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Child welfare and juvenile justice placed youths show high levels of psychosocial burden and high rates of mental disorders. It remains unclear how mental disorders develop into adulthood in these populations. The aim was to present the rates of mental disorders in adolescence and adulthood in child welfare and juvenile justice samples and to examine their mental health trajectories from adolescence into adulthood.
Seventy adolescents in shared residential care, placed by child welfare (n = 52, mean age = 15 years) or juvenile justice (n = 18, mean age = 17 years) authorities, were followed up into adulthood (child welfare: mean age = 25 years; juvenile justice: mean age = 27 years). Mental disorders were assessed based on the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision diagnoses at baseline and at follow-up. Epidemiological information on mental disorders was presented for each group. Bivariate correlations and structural equation modeling for the relationship of mental disorders were performed.
In the total sample, prevalence rates of 73% and 86% for any mental disorder were found in adolescence (child welfare: 70%; juvenile justice: 83%) and adulthood (child welfare: 83%; juvenile justice: 94%) respectively. General psychopathology was found to be stable from adolescence into adulthood in both samples.
Our findings showed high prevalence rates and a high stability of general psychopathology into adulthood among child welfare and juvenile justice adolescents in Swiss residential care. Therefore, continuity of mental health care and well-prepared transitions into adulthood for such individuals is highly warranted.
Does temporal thought extend asymmetrically into the past and the future? Do asymmetries depend on cultural differences in temporal focus? Some studies suggest that people in Western (arguably future-focused) cultures perceive the future as being closer, more valued, and deeper than the past (a future asymmetry), while the opposite is shown in East Asian (arguably past-focused) cultures. The proposed explanations of these findings predict a negative relationship between past and future: the more we delve into the future, the less we delve into the past. Here, we report findings that pose a significant challenge to this view. We presented several tasks previously used to measure temporal asymmetry (self-continuity, time discounting, temporal distance, and temporal depth) and two measures of temporal focus to American, Spanish, Serbian, Bosniak, Croatian, Moroccan, Turkish, and Chinese participants (total N = 1,075). There was an overall future asymmetry in all tasks except for temporal distance, but the asymmetry only varied with cultural temporal focus in time discounting. Past and future held a positive (instead of negative) relation in the mind: the more we delve into the future, the more we delve into the past. Finally, the findings suggest that temporal thought has a complex underlying structure.
Paediatric ICUs have shared the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic, including subspecialty cardiac ICUs. We sought to address knowledge gaps regarding patient characteristics, acuity, and sequelae of COVID-19 in the paediatric cardiac ICU setting.
Retrospective review of paediatric cardiac ICU admissions with COVID-19-related disease.
Single centre tertiary care paediatric cardiac ICU.
All patients with PCR/antibody evidence of primary COVID-19 infection, and/or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, were admitted between 26 March, 2020 and 31 March, 2021.
Main outcomes measures:
Patient-level demographics, pre-existing conditions, clinical symptoms, and outcomes related to ICU admission were captured from medical records.
Among 1064 patients hospitalised with COVID-19/Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, 102 patients (9.5%) were admitted to cardiac ICU, 76 of which were symptomatic (median age 12.5 years [IQR 7.5–16.0]). The primary system involved at presentation was cardiovascular in 48 (63%). Vasoactive infusions were required in 62% (n = 47), with eight patients (11%) requiring VA ECMO. Severity of disease was categorised as mild/moderate in 16 (21%) and severe/critical in 60 patients (79%). On univariate analysis, African-American race, presentation with gastrointestinal symptoms or elevated inflammatory markers were associated with risk for severe disease. All-cause death was observed in five patients (7%, n = 5/72) with four patients remaining hospitalised at the time of data query.
COVID-19 and its cardiovascular sequelae were associated with important morbidity and significant mortality in a notable minority of paediatric patients admitted to a paediatric cardiac ICU. Further study is required to quantify the risk of morbidity and mortality for COVID-19 and sequelae.
Patients with single-ventricle CHD undergo a series of palliative surgeries that culminate in the Fontan procedure. While the Fontan procedure allows most patients to survive to adulthood, the Fontan circulation can eventually lead to multiple cardiac complications and multi-organ dysfunction. Care for adolescents and adults with a Fontan circulation has begun to transition from a primarily cardiac-focused model to care models, which are designed to monitor multiple organ systems, and using clues from this screening, identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcomes. The complexity of care required for these patients led our centre to develop a multidisciplinary Fontan Management Programme with the primary goals of earlier detection and treatment of complications through the development of a cohesive network of diverse medical subspecialists with Fontan expertise.
Comparative transcriptomics can be used to translate an understanding of gene regulatory networks from model systems to less studied species. Here, we use RNA-Seq to determine and compare gene expression dynamics through the floral transition in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and the closely related crop Brassica rapa. We find that different curve registration functions are required for different genes, indicating that there is no single common ‘developmental time’ between Arabidopsis and B. rapa. A detailed comparison between Arabidopsis and B. rapa and between two B. rapa accessions reveals different modes of regulation of the key floral integrator SOC1, and that the floral transition in the B. rapa accessions is triggered by different pathways. Our study adds to the mechanistic understanding of the regulatory network of flowering time in rapid cycling B. rapa and highlights the importance of registration methods for the comparison of developmental gene expression data.
The Repugnant Conclusion is an implication of some approaches to population ethics. It states, in Derek Parfit's original formulation,
For any possible population of at least ten billion people, all with a very high quality of life, there must be some much larger imaginable population whose existence, if other things are equal, would be better, even though its members have lives that are barely worth living. (Parfit 1984: 388)
Based on a surgical site infection (SSI) cohort at an academic center, we showed a median potentially preventable loss per non-SSI case of $17,916 in colon surgery and of $34,741 in coronary artery bypass grafting.
Ediacaran fronds are key components of terminal-Proterozoic ecosystems. They represent one of the most widespread and common body forms ranging across all major Ediacaran fossil localities and time slices postdating the Gaskiers glaciation, but uncertainty over their phylogenetic affinities has led to uncertainty over issues of homology and functional morphology between and within organisms displaying this ecomorphology. Here we present the first large-scale, multigroup cladistic analysis of Ediacaran organisms, sampling 20 ingroup taxa with previously asserted affinities to the Arboreomorpha, Erniettomorpha, and Rangeomorpha. Using a newly derived morphological character matrix that incorporates multiple axes of potential phylogenetically informative data, including architectural, developmental, and structural qualities, we seek to illuminate the evolutionary history of these organisms. We find strong support for existing classification schema and devise apomorphy-based definitions for each of the three frondose clades examined here. Through a rigorous cladistic framework it is possible to discern the pattern of evolution within and between these clades, including the identification of homoplasies and functional constraints. This work both validates earlier studies of Ediacaran groups and accentuates instances in which previous assumptions of their natural history are uninformative.
This volume examines the major trends in public finance in developed capitalist countries since the oil crisis of 1973. That year's oil shock quickly became an economic crisis, putting an end to a period of very high growth rates and an era of easy finance. Tax protests and growing welfare costs often led to rising debt levels. The change to floating exchange rates put more power in the hand of markets, which corresponded with a growing influence of neo-liberal thinking. These developments placed state finances under considerable pressure, and leading scholars here examine how the wealthiest OECD countries responded to these challenges and the consequences for the distribution of wealth between the rich and the poor. As the case studies here make clear, there was no simple 'race to the bottom' in taxation and welfare spending: different countries opted for different solutions that reflected their political and economic structures.