demonstrated that a non-Mediterranean adult population at high CVD risk can make dietary behaviour change over a 12-month period towards an MD. The study also highlights the feasibility of a peer support intervention to encourage MD behaviour change amongst this population group and will inform a definitive trial.
This study aimed to compare the prevalence of stroke risk factors among people with a parental history of stroke to those in a control group of individuals, of similar age, gender and social class, with no parental stroke history.
Parental stroke increases an individual’s risk of stroke, but little is known of the potential value of using this information in targeted screening for primary prevention in general practice.
We sent questionnaires to 300 randomly selected individuals aged 40–65 years, in each of 11 different general practices in Northern Ireland. Among 1061 responses received within six weeks, 332 reported a parental history of stroke (31.3%). We matched respondents with (cases) and without (controls) a parental history of stroke on characteristics of age, gender and socioeconomic status. Matched pairs were invited to attend a consultation at which their diet and exercise habits were assessed using validated questionnaires and height, weight, blood pressure and serum lipids and glucose were measured.
Matched data were available for 199 case–control pairs (398 individuals). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in cases than in paired controls (systolic 146.3 versus 140.6 mmHg (P < 0.01); diastolic 87.7 versus 85.0 mmHg (P = 0.014)). Cases consumed more alcohol than their paired controls (13.8 versus 10.1 U/week (P < 0.01)), but their measures of body mass index, lipids, diabetes, diet and exercise did not differ significantly. The results of this study suggest that screening offspring of patients with stroke in respect of blood pressure has potential value in identifying people likely to benefit from primary prevention, but do not support the adoption of a targeted screening strategy for other commonly cited stroke risk factors.
Objectives: The Secondary Prevention of Heart disEase in geneRal practicE (SPHERE) trial has recently reported. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of the SPHERE intervention in both healthcare systems on the island of Ireland.
Methods: Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis. A probabilistic model was developed to combine within-trial and beyond-trial impacts of treatment to estimate the lifetime costs and benefits of two secondary prevention strategies: Intervention - tailored practice and patient care plans; and Control - standardized usual care.
Results: The intervention strategy resulted in mean cost savings per patient of €512.77 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], −1086.46–91.98) and an increase in mean quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) per patient of 0.0051 (95 percent CI, −0.0101–0.0200), when compared with the control strategy. The probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 94 percent if decision makers are willing to pay €45,000 per additional QALY.
Conclusions: Decision makers in both settings must determine whether the level of evidence presented is sufficient to justify the adoption of the SPHERE intervention in clinical practice.
This study aimed to explore how the views of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) could inform the design of an information booklet aimed at providing patients and practitioners with a resource to help influence positive health behavioural outcomes.
Coronary heart disease has major consequences in terms of patient suffering and economic costs, with morbidity and mortality figures in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland among the highest in Europe. Lifestyle behaviours such as smoking, eating an unhealthy diet and a lack of exercise are strongly associated with an increased CHD risk, and practitioners report that health education materials are used in practice to help advise and educate patients about the consequences of their lifestyle.
Opinions of patients with CHD were explored concerning their information needs, particularly lifestyle advice, using a qualitative approach in four general practices. This information was used to design a booklet for a pilot study aimed at promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours and medication adherence among people with CHD. Focus group discussions explored patients’ opinions about the booklet’s ‘fitness for purpose’; semi-structured interviews with practitioners examined their views on the booklet’s usefulness.
In initial focus groups, patients identified gaps in their information provision regarding coping with stress, available local community support and medication purpose. Previously published literature was modified to address these gaps. Patients in the pilot study were satisfied with the re-designed booklet. Practitioners reported that its use in consultations enabled change implementation and facilitated patients’ understanding of connections between lifestyle and health outcomes.
Acknowledging the opinions of CHD patients in producing health information booklets emphasized a patient-centred approach and therefore supported practitioner–patient partnerships for choosing healthy lifestyle choices.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.