To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Patient preferences in schizophrenia (SCZ), including identification of key goals and outcomes for treatment and relative importance of certain treatment goals to patients, have been assessed by several studies. However, there continues to be a lack of sufficient evidence on US patient attitudes and perceptions towards treatment goals and pharmacotherapy options in SCZ, especially taking into context long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) in this disease area. This lack of evidence is further pronounced in caregivers of individuals with SCZ. The objective of this analysis was to characterize patients with SCZ on LAIs vs patients on oral antipsychotics (OAPs) and evaluate the treatment goals of patients in each group.
This was a real-world, cross-sectional survey of US psychiatrists, patients =18 years old with a diagnosis of SCZ, and caregivers. Data was collected using the Disease Specific Programme (DSP) methodology, which has been previously published. Psychiatrists (n=120) completed detailed record forms for next 8 consecutive outpatients and 2 inpatients matching inclusion criteria, including non-interventional clinical and subjective assessments. The same patients and their caregivers, if present, were invited by their psychiatrist to voluntarily complete a separate survey.
Of 1135 patients on treatment where the physician provided survey data; 251 were on an LAI, and 884 were on an OAP. Mean (SD) time to SCZ diagnosis for those on an LAI was 10.3 (12.0) years vs 7.8 (10.5) years for those on OAPs. More patients in the LAI vs OAP group were being treated as an inpatient (27.1% vs 15.7%, respectively; p<0.0001). Patients on an LAI reported being on their current medication regimen for less time (mean 1.7 years) vs those on OAPs (mean 2.5 years) (p=0.0093). More patients on LAIs were unemployed due to disability vs those on OAPs (56.1% vs 39.5%, respectively), and less patients on LAIs were able to work part-time or full-time (21.1% or 4.1%) vs those on OAPs (23.2% or 11.4%). More patients on an LAI had a caregiver vs those on OAPs (37.3% vs 26.1%, respectively; p=0.0011). Regarding the most important treatment goals reported by patients, both groups reported similar preferences for decrease in disease symptoms (62% on LAI vs 65% on OAPs) and thinking more clearly (53% on LAI vs 46% on OAPs); however, a numerically higher proportion of LAI patients reported that the current medication helped decrease hospitalizations due to relapse vs those on OAPs (38% vs 32%, respectively).
Given the characteristics of patients participating in this real-world survey, those on LAIs exhibited qualities which indicate a higher severity of illness vs those on OAPs. Results suggest that treatment with LAIs is still mainly being provided to patients later in the disease course and/or who have adherence problems, despite a growing body of evidence of utility in younger patients earlier in the course of illness.
Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc. and Lundbeck LLC
Objectives for this survey are to determine similarities or differences in treatment goals reported by psychiatrists, patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and caregivers in the US, as well as whether goals differed by patients currently on an oral antipsychotic (OAP) or long-acting injectable (LAI), and whether goals differed by age.
This was a real-world, cross-sectional survey of US psychiatrists, patients =18 years old diagnosed with SCZ, and caregivers. Data was collected using the Disease Specific Programme (DSP) methodology. Psychiatrists (n=120) completed detailed record forms for next 8 outpatients and 2 inpatients matching inclusion criteria. The same patients and their caregivers, if present, were invited by their psychiatrist to voluntarily complete a separate survey.
Responses on treatment goals were collected from psychiatrists for all patients included in the analysis (n=1161), patients (n= 542) and caregivers (n=130). Among 3 top goals, psychiatrists, patients and caregivers concurred that “decrease in disease symptoms” is most important (63%, 64%, 68% respectively). For psychiatrists and caregivers, second was “decrease in hospitalization for relapse” (41%, and 38% respectively), whereas for patients, it was “thinking clearly” (47%). Of the 3 least important goals, psychiatrists, patients and caregivers agreed with “sexual problems” (59%, 43%, 44%, respectively) and “weight gain” (38%, 44%, 38%, respectively).
When asked which goals were met by current medication, patients responded “decrease in disease symptoms” (68%) and “thinking clearly” (39%). However, caregivers responded “thinking clearly” (30%) was not met by current medication. Caregivers most important goals, “decrease in disease symptom” (70%) and “decrease in hospitalization for relapse” (41%), were met. Additional analyses of patients on OAPs and LAIs, did not show differences in goals. However, “decrease in disease symptoms” was numerically more important for patients on LAIs vs OAPs according to psychiatrists (68% vs 62%) and caregivers (77% vs 70% respectively). Caregivers responded “decrease in hospitalization for relapse” was met for 63% patients currently on an LAI and 35% OAP. No major differences in treatment goals were observed by patient age (18–35 vs 36–65 vs >65 years).
There is consensus among US psychiatrists, patients and caregivers on the most important treatment goal “decrease in disease symptoms”, regardless of patients’ current medication or age. For patients, “thinking more clearly” was second, compared with “decrease in hospitalization due to relapse”, for psychiatrists and caregivers. All agreed that least important treatment goals, related to AEs, were “weight gain” and “sexual problems”. More caregivers agreed “decrease in hospitalization for relapse” was met by patients on LAIs vs OAPs. These findings may help with discussions between psychiatrists, patients and caregivers.
Lundbeck LLC and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc.
Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <50 nmol/l) is recognised as a public health problem globally. The present study details the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in a nationally representative sample (n 3250) of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged ≥18 years. We used data from the 2012–2013 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (AATSIHS). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were used to determine the independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency. Approximately 27 % of adult AATSIHS participants were vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in remote areas (39 %) than in non-remote areas (23 %). Independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency included assessment during winter (men, adjusted OR (aOR) 5·7; 95 % CI 2·2, 14·6; women, aOR 2·2; 95 % CI 1·3, 3·8) and spring (men, aOR 3·3; 95 % CI 1·4, 7·5; women, aOR 2·6; 95 % CI 1·5, 4·5) compared with summer, and obesity (men, aOR 2·6; 95 % CI 1·2, 5·4; women, aOR 4·3; 95 % CI 2·8, 6·8) compared with healthy weight. Statistically significant associations were evident for current smokers (men only, aOR 2·0; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·4), remote-dwelling women (aOR 2·0; 95 % CI 1·4, 2·9) and university-educated women (aOR 2·4; 95 % CI 1·2, 4·8). Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this population, strategies to maintain adequate vitamin D status through safe sun exposure and dietary approaches are needed.
Introduction: Patients with poorly-controlled diabetes often visit the emergency department (ED) for treatment of hyperglycemia. While previous qualitative studies have examined the patient experience of diabetes as a chronic illness, there are no studies describing patients’ perceptions of ED care for hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to explore the patient experience regarding ED hyperglycemia visits, and to characterize perceived barriers to adequate glycemic control post-discharge. Methods: This study was conducted at a tertiary care academic centre in London, Ontario. A qualitative constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to understand the experience of adult patient partners who have had an ED hyperglycemia visit. Patient partners, purposively sampled to capture a breadth of age, sex, disease and presentation frequency were invited to participate in a semi-structured individual interview to probe their experiences. Sampling continued until a theoretical framework representing key experiences and expectations reached sufficiency. Data were collected and analyzed iteratively using a constant comparative approach. Results: 22 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes were interviewed. Participants sought care in the ED over other options because of their concern of having a potentially life-threatening condition, advice from a healthcare provider or family member, or a perceived lack of convenient alternatives to the ED based on time and location. Participants’ care expectations centred around symptom relief, glycemic control, reassurance and education, and seeking referral to specialist diabetes care post-discharge. Finally, perceived system barriers that challenged participants’ glycemic control included affordability of medical supplies and medications, access to follow-up and, in some cases, the transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care. Conclusion: Patients with diabetes utilize the ED for a variety of urgent and emergent hyperglycemic concerns. In addition to providing excellent medical treatment, ED healthcare providers should consider patients’ expectations when caring for those presenting with hyperglycemia. Future studies will focus on developing strategies to help patients navigate some of the barriers that exist within our current limited healthcare system, enhance follow-up care, and improve short- and long-term health outcomes.
Introduction: Patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) for the sole purpose of requesting prescriptions are problematic. Problematic for the patient, who may have a long wait to be seen and may leave dissatisfied. Problematic for the ED physician, who is in the business of episodic not comprehensive care and is diligently trying to avoid the misappropriation of medications. The primary objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of patients who present to the ED or Urgent Care Centre (UCC) requesting a prescription, the nature of these requests and the resulting action by the attending physician. The secondary objective was to determine the proportion of medication requests and responses that have potential street value. With this knowledge we may be better positioned to serve these patients and support physician decision-making. Methods: This was a single-centre, retrospective electronic chart review looking at all adult patients with a presenting complaint of medication request who attended a two-site tertiary ED or an Urgent Care Centre (UCC) in London, Ontario between April 1, 2014 and June 30, 2017. Data was tested for normality and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 1923 cases met the inclusion criteria. Cases were removed (n = 421) if it was unclear which prescription was requested or if a non-medication prescription or injection was requested. The patient median (IQR) age was 44 (32-54) with 58% being male and 55% having a family doctor. There were a total of 2261 prescriptions requested by 1502 patients. The top 3 most commonly requested classes of medications were opioids 433/1502 (28.8%), antidepressants/antipsychotics 371/1502 (24.7%) and benzodiazepines 252/1502 (16.8%). The median (IQR) wait time was 73 minutes (35-128). 298/1502 (19.8%) of patients received their requested prescription (opioids 12.7%; antidepressant/antipsychotic 55.3% and benzodiazepines 16.3%). 740/1502 (49.3%) of patients requested a medication that had street value. Of those, 118/740 (15.9%) received the requested medication. Conclusion: There is no “one size fits all” solution for the patient who presents to the ED requesting a prescription. The large number of requests for psychiatric medications suggests a service gap for mental health patients in the community. This data supports the need for comprehensive electronic medication records to guide physicians’ decisions.
Second generation antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia have been reported to induce weight gain and a Type-2 diabetes like syndrome in humans. Evidence indicates that these drugs induce this syndrome by promoting insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. However, supra-physiological levels of the drugs are required to cause this insulin resistance in model systems. Here we have investigated the effects of therapeutically relevant levels of 3 different antipsychotic medications (Haloperidol, Quetiapine and Clozapine) on glucose metabolism. We find that at these concentrations antipsychotic drugs do induce impaired glucose tolerance in rats which is associated with increased insulin secretion, but independent of weight gain (Clozapine>Quetiapine>Haloperidol). However, activation of Akt/PKB is normal and at these levels of drug there was no major effect on insulin action in fat cells. This suggested that the drugs were not inducing insulin resistance per se. Instead we show that the drugs stimulated hepatic glucose production, and the effect is at least in part mediated by a stimulation of glucagon secretion. We also find that the increased glucose production is responsible for increased insulin secretion and that blocking insulin secretion attenuates the activation of the enzyme Akt/protein kinase B in the hippocampus. This data provides new information on the mechanisms by which second generation antipsychotic drugs regulate glucose metabolism. Thus, the glucose production and the subsequent insulin release may form part of the therapeutic actions of the drugs by acting to restore defective Akt/PKB signalling that is associated with schizophrenia.
This article highlights Marysia Zalewski's scholarship as reflective and generative of the multifarious sources and contributions of feminist IR and its ‘scavenger methodologies’, which seek to centre subjects, processes, and practices historically excluded, ignored, and minimised. The productive depth of her scholarship is evident in the uniqueness of each article in this collection, all of which distinctly document the uses to which Zalewski's writings can be uniquely put. Each of the articles performs a ‘turning operation’ of sorts on the elementals of feminist IR (gender/women/power/difference) and brings further elaborations of masculinities, sexualities, silences as well as screams, that shift and change what is taken to be feminist research/method – at each point disordering our sensibilities and our assumptions as to what we do when we do feminist work.
Radiotherapy clinical trials are at the forefront of modern-day prostate cancer patient management. Patients are reviewed during treatment by clinical oncologists or competent on-treatment review radiographers to minimise treatment toxicities. Clinical Research Radiographers (CRRs) routinely monitor and gather research data from patients participating in clinical trials.
The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of the CRR undertaking the on-treatment review of clinical trial patients.
An experienced CRR within the Northern Ireland Cancer Trials Network was supervised by a clinical oncologist to undertake the role of the on-treatment review of patients receiving radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The CRR explored published literature and compiled this written evaluation as part of their advanced practice learning.
The supervising clinical oncologist verified, following the planned period of supervised practice and academic study, that the CRR was competent to fulfil the role. Evidence of the beneficial synergistic impact of co-joining the roles was experienced at first hand during the undertaking of supervised practice.
Co-joining the roles and responsibilities of the CRR and the on-treatment review radiographer enhanced the quality of care offered to the patients participating in clinical trials.
A bottom-up approach grounded in micro-level understanding of the thinking, feeling, behavioral, and social aspects of living with low income and associated low literacy can lead to greater understanding and improvement of interactions in the health arena. This paper draws on what we have learned about marketplace interactions in subsistence economies to inform innovations in medical education, design and delivery of healthcare for lowincome patients, outreach education, and future micro-level research at the human-healthcare interface.
This paper attempts to bring to the attention of the readers a concept that broadens ethical considerations for Alzheimer's disease research. We propose we move away from the ethical paradigm that focuses on avoidance of coercion for participation in studies as well as privacy and safety to a more inclusive paradigm that will not only include the principles outlined above but will also guarantee access to new treatments for individuals that participate in research and other members of society. Specifically, if the research being performed results in a new treatment for Alzheimer's disease, would the individuals participating in the research and other members of their community have access to and benefit from these treatments, given the availability of financial and other resources in the society that will allow for the implementation of these treatments. This paper will propose a model that will facilitate the achievement of these broader ethical considerations.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), passed in 2010, is considered by many to be the most significant healthcare overhaul since the 1960s, but part of its promise — improvement of population health through requirements for non-profit hospitals to provide “community benefit” — has not been met. This paper examines the history of community benefit legislation, how community benefit dollars are allocated, and innovative practices by a few hospitals and communities that are addressing primarily non-medical factors that influence health such as social disadvantage, attitudes, beliefs, risk exposure, and social inequalities.
This reflection on the Medicalization of Poverty asks how healthcare itself plays a role in the development of poverty. Drawing on Governor Thompson's extensive work reforming the welfare system, the reflection first stresses the importance of involving the very people impacted by any reform — a conscious process Governor Thompson used when pioneering the W-2 program in Wisconsin and then extended to the overhaul of Medicare's prescription drug benefit. Second, it stresses the advantage of developing bipartisan solutions to solve hard problems such as how best to provide affordable healthcare and reduce poverty in the lives of Americans.
Mortality rates for middle-aged whites in the U.S. are rising due to drugs, alcohol, and depression. Unique to our country, these “deaths of despair” disproportionately occur among the under-educated, who are at particular risk for dying young. At one time, less-educated persons aspired to work in the same factory as their parents, at union wages, with benefits. Those jobs, and the sense of community and prosperity and security they allowed, are evaporating. Many former workers suffer from chronic pain, which underlies America's ongoing opioid overdose epidemic. The pain is not only physical. It is psychic, spiritual, and economic.
“Medicalization” has been a contentious notion since its introduction centuries ago. While some scholars lamented a medical overreach into social domains, others hailed its promise for social justice advocacy. Against the backdrop of a growing commitment to health equity across the nation, this article reviews historical interpretations of medicalization, offers an application of the term to non-biologic risk factors for disease, and presents the case of housing the demonstrate the great potential of medicalizing poverty.
The medicalization model of poverty leads us to devote considerable resources to treating the healthcare problems caused by poverty while neglecting the root cause of those problems — the poverty itself. Treating symptoms rather than causes is far less effective than treating causes. When correctly understood, poverty is a major public health problem that needs to be addressed directly with effective anti-poverty programs. Only then can we properly serve the healthcare needs of the poor.
This article examines five different Medical-Legal Partnerships (MLPs) associated with Yale Law School in New Haven, Connecticut to illustrate how MLP addresses the social determinants of poor health. These MLPs address varied and distinct health and legal needs of unique patient populations, including: 1) children; 2) immigrants; 3) formerly incarcerated individuals; 4) patients with cancer in palliative care; and 5) veterans. The article charts a research agenda to create the evidence base for quality and evaluation metrics, capacity building, sustainability, and best practices; it also focuses specifically on a research agenda that identifies the value of the lawyers in MLP. Such a focus on the “L” has been lacking and is overdue.
Collecting and deploying poverty-related data is an important starting point for leveraging data regarding social determinants of health in precision medicine. However, we must rethink how we collect and deploy such data. Current modes of collection yield imprecise data that is unsuited for research. Better data can be collected by cross-referencing other sources such as employers and public benefit programs, and by incentivizing and encouraging patients and providers to provide more accurate information. Data thus collected can be used to provide appropriate individual-level clinical and non-clinical care, and to systematically determine what share of social resources healthcare should consume.
This article provides a broad survey of issues facing rural communities and suggests that medicalization of poverty concepts and interventions need to be tailored to those populations. Rural poverty may be both broader and deeper than in urban areas. Those challenges seem to produce a constellation of health conditions, as rural residents struggle with unemployment and lack of opportunities. Relatedly, rural communities struggle to maintain financially viable hospitals and specialty providers. The article closes by offering a snapshot of rural-specific strategies to address these issues.