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Vision and hearing impairments are highly prevalent in adults 65 years of age and older. There is a need to understand their association with multiple health-related outcomes. We analyzed data from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC). Home care clients were followed for up to 5 years and categorized into seven unique cohorts based on whether or not they developed new vision and/or hearing impairments. An absolute standardized difference (stdiff) of at least 0.2 was considered statistically meaningful. Most clients (at least 60%) were female and 34.9 per cent developed a new sensory impairment. Those with a new concurrent vison and hearing impairment were more likely than those with no sensory impairments to experience a deterioration in receptive communication (stdiff = 0.68) and in cognitive performance (stdiff = 0.49). After multivariate adjustment, they had a twofold increased odds (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1,87, 2.35) of deterioration in cognitive performance. Changes in sensory functioning are common and have important effects on multiple health-related outcomes.
Repeated antigen testing of 12 SARS-CoV-2–positive nursing home residents using Abbott BinaxNOW™ identified 9/9 (100%) culture-positive specimens up to 6 days after initial positive test. Antigen positivity lasted 2–24 days. Antigen positivity might last beyond the infectious period, but was reliable in residents with evidence of early infection.
The chapter focuses on people’s experiences of natural places and changes in their sense of place through the use of social media. It explores how social media are linked to senses of place and experiences of nature from a social–ecological–technological systems perspective. This is illustrated through four empirical cases representing specific people–place–tech systems, i.e. systems where different social, ecological and tech contexts interact. From a system perspective, those couplings are integrated parts of people’s experiences of nature that bridge virtual and physical worlds, thereby facilitating and communicating cognitive, affective and behavioural social-ecological interactions. These interactions foster novel individual and co-constructed meanings of place and thus plural senses of place; they can also mobilise people around shared meanings of place that are used to question dominant views. Thus, it is argued that social media can mediate and proliferate plural meanings of place, leading to new conceptualisations of senses of place.
Comorbidity with general medical conditions is common in individuals with eating disorders. Many previous studies do not evaluate types of eating disorder.
To provide relative and absolute risks of bidirectional associations between (a) anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified and (b) 12 general medical conditions.
We included all people born in Denmark between 1977 and 2010. We collected information on eating disorders and considered the risk of subsequent medical conditions, using Cox proportional hazards regression. Absolute risks were calculated using competing risks survival analyses. We also considered risks for prior medical conditions and subsequent eating disorders.
An increased risk was seen for almost all disorder pairs (69 of 70). Hazard ratios for those with a prior eating disorder receiving a subsequent diagnosis of a medical condition ranged from 0.94 (95% CI 0.57−1.55) to 2.05 (95% CI 1.86−2.27). For those with a prior medical condition, hazard ratios for later eating disorders ranged from 1.35 (95% CI 1.26–1.45) to 1.98 (95% CI 1.71–2.28). Absolute risks for most later disorders were increased for persons with prior disorders, compared with reference groups.
This is the largest and most detailed examination of eating disorder–medical condition comorbidity. The findings indicate that medical condition comorbidity is increased among those with eating disorders and vice versa. Although there was some variation in comorbidity observed across eating disorder types, magnitudes of relative risks did not differ greatly.
Adolescence into young adulthood represents a sensitive period in which brain development significantly diverges by sex. Regular cannabis use by young people is associated with neuropsychological vulnerabilities, but the potential impact of sex on these relationships is unclear.
In a cross-sectional study, we examined sex differences in multi-domain neuropsychological functioning using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and tested whether sex moderated the relationship between cognitive performance and age of initiation, frequency of cannabis use, amount of cannabis use, and withdrawal symptoms in at least weekly adolescent and young adult cannabis users (n = 171; aged 13–25 years; 46.2% female).
Male cannabis users had poorer visual recognition memory and female cannabis users showed worse attention and executive functions, with medium to large effect sizes. These sex effects persisted, when controlling for age, IQ, amount of alcohol and nicotine use, mood and anxiety symptoms, emotional stability and impulsive behavior. Earlier age of initiated use and more use were associated with worse attentional functions in females, but not males. More use was more strongly associated with worse episodic memory in males than in females. More use was associated with poorer learning in males only.
Domain-specific patterns of neuropsychological performance were found by sex, such that males showed poorer visual memory and females showed worse performance on measures of attention (sustained visual, multitasking) and executive functioning (spatial planning/working memory subdomains). Larger studies including healthy controls are needed to determine if the observed sex differences are more exaggerated relative to non-users.
Stem cells give rise to the entirety of cells within an organ. Maintaining stem cell identity and coordinately regulating stem cell divisions is crucial for proper development. In plants, mobile proteins, such as WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5) and SHORTROOT (SHR), regulate divisions in the root stem cell niche. However, how these proteins coordinately function to establish systemic behaviour is not well understood. We propose a non-cell autonomous role for WOX5 in the cortex endodermis initial (CEI) and identify a regulator, ANGUSTIFOLIA (AN3)/GRF-INTERACTING FACTOR 1, that coordinates CEI divisions. Here, we show with a multi-scale hybrid model integrating ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and agent-based modeling that quiescent center (QC) and CEI divisions have different dynamics. Specifically, by combining continuous models to describe regulatory networks and agent-based rules, we model systemic behaviour, which led us to predict cell-type-specific expression dynamics of SHR, SCARECROW, WOX5, AN3 and CYCLIND6;1, and experimentally validate CEI cell divisions. Conclusively, our results show an interdependency between CEI and QC divisions.
Background:Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the third etiologic agent of healthcare associated infections, and the most frequent pathogen in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). In critical care units is associated with high mortality, long hospital stay, and high healthcare-associated costs. We evaluated the effectiveness of filter placement in the water taps in critical care units to prevent the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIa) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods: This experimental study was both cross-over and open-label in nature. We included patients admitted for >24 hours in critical care units over 24 months. The study was divided into 4 periods of 6 months each. We divided the study into 2 groups: patients in units with filters and patients in units without filters. We compared the incidence density of P. aeruginosa HAIs (number of cases divided by the number of person days) according the ECDC definition of case criteria between the groups. The 2 test was used, and the magnitude of the association was calculated as a rate ratio with a 95% confidence interval, adjusted using a Poisson regression model. Results: Overall, 1,132 patients were included in the study: 595 in units with water tap filters and 537 in units without water tap filters. HAI incidence among patients in units with water tap filters was 5.3 per 1,000 person days stay; without water tap filters, HAI incidence was 4.7 per 1,000 person days stay (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.47–1.90). Conclusions: The preliminary results of this study indicate a a lower incidence of P. aeruginosa HAIs in units with filters placed in water taps than in units without filters.
The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the brain and spinal cord in humans with neuroangiostrongyliasis (NA) due to Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been well reported. Equivalent studies in animals are lacking. This case series describes clinical and MRI findings in 11 dogs with presumptively or definitively diagnosed NA. MRI of the brain and/or spinal cord was performed using high-field (1.5 T) or low-field (0.25 T) scanners using various combinations of transverse, sagittal, dorsal and three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W), transverse, sagittal and dorsal T2-weighted (T2W), T2W fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2*-weighted (T2*W) gradient echo (GRE), dorsal T2W short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and post-gadolinium transverse, sagittal, dorsal and 3D T1W and transverse T2W FLAIR sequences. In 4/6 cases where the brain was imaged, changes consistent with diffuse meningoencephalitis were observed. Evidence of meningeal involvement was evident even when not clinically apparent. The spinal cord was imaged in 9 dogs, with evidence of meningitis and myelitis detected in regions consistent with the observed neuroanatomical localization. Pathognomonic changes of neural larva migrans, as described in some human patients with NA, were not detected. NA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dogs with MRI evidence of focal or diffuse meningitis, myelitis and/or encephalitis, especially in areas where A. cantonensis is endemic. If not precluded by imaging findings suggestive of brain herniation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection for cytology, fluid analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing should be considered mandatory in such cases after the MRI studies.
Disgust has been consistently associated with greater political conservatism. Two explanations have been proposed for this link. According to a pathogen threat model, disgust serves a pathogen-avoidance function, encouraging more conservative ideology, whereas a sexual strategies model suggests that this link is explained by variability in short-term versus long-term mating goals. In two preregistered studies using a college student and community sample (total N = 1,950), we examined whether experimentally manipulating pathogen threat and mate availability produced differences in political ideology and whether these differences were explained by disgust and sociosexual attitudes. Across both studies, we did not find evidence that manipulating pathogen threat or mate availability resulted in change in political ideology. In Study 1, manipulating mate availability was indirectly associated with greater political conservativism through stronger sociosexual attitudes that favor monogamy. These findings failed to replicate in Study 2. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.
In this paper we give sufficient conditions to obtain continuity results of solutions for the so called ϕ-Laplacian Δϕ with respect to domain perturbations. We point out that this kind of results can be extended to a more general class of operators including, for instance, nonlocal nonstandard growth type operators.
The aim is to systematically assess the health impact of a low-inflammatory diet intervention (full-diet or supplement), compared to usual diet or other dietary interventions, on weight change, inflammatory biomarkers, joint symptoms, and quality of life in adults with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or seronegative arthropathy (psoriatic, reactive, ankylosing spondylitis or IBD-related), on outcomes assessed in prospective studies within 6 months of intervention commencement (PROSPERO CRD42019136567). Search of multiple electronic library databases from inception to July 2019, supplemented by grey literature searches, for randomised and prospective trials assessing the above objective. After exclusion of 446 ineligible studies, five randomised and two prospective trials involving 468 participants with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis were included. GRADE assessment for all outcomes was very low. Meta-analyses produced the following standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2–4 months following commencement of the diets favouring the low-inflammatory diet: weight SMD −0⋅45 (CI −0⋅71, −0⋅18); inflammatory biomarkers SMD −2⋅33 (CI −3⋅82, −0⋅84). No significant effects were found for physical function (SMD −0⋅62; CI −1⋅39, 0⋅14), general health (SMD 0⋅89; CI −0⋅39, 2⋅16) and joint pain (SMD −0⋅98; CI −2⋅90, 0⋅93). In most studies, the quality of dietary intervention (dietitian input, use of validated dietary compliance tool) could not be gauged. In conclusion, very low-level evidence suggests that low-inflammatory diets or supplements compared to usual diets are associated with greater weight loss and improvement in inflammatory biomarkers. More high-quality trials are needed to assess the health effects of a low-inflammatory diet more comprehensively and conclusively in arthritic conditions.
Pain is subjective. The level of pain a person experiences is affected not only by the painful stimulus but also by the person’s psychological interpretation of the pain and previous experiences. Medical procedures are inevitably associated with some level of discomfort but, by using analgesic and anaesthetic medications appropriately, we can minimise the pain experienced. In the outpatient setting, pain is the main driver of procedure acceptability. When appropriate techniques and equipment are used, and when analgesic use is tailored to the patient and the procedure, most women deem outpatient hysteroscopic procedures acceptable. Although performing hysteroscopic procedures under general anaesthetic means that perioperative pain is not an issue, it is still important to recognise the possibility of post-operative pain and provide adequate analgesia to manage it accordingly. The aim of this chapter is to cover techniques that can minimise pain and to discuss the use of analgesic and anaesthetic medication for hysteroscopic procedures.
For the nearly four decades since international refugee protections were codified in U.S. law, uncertainty has existed regarding whether survivors of intimate partner violence comprise a “particular social group” (“PSG”) that entitles them to asylum protection in the United States.1 Litigation in the first domestic-violence-based asylum case to reach the Board of Immigration Appeals (“BIA”), Matter of R-A-,2 dragged on for fourteen years without resulting in precedent. Thereafter, in a move that would astonish strict adherents of civil procedure, advocates seeking asylum for clients who had endured intimate partner abuse would cite a brief authored by the Department of Homeland Security in another domestic violence asylum case, Matter of L-R-, in support of their arguments.3 Then, in 2014, the BIA issued a decision in Matter of A-R-C-G- that definitively established the right to asylum for survivors of intimate partner violence.4 The Board granted relief to Ms. C-G- based on her membership in the particular social group of “married women in Guatemala who are unable to leave their relationship.”
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of hearing loss (HL), vision loss (VL), and dual sensory loss (DSL) in Canadians 45–85 years of age. Audiometry and visual acuity were measured. Various levels of impairment severity were described. Results were extrapolated to the 2016 Canadian population. In 2016, 1,500,000 Canadian males 45–85 years of age had at least mild HL, 1,800,000 had at least mild VL, and 570,000 had DSL. Among females, 1,200,000 had at least mild HL, 2,200,000 had at least mild VL, and 450,000 had DSL. Among Canadians 45–85 years of age, mild, moderate, and severe HL was prevalent among 13.4 per cent, 3.7 per cent, and 0.4 per cent of males, and among 11.3 per cent, 2.3 per cent, and 0.2 per cent of females, respectively. Mild and moderate, or severe VL was prevalent among 19.8 per cent and 2.4 per cent of males, and among 23.9 per cent and 2.6 per cent of females, respectively. At least mild DSL was prevalent among 6.4 per cent of males and 6.1 per cent of females.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Feeding preterm infants with mother’s own milk (MOM) lowers rates of sepsis, decreases necrotizing enterocolitis, and shortens hospital stay. Our objective is to determine whether a similar microbial diversity to MOM can be obtained when fresh or frozen MOM is inoculated in donor human milk (DHM). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subjects included 12 mothers of infants born 100ml of MOM per day and were excluded if they had taken antibiotics within 3 days of the 1-time pumped MOM sample collection. MOM sample was divided into fresh (processed immediately) and frozen (−20°C) for 24h fractions. MOM was inoculated in DHM [referred to as refaunated milk (RM)] at 10% (RM10) and 30% (RM30) dilutions, then incubated at timepoints: 0h, 2h, 4h at 37°C. At each timepoint, total viable microbial cell counts were performed in differential or selective media along with future 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Microbiota expansion was detected in MOM, RM10 and RM30 over time whether fresh or frozen milk was used as the inoculum. Incubated fresh and frozen MOM had similar bacterial loads when tested on nutrient agar (10^5-10^6 CFU/mL), mannitol salt (10^6 CFU/mL), MacConkey (10^2-10^5 CFU/mL), blood agar (10^6 CFU/mL) and MRS (10^4 CFU/mL) plates. Based on these CFU counts, RM30 incubated for 2h and RM10 at 4h showed similar counts to that of MOM at 0h. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: RM, inoculated with fresh or frozen MOM, obtained a similar microbial count compared to MOM at 0h indicates that fresh or frozen MOM can inoculate DHM. 16s rRNA sequencing is ongoing. Future studies are needed to support an inoculation protocol to be used in clinical practice and human milk banking.
Archaeologists have long acknowledged the significance of mountains in siting Greek cult. Mountains were where the gods preferred to make contact and there people constructed sanctuaries to inspire intervention. Greece is a land full of mountains, but we lack insight on the ancient Greeks’ view—what visible and topographic characteristics made particular mountains ideal places for worship over others, and whether worshiper preferences ever changed. This article describes a data collection and analysis methodology for landscapes where visualscape was a significant factor in situating culturally significant activities. Using a big-data approach, four geospatial analyses are applied to every cultic place in the Peloponnesian regions of the Argolid and Messenia, spanning 2800–146 BC. The fully described methodology combines a number of experiences—looking out, looking toward, and climbing up—and measures how these change through time. The result is an active historic model of Greek religious landscape, describing how individuals moved, saw, and integrated the built and natural world in different ways. Applied elsewhere, and even on nonreligious locales, this is a replicable mode for treating the natural landscape as an artifact of human decision: as a space impacting the siting of meaningful locales through history.
Overuse of antibiotics has caused secondary poor outcomes and has led to a current rate of antibiotic resistant infections that constitutes a public health crisis. In pediatric surgical specialties, children continue to receive unnecessary antibiotics.
To understand the factors that contribute to pediatric surgeons’ decisions regarding the use of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis.
Focus groups included pediatric proceduralists/surgeons from the following specialties: interventional cardiology, otolaryngology, orthopedic surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, and general surgery.
A total of 23 surgeons with a median of 9 years of experience (range, 0.5–29 years) participated in the focus groups that lasted 30–90 minutes each. Five themes emerged influencing beliefs about antibiotic prescribing practices: (1) reliance on previous experience and early education, (2) balancing antibiotic use with risk of infection, (3) uncertainty about the state of the scientific evidence, (4) understanding importance of communication and team collaboration, and (5) a prevalence of hospital-level concerns.
Surgeons describe a complex set of factors that impact their antibiotic prescribing in pediatric surgical cases. They reported initial, but not ongoing, training and a use of individual weight of risk and benefit as a major dictator of prescribing practices. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should work with surgeons to develop acceptable implementation strategies to optimize antibiotic prescribing.
Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased multi-morbidity and mortality. The investigation of the relationship between BMI and brain organization has the potential to provide new insights relevant to clinical and policy strategies for weight control. Here, we quantified the effect of BMI on the functional connectivity of the Default-Mode (DMN), Central Executive (CEN), Sensorimotor (SMN) and Visual (VN) networks in 496 healthy individuals that were studied as part of the Human Connectome Project. We found that elevated BMI was associated with disrupted functional integration of sensory-guided (SMN, VN) with internally controlled (DMN, CEN) networks, implicating increased attention to sensory stimuli as a possible mechanism underpinning overeating and weight gain. Our results suggest that weight control strategies should expand to include wider societal policies that incorporate modifications to eating environments and to the visual presentation and branding of food products.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Given the increased risk of malnutrition in residential care homes, we studied how specific aspects of the mealtime environment are associated with residents’ eating challenges and energy intake in general and dementia care units of these homes.
624 residents and 82 dining rooms.
32 residential care homes across Canada.
Eating challenges were measured using the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia Questionnaire (Ed-FED-q). Energy intake was estimated over nine meals. Physical, social, person-centered, functional, and homelike aspects of the mealtime environment were scored using standardized, valid measures. Effects of interactions between dining environment scores and eating challenges on daily energy intake were assessed using linear regression.
More eating challenges were associated with decreased energy intake on the general (β = −36.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −47.8, −25.2) and dementia care units (β = −19.9, 95% CI = −34.6, −5.2). Among residents living on general care units, the functional (β = 48.5, 95% CI = 1.8, 95.2) and physical (β = 56.9, 95% CI = 7.2, 106.7) environment scores were positively and directly associated with energy intake; the social and person-centered aspects of the mealtime environment moderated the relationship between eating challenges and energy intake.
Resident eating challenges were significantly associated with energy intake on both dementia care and general care units; however on general care units, when adjusting for eating challenges, the functional and physical aspects of the environment also had a direct effect on energy intake. Furthermore, the social and person-centered aspects of the dining environment on general care units moderated the relationship between eating challenges and energy intake. Dementia care unit environments had no measurable effect on the association between resident eating challenges and energy intake.
A higher intake of food rich in flavonoids such as quercetin can reduce the risk of CVD. Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ®) has a bioavailability 17-fold higher than quercetin aglycone and has shown potential CVD moderating effects in animal studies. The present study aimed to determine whether acute ingestion of EMIQ® improves endothelial function, blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function in human volunteers at risk of CVD. Twenty-five participants (twelve males and thirteen females) with at least one CVD risk factor completed this randomised, controlled, crossover study. In a random order, participants were given EMIQ® (2 mg aglycone equivalent)/kg body weight or placebo alongside a standard breakfast meal. Endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was measured before and 1·5 h after intervention. BP, arterial stiffness, cognitive function, BP during cognitive stress and measures of quercetin metabolites, oxidative stress and markers of nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed post-intervention. After adjustment for pre-treatment measurements and treatment order, EMIQ® treatment resulted in a significantly higher FMD response compared with the placebo (1·80 (95 % CI 0·23, 3·37) %; P = 0·025). Plasma concentrations of quercetin metabolites were significantly higher (P < 0·001) after EMIQ® treatment compared with the placebo. No changes in BP, arterial stiffness, cognitive function or biochemical parameters were observed. In this human intervention study, the acute administration of EMIQ® significantly increased circulating quercetin metabolites and improved endothelial function. Further clinical trials are required to assess whether health benefits are associated with long-term EMIQ® consumption.