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The Global Yield Gap Atlas (GYGA) is an international project that addresses global food production capacity in the form of yield gaps (Yg). The GYGA project is unique in employing its original Climate Zonation Scheme (CZS) composed of three indexed factors, i.e. Growing Degree Days (GDD) related to temperature, Aridity Index (AI) related to available water and Temperature Seasonality (TS) related to annual temperature range, creating 300 Climate Zones (CZs) theoretically across the globe. In the present study, the GYGA CZs were identified for Japan on a municipality basis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on irrigated rice yield data sets, equating to actual yields (Ya) in the GYGA context, from long-term government statistics. The ANOVA was conducted for the data sets over two decades between 1994 and 2016 by assigning the GDD score of 6 levels and the TS score of 2 levels as fixed factors. Significant interactions with respect to Ya were observed between GDD score and TS score for 13 years out of 21 years implying the existence of favourable combinations of the GDD score and the TS score for rice cultivation. The implication was also supported by the observation with Yg. The lower values of coefficient of variance obtained from the CZs characterized by medium GDD scores indicated the stability over time of rice yields in these areas. These findings suggest a possibility that the GYGA-CZS can be recognized as a tool suitable to identify favourable CZs for growing crops.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is expected to be applied for devices in various fields owing to its unique characteristics. Establishing a high-productivity manufacturing method which yields high quality films is an important and unresolved issue for the practical applications of MoS2. Among different techniques conducted by researchers all over the world, our approach is cold-wall metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and we previously reported the deposition of MoS2 with i-Pr2DADMo(CO)3, a novel Mo precursor [S. Ishihara, et al., MRS Advances 3, 379-384 (2018).]. In this study, with the aim of further improving the quality of the MoS2 film using this new Mo precursor, various film formation conditions were controlled and the influence on the film quality was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used as evaluation techniques of the samples. As a result, mm-scale uniform film was formed with the deposition time less than 30 min. at temperature as low as 400 °C to 500 °C. It was revealed that maintaining low Mo/S supply ratio (SRMo/S) is crucial in fabricating high quality films.
The understanding of the genetic basis of grain dormancy in wheat has rapidly improved in the last few years, and a number of genes have been identified related to that trait. We recently identified the wheat genes TaPM19-A1 and -A2 and we have now taken the first step towards understanding the role of this class of genes in seeds. By investigating the Arabidopsis homologous PM19-Like 1 (PM19L1) we have found that it has a seed-specific expression pattern and, while its expression is higher in dormant than in non-dormant seeds, knock-out mutations produced seeds with increased dormancy. Not only primary dormancy, but also secondary dormancy in response to high temperature was increased by the loss-of-function. We have also examined the function of PM19L1 by localizing the PM19 protein primarily to the cotyledon cells in seeds, possibly in membranes. By investigating the co-expression network of this gene we have found that it is connected to a small group of abscisic acid (ABA)-induced seed maturation and storage-related genes. The function of PM19L1 represents a good opportunity to explore the interactions of key factors that can influence seed dormancy such as ABA, temperature and membrane properties.
We investigated the effects of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin on the dung beetles Copris acutidens Motschulsky, Onthophagus bivertex Heyden, O. lenzii Harold and Phelotrupes auratus auratus Motschulsky in Japan. Ivermectin was detected in cattle dung from 1 to 3 or 7 days post-treatment, with a peak at 3 days post-treatment in two pour-on administrations (500 µg kg−1). In C. acutidens, adult survivals and numbers of brood balls were significantly reduced in dung collected at 3 and 7 days post-treatment, and adult emergence rates were significantly decreased in dung collected at 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Feeding activity of C. acutidens was inhibited in dung collected at 3 days post-treatment, but was not significantly different from that seen in control dung at 7 and 14 days post-treatment. In O. bivertex and O. lenzii, there were no effects of ivermectin on adult survival or feeding activities, but the numbers of brood balls of O. bivertex constructed in dung collected at 3 and 7 days post-treatment were significantly lower than observed with control dung. The adult emergence rates of O. bivertex and O. lenzii were significantly reduced in dung collected at 1 to 3 and 1 to 7 days post-treatment, respectively. In P. auratus, there were no effects of ivermectin on adult survival, oviposition, feeding activity, or larval survival (until the third instar) in dung at 3 days post-treatment. The environmental risks affecting the populations of dung beetles in Japan are discussed.
Effects of the antiparasitic drug eprinomectin were studied on the dung beetles, Onthophagus lenzii Harold and the rare species, Copris ochus Motschulsky by pour-on administrations (500 µg kg−1) in Japan. Eprinomectin was detected in cattle dung from 1 to 7 or 14 days after treatment, with a peak at 1 day after treatment in two experiments. In O. lenzii, adult survivals and numbers of brood balls constructed were significantly reduced in dung from eprinomectin-treated cattle at 1 and 3 days post-treatment in experiment 1, and adult emergence rates were extremely reduced in dung at 1, 3, and 7 days post-treatment. In C. ochus, adult survivals were significantly reduced in dung at 3 days post-treatment (experiment 1), and equivalent levels to the control were restored in dung at 7 and 14 days post-treatment (experiment 2). Numbers of brood balls of C. ochus were nil in dung at 3 days (experiment 1), and significantly reduced in dung at 7 days (experiment 2) post-treatment compared with control. Adult emergence rates of C. ochus were 100 and 71.6% in dung from control cattle in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. However, no oviposition was observed in dung at 3 days post-treatment, and all offspring died at egg or the first instar larval stage in dung from 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Feeding activities of O. lenzii and C. ochus were significantly inhibited in dung from treated cattle at 1–3 days and 3 days post-treatment, respectively, returning to levels of the control at 7 days post-treatment.
We report the investigation on the properties of a novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te and its effectiveness in fabricating MoTe2. The vapor pressure of the precursor was obtained by measuring the pressure as a function of its temperature in a sealed chamber. As a result it showed a high vapor pressure of 552.1 Pa at room temperature. The decomposition of the precursor was also investigated using DFT calculation. It was shown that the most likely reaction during the course of the decomposition of (i-C3H7)2Te is (i-C3H7)2Te → H2Te + 2 C3H7. The effectiveness of the precursor on the fabrication of MoTe2 was also investigated. Sputter-deposited MoO3 was tellurized in a quartz-tube furnace at the temperature up to 440°C. The resulting film showed that the 80% of the original MoO3 was tellurized to form MoTe2. It was also shown that further optimization of tellurization is required in order to prevent formation of metal Mo and elemental Te.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We report the synthesis of MoS2(1-x)Te2x by co-sputtering deposition and effect of mixture on its bandgap. The deposition was carried out at room temperature, and the sputtering power on individual MoS2 and MoTe2 targets were varied to obtain films with different compositions. Investigation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Mo-Te and Mo-S bonds after post-deposition annealing (PDA), and one of the samples exhibited composition ratio of Mo:S:Te = 1:1.2:0.8 and 1:1.9:0.1 achieving 1:2 ratio of metal to chalcogen. Bandgap of MoS1.2Te0.8 and MoS1.9Te0.1 was evaluated with Tauc plot analysis from the extinction coefficient obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The obtained bandgaps were 1.0 eV and 1.3 eV. The resulting bandgap was lower than that of bulk MoS2 and higher than that of bulk MoTe2 suggesting mixture of both materials was achieved by co-sputtering.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were fabricated by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using (t-C4H9)2S2 and the effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and atmosphere on the formation were investigated in order to achieve high-speed low-temperature MoS2 film formation. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, it was confirmed that c-axis orientation of the pre-deposited Mo film has a significant involvement in the crystal orientation after the reaction low temperature sulfurization annealing and we successfully obtained 3 nm c-axis oriented MoS2 thin film. From the S/Mo ratios in the films, it was revealed that the sulfurization reaction proceeds faster with increase in the sulfurization temperature and the gas flow rate. Moreover, the sulfurization under the H2 atmosphere promotes decomposition reaction of (t-C4H9)2S2, which were confirmed by XPS and density functional theory (DFT) simulation.
We propose and numerically investigate a tunable metasurface made of an array of graphene ribbons to dynamically control terahertz (THz) wavefront. The metasurface consists of graphene micro ribbons on a silver mirror with a SiO2 gap layer. The graphene ribbons are designed to exhibit localized plasmon resonances depending on their Fermi levels to introduce abrupt phase shifts along the metasurface. With interference of the Fabry-Perot resonances in the SiO2 layer, phase shift through the system is largely accumulated, covering up to 2π range for full control of the THz wavefront. Numerical simulations prove that wide-angle reflected THz beam steering from -53° to +53° with a high reflection efficiency as high as 60% is achieved at 5 THz while the propagation direction of THz beam could be switched within 0.6 ps.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), one of the transition-metal dichalcogenides, is a 2-dimensional semiconducting material that has a layered structure. Owing to excellent optical and electronic properties, the ultra-thin MoS2 film is expected to be used for various devices, such as transistors and flexible displays. In this study, we investigated the physical and chemical properties of sputtered-MoS2 film in the sub-10-nm region by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the results of Raman spectroscopy investigations, we observed two Raman modes, E12g and A1g, in the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. As the thickness of the MoS2 film decreased, the peak frequency difference between E12g and A1g modes increased. From the XPS investigations, we confirmed sulfur reductions from the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. Therefore, we considered that the sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 film affected the Raman peak positions. Moreover, we performed the additional sulfurization of sputtered-MoS2 films. From the XPS and Raman investigations, the quality of the sputtered-MoS2 films was improved by the additional sulfurization.
A fully coherent free electron laser (FEL) seeded with a higher-order harmonic (HH) pulse from high-order harmonic generation (HHG) is successfully operated for a sufficiently prolonged time in pilot user experiments by using a timing drift feedback. For HHG-seeded FELs, the seeding laser pulses have to be synchronized with electron bunches. Despite seeded FELs being non-chaotic light sources in principle, external laser-seeded FELs are often unstable in practice because of a timing jitter and a drift between the seeding laser pulses and the accelerated electron bunches. Accordingly, we constructed a relative arrival-timing monitor based on non-invasive electro-optic sampling (EOS). The EOS monitor made uninterrupted shot-to-shot monitoring possible even during the seeded FEL operation. The EOS system was then used for arrival-timing feedback with an adjustability of 100 fs for continual operation of the HHG-seeded FEL. Using the EOS-based beam drift controlling system, the HHG-seeded FEL was operated over half a day with an effective hit rate of 20%–30%. The output pulse energy was
at the 61.2 nm wavelength. Towards seeded FELs in the water window region, we investigated our upgrade plan to seed high-power FELs with HH photon energy of 30–100 eV and lase at shorter wavelengths of up to 2 nm through high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) at the energy-upgraded SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS) accelerator. We studied a benefit as well as the feasibility of the next HHG-seeded FEL machine with single-stage HGHG with tunability of a lasing wavelength.
Polysilsesquioxane passivation layers were used to passivate bottom gate a-InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFT). The a-IGZO TFTs passivated with polysilsesquioxane showed highly stable behavior during positive bias stress, negative bias stress, and negative bias illumination stress. A voltage threshold shift of up to 0.1 V, less than -0.1 V and -2.3 V for positive bias stress, negative bias stress, and negative bias illumination stress, respectively. We also report the effect of reactive ion etching (RIE) on the electrical characteristics of a-InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFT) passivated with the polysilsesquioxane-based passivation layers. We show how post-annealing treatment using two different atmosphere conditions: under O2 ambient and combination of N2 and O2 ambient (20% O2), can be performed to recover the initial characteristics. Furthermore, we present a highly stable novel polysilsesquioxane photosensitive passivation material that can be used to completely circumvent the reactive ion etching effects.
KNbO3 thick films were deposited on (100)c SrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates at 240 °C for 3 h by hydrothermal method. Film thickness increased linearly with increasing the deposition number of times and 130 μm thickness was achieved by the 6 time deposition. XRD analysis showed the growth of epitaxial orthorhombic films with the mixture orientation of (100), (010) and (001). Cross-sectional SEM observation showed that the 130 μm-thick film was dense and no obvious voids inside the film. In addition, the crystal structure change along film thickness direction was not detected from the cross-sectional Raman spectral observation.
The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ⩾50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.