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Global warming is likely to lengthen the seasonal duration of larval release by parasites. We exposed freshwater mussel hosts, Anodonta anatina, from 2 high-latitude populations to high, intermediate and low temperatures throughout the annual cercarial shedding period of the sympatric trematodes Rhipidocotyle fennica and R. campanula, sharing the same transmission pathway. At the individual host level, under warmer conditions, the timing of the cercarial release in both parasite species shifted towards seasonally earlier period while its duration did not change. At the host population level, evidence for the lengthening of larvae shedding period with warming was found for R. fennica. R. campanula started the cercarial release seasonally clearly earlier, and at a lower temperature, than R. fennica. Furthermore, the proportion of mussels shedding cercariae increased, while day-degrees required to start the cercariae shedding decreased in high-temperature treatment in R. fennica. In R. campanula these effects were not found, suggesting that warming can benefit more R. fennica. These results do not completely support the view that climate warming would invariably increase the seasonal duration of larval shedding by parasites, but emphasizes species-specific differences in temperature-dependence and in seasonality of cercarial release.
Recent results suggest that bivalves can play an important role in restraining the spread of various aquatic infections. However, the ability of mussels to remove free-living stages of macroparasites and reduce their transmission is still understudied, especially for freshwater ecosystems. We investigated the influence of the common freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina) on the transmission of a trematode (eye fluke, Diplostomum pseudospathaceum), which frequently infects fish in farms and natural habitats. In our experiments, mussels caused a significant decrease (P < 0·001) in the abundance of trematode free-living stages, from 6520 to 1770 cercariae L−1 on average (about 4-fold in 2 h). Individual clearance rates of mussels were 0·6‒3·7 L per hour (mean 1·9). These tests were followed by experimental infections of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with different doses of D. pseudospathaceum cercariae in the presence or absence of mussels. Exposure of fish to cercariae in the presence of mussels significantly (P < 0·05) reduced the infection intensities in fish (by 30–40%) at all exposure doses. Our results indicate that freshwater bivalves can markedly reduce local cercariae densities and could be useful in mitigation of trematodoses harmful to fish farming.
Joining of melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) grains has been achieved without use of an external agent. The technique uses barium-cuprate liquid phase released from platelet boundaries to mediate the growth of Y123 at the interface between two grains. The epitaxial nature and high quality of the growth was determined by optical and transmission electron microscopy. The composition of Ba–Cu–O phases found in some parts of the joins was determined by electron probe microanalysis. A clean low-angle join was found to consist of a grain boundary with dislocation networks and facets. Transport critical current measurements on this type of join revealed strongly coupled behavior. The technique shows promise for the joining of melt-textured material for power engineering applications.
In this paper, the feasibility of applying solution deposition processes for the fabrication of coated conductors has been explored. The crystal and chemical compatibility of the buffer layers processed using metalorganic decomposition with the Y123 deposition using the trifluoroacetate process has been studied. Two buffer layer materials have been used, namely, barium zirconate and strontium titanate. The measured superconducting properties of these conductors were correlated with the microstructure observed on these samples using SEM and cross-sectional TEM. In case of barium zirconate buffer layers, though there exists a very good structural and chemical compatibility between the buffer layer and the Y123, the presence of surface defects in the buffer layer causes compositional heterogeneity and randomly oriented grains in the Y123 film. This leads to poor superconducting properties. In case of strontium titanate buffer layers, due to the excellent crystal and chemical compatibility, and the absence of surface defects, high critical current densities (of the order of 106A/cm2 at 77K and self field) were obtained. However, TEM cross section studies reveals the presence of a significant portions of a-oriented Y123 crystallites which could lead to lower critical current densities. Further studies of the TFA process is required to eliminate the occurrence of a-oriented Y123 in the microstructure. This could lead to further improvements in the properties.
TEM studies have been conducted on melt-textured YBa2Cu3Ox samples that were uniaxially and isostatically deformed at high temperatures and compared with those of undeformed samples. Dislocation pile-ups along  and  are found to be the common feature between undeformed samples with the best Jc and the uniaxially deformed samples, and are suggested to be responsible for enhanced pinning when the magnetic field (H) is applied parallel to the a-b plane. Dislocation loops, tangles, and arrays are also observed, and are considered to contribute to pinning in field orientations other than H ‖ a-b. In addition to these dislocations, 〈301〉 type partial dislocations are found to be present in isostatically deformed samples. The strain field around these dislocations is considered to be an additional source of pinning in the intermediate field orientations.
The critical current density of melt-textured YBa2Cu3Ox superconductor has been enhanced by mechanical deformation at a high temperature. Hot deformation at 45° to both the slip plane (001) and the slip directions / has resulted in a high density of dislocation loops and stacking faults. The deformed samples are found to exhibit a critical current density (Jc) at Hc-axis as high as that at Ha-b plane at 1.5 T and 77 K. A Jc of 35300 A/cm2 has been achieved at Hc (1.5 T and 77 K) which is twice as high as that observed in undeformed samples. The enhanced Jc in this magnetic field orientation is attributed to pinning by the defects created by mechanical deformation. This pinning mechanism is found to be effective over a wide angle between the magnetic field and the a-b plane and thus results in a marked reduction in the critical current anisotropy.
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