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The study of microfoundations, especially individuals, is enjoying a renaissance in international relations (IR) scholarship. Yet, this rise is more difficult to find in publication data. Using the Teaching, Research, and International Policy (TRIP) journal-article database, we show that only 13.7% of IR articles in 12 leading journals use the first image. This proportion remains approximately the same from 1980 through 2018. Interrogating the data, we show that this distribution does not stem from epistemological or methodological commitments, such as positivism, quantitative analysis, or formal modeling. We suggest several reasons for this apparent disjuncture between qualitative assessments of the rebirth of first-image theorizing and the quantitative data that imply a slower or perhaps more limited return.
Existing evidence on profiles of psychological distress across adulthood uses cross-sectional or longitudinal studies with short observation periods. The objective of this research was to study the profile of psychological distress within the same individuals from early adulthood to early old age across three British birth cohorts.
We used data from three British birth cohorts: born in 1946 (n = 3093), 1958 (n = 13 250) and 1970 (n = 12 019). The profile of psychological distress – expressed both as probability of being a clinical case or a count of symptoms based on comparable items within and across cohorts – was modelled using the multilevel regression framework.
In both 1958 and 1970 cohorts, there was an initial drop in the probability of being a case between ages 23–26 and 33–34. Subsequently, the predicted probability of being a case increased from 12.5% at age 36 to 19.5% at age 53 in the 1946 cohort; from 8.0% at age 33 to 13.7% at age 42 in the 1958 cohort and from 15.7% at age 34 to 19.7% at age 42 in the 1970 cohort. In the 1946 cohort, there was a drop in the probability of caseness between ages 60–64 and 69 (19.5% v. 15.2%). Consistent results were obtained with the continuous version of the outcome.
Across three post-war British birth cohorts midlife appears to be a particularly vulnerable phase for experiencing psychological distress. Understanding the reasons for this will be important for the prevention and management of mental health problems.
We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical determinants, and consequences (falls and hospitalization) of frailty in older adults with mental illness.
Retrospective clinical cohort study.
We collected the data in a specialized psychogeriatric ward, in Boston, USA, between July 2018 and June 2019.
Two hundred and fourty-four inpatients aged 65 years old and over.
Psychiatric diagnosis was based on a multi-professional consensus meeting according to DSM-5 criteria. Frailty was assessed according to two common instruments, that is, the FRAIL questionnaire and the deficit accumulation model (aka Frailty Index [FI]). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between frailty and sample demographics (age, female sex, and non-Caucasian ethnicity) and clinical characteristics (dementia, number of clinical diseases, current infection, number of psychotropic, and non-psychotropic medications in use). Multiple regression between frailty assessments and either falls or number of hospital admissions in the last 6 and 12 months, respectively, were analyzed and adjusted for covariates.
Prevalence of frailty was high, that is, 83.6% according to the FI and 55.3% according to the FRAIL questionnaire. Age, the number of clinical (somatic) diseases, and the number of non-psychotropic medications were independently associated with frailty identified by the FRAIL. Dementia, current infection, the number of clinical (somatic) diseases, and the number of non-psychotropic medications were independently associated with frailty according to the FI. Falls were significantly associated with both frailty instruments. However, we found only a significant association for the number of hospital admissions with the FI.
Frailty is highly prevalent among geriatric psychiatry inpatients. The FRAIL questionnaire and the FI may capture different forms of frailty dimensions, being the former probably more associated with the phenotype model and the latter more associated with multimorbidity.
Affective symptoms are associated with cognition in mid-life and later life. However, the role of cardiometabolic risk in this association has not been previously examined.
To investigate how cardiometabolic risk contributes to associations between affective symptoms and mid-life cognition.
Data were used from the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a sample of people born in Britain during one week in 1958. Measures of immediate and delayed memory, verbal fluency and information processing speed and accuracy were available at age 50. Affective symptoms were assessed at ages 23, 33 and 42 years and a measure of accumulation was derived. A cardiometabolic risk score was calculated from nine cardiometabolic biomarkers at age 44. Path models were run to test these associations, adjusting for sex, education, socioeconomic position and affective symptoms at age 50.
After accounting for missing data using multiple imputation, path models indicated significant indirect associations between affective symptoms and mid-life immediate memory (β = −0.002, s.e. = 0.001, P = 0.009), delayed memory (β = −0.002, s.e. = 0.001, P = 0.02) and verbal fluency (β = −0.002, s.e. = 0.001, P = 0.045) through cardiometabolic risk.
These findings suggest that cardiometabolic risk may play an important role in the association between affective symptoms and cognitive function (memory and verbal fluency). Results contribute to understanding of biological mechanisms underlying associations between affective symptoms and cognitive ageing, which can have implications for early detection of, and intervention for, those at risk of poorer cognitive outcomes.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
Healthy diet has been linked to better age-related functioning, but evidence on the relationship of diet quality in late midlife and measures of physical capability in later life is limited. Research on potential sex differences in this relationship is scarce. The aim was to investigate the prospective association between overall diet quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) at 60–64 years and measures of walking speed 7 years later, among men and women from the Insight 46, a neuroscience sub-study of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Diet was assessed at 60–64 years using 5-d food diaries, from which total HEI-2015 was calculated. At 69–71 years, walking speed was estimated during four 10-m walks at self-selected pace, using inertial measurement units. Multivariable linear regression models with sex as a modifier, controlling for age, follow-up, lifestyle, health/social variables and physical performance, were used. The final sample consists of 164 women and 167 men (n 331). Women had higher HEI-2015 and slower walking speed than men. A 10-point increase in HEI-2015 was associated with faster walking speed among women (B 0·024, 95 % CI 0·006, 0·043), but not men. The association remained significant in the multivariable model (B 0·021, 95 % CI 0·003, 0·040). In women, higher diet quality in late midlife is associated with faster walking speed. A healthy diet in late midlife is likely to contribute towards better age-related physical capability, and sex differences are likely to affect this relationship.
In Canada, recreational use of cannabis was legalized in October 2018. This policy change along with recent publications evaluating the efficacy of cannabis for the medical treatment of epilepsy and media awareness about its use have increased the public interest about this agent. The Canadian League Against Epilepsy Medical Therapeutics Committee, along with a multidisciplinary group of experts and Canadian Epilepsy Alliance representatives, has developed a position statement about the use of medical cannabis for epilepsy. This article addresses the current Canadian legal framework, recent publications about its efficacy and safety profile, and our understanding of the clinical issues that should be considered when contemplating cannabis use for medical purposes.
Affective disorders are associated with poorer cognition in older adults; however, whether this association can already be observed in mid-life remains unclear.
To investigate the effects of affective symptoms over a period of 30 years on mid-life cognitive function. First, we explored whether timing (sensitive period) or persistence (accumulation) of affective symptoms predicted cognitive function. Second, we tested how different longitudinal trajectories of affective symptoms were associated with cognitive function.
The study used data from the National Child Development Study. Memory, verbal fluency, information processing speed and accuracy were measured at age 50. Affective symptoms were measured at ages 23, 33, 42 and 50 and used to derive longitudinal trajectories. A structured modelling approach compared a set of nested models in order to test accumulation versus sensitive period hypotheses. Linear regressions and structural equation modelling were used to test for longitudinal associations of affective symptoms with cognitive function.
Accumulation of affective symptoms was found to be the best fit for the data, with persistent affective symptoms being associated with poorer immediate memory (b = −0.07, s.e. = 0.03, P = 0.01), delayed memory (b = −0.13, s.e. = 0.04, P < 0.001) and information processing accuracy (b = 0.18, s.e. = 0.08, P = 0.03), but not with information processing speed (b = 3.15, s.e. = 1.89, P = 0.10). Longitudinal trajectories of repeated affective symptoms were associated with poorer memory, verbal fluency and information processing accuracy.
Persistent affective symptoms can affect cognitive function in mid-life. Effective management of affective disorders to prevent recurrence may reduce risk of poor cognitive outcomes and promote healthy cognitive ageing.
Evidence suggests that the rate of glucose release following consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods, defined as the glycaemic index (GI), is inversely associated with cognitive function. To date, most of the evidence stems from either single-meal studies or highly heterogeneous cohort studies. We aimed to study the prospective associations of diet GI at age 53 years with outcomes of verbal memory and letter search tests at age 69 years and rate of decline between 53 and 69 years.
Longitudinal population-based birth cohort study.
MRC National Survey for Health and Development.
Cohort members (n 1252).
Using multivariable linear and logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders, associations of higher-GI diet with lower verbal memory, lower letter search speed and lower number of hits in a letter search test were attenuated after adjustments for cognitive ability at age 15 years, educational attainment, further training and occupational social class. No association was observed between diet GI at 53 years and letter search accuracy or speed–accuracy trade-off at 69 years, or between diet GI at 53 years and rate of decline between 53 and 69 years in any cognitive measure.
Diet GI does not appear to predict cognitive function or decline, which was mainly explained by childhood cognitive ability, education and occupational social class. Our findings confirm the need for further research on the association between diet and cognition from a life-course perspective.
Robust and persistent links between early-life adversities and later-life mental distress have previously been observed. Individual and social resources are associated with greater mental health and resilience. This study aimed to test these resources as moderators and mediators of the association between childhood psychosocial adversity and later-life mental distress.
Participant data came from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative birth cohort study. The General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) captured mental distress at ages 53, 60–64, and 68–69. An eight-item cumulative psychosocial adversity score was created (0, 1, 2, ≥3 adversities). Individual (i.e., education, occupational status, physical activity) and social (i.e., social support, neighborhood cohesion) resources were examined as mediators and moderators of CPA and GHQ-28 in longitudinal multilevel models.
Greater adversity was associated with an average GHQ-28 score increase of 0.017, per unit adversity (β = 0·017, p < 0·001, 95% CI 0·011, 0·022). Lower mental distress was associated with higher levels of physical activity, occupational status, education, social support, and neighborhood cohesion. There was no evidence that resources moderated the relationship between GHQ-28 and adversity. All resources, save for physical activity and occupational status, partly mediated this relationship.
Individual and social resources were associated with lower mental distress. They did not modify, but partly mediated the association between childhood adversity and adult mental distress. Social support was the most important mediator, suggesting that interventions to promote greater social support may offset psychosocial adversities experienced in childhood to foster better mental health in older adults.
Little is known about the relationship between adolescent affective problems (anxiety and depression) and mortality.
To examine whether adolescent affective symptoms are associated with premature mortality, and to assess whether this relationship is independent of other developmental factors.
Data (n = 3884) was from Britain's oldest birth cohort study – the National Survey of Health and Development. Adolescent affective symptoms were rated by teachers at ages 13 and 15 years: scores were summed and classified into three categories: mild or no, moderate and severe symptoms (1st–50th, 51st–90th and 91st–100th percentiles, respectively). Mortality data were obtained from national registry data up to age 68 years. Potential confounders were parental social class, childhood cognition and illness, and adolescent externalising behaviour.
Over the 53-year follow-up period, 12.2% (n = 472) of study members died. Severe adolescent affective symptoms were associated with an increased rate of mortality compared with those with mild or no symptoms (gender adjusted hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.33–2.33). This association was only partially attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (fully adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.20–2.15). There was suggestive evidence of an association across multiple causes of death. Moderate symptoms were not associated with mortality.
Severe adolescent affective symptoms are associated with an increased rate of premature mortality over a 53-year follow-up period, independent of potential confounders. These findings underscore the importance of early mental health interventions.
The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-d diet diaries were available at the age of 36, 43 and 53 years for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary pattern scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n 106) from 53 to 60–64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products and whole-grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at the age of 43 years among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at the age of 43 years had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5·45 (95 % CI 2·01, 14·79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 sd unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1·67 (95 % CI 1·20, 2·43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not in men.
THIS book is a team effort, driven by a shared desire to illuminate and celebrate the world's great classical traditions. Its ancestry as a piece of crosscultural musical analysis goes back a thousand years, to the ‘science of music’ of the medieval Arab theorists. Its European precursors include the sixteenthcentury Swiss theologian Jean de Léry, who notated antiphonal singing in Brazil, and the Moldavian polymath Prince Dimitrie Cantemir (1673–1723) who was enslaved by the Ottomans in Istanbul, became a de facto Turkish composer, and created the first notation for Turkish makam; also Captain James Cook, who made detailed descriptions of the music and dance of Pacific islanders in 1784. Meanwhile Chinese music was being admiringly analysed by French Jesuit missionaries – Chinese theorists had beaten their European counterparts in the race to solve the mathematics of equal temperament – and other Frenchmen were investigating the music of the Arab world. While serving on Napoleon Bonaparte's Egyptian campaign, Guillaume-André Villoteau made studies of Arab folk and art music, before going on to contrast those with the music of Greece and Armenia; his theories were then contested by the French composer Francesco Salvador-Daniel, who after a twelve-year musical sojourn in Algeria concluded, among other things, that Arab and Greek modes were one and the same. Long before ‘ethnomusicology’ was born in academe, the game was well established.
In recent years the ethnomusicologists’ findings have been magisterially presented in two great publications: in the ten massive volumes of the Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, and scattered through the twenty-nine volumes of the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. But our book is, we believe, the first panoptic survey of the world's classical musics (I explain in the Introduction why we have settled on that somewhat contentious adjective). Although much of its information may also be found in Grove and Garland – many of its writers were contributors to, or editors on, those projects – its tight focus permits presentation in a single volume, rather than scattered through a six-foot shelf of tomes.
As editor I am deeply indebted to my writers, who have patiently put their chapters through numerous drafts in pursuit of non-academic accessibility, while in no way traducing their (often very complicated) subject-matter. I must particularly thank Terry Miller, whose resourceful problem-solving assistance has extended far beyond his own signed contributions; also his colleague Andrew Shahriari, for additional information on Persian classical music.