To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is prevalent, often chronic, and requires ongoing monitoring of symptoms to track response to treatment and identify early indicators of relapse. Remote Measurement Technologies (RMT) provide an exciting opportunity to transform the measurement and management of MDD, via data collected from inbuilt smartphone sensors and wearable devices alongside app-based questionnaires and tasks.
To describe the amount of data collected during a multimodal longitudinal RMT study, in an MDD population.
RADAR-MDD is a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study. People with a history of MDD were provided with a wrist-worn wearable, and several apps designed to: a) collect data from smartphone sensors; and b) deliver questionnaires, speech tasks and cognitive assessments and followed-up for a maximum of 2 years.
A total of 623 individuals with a history of MDD were enrolled in the study with 80% completion rates for primary outcome assessments across all timepoints. 79.8% of people participated for the maximum amount of time available and 20.2% withdrew prematurely. Data availability across all RMT data types varied depending on the source of data and the participant-burden for each data type. We found no evidence of an association between the severity of depression symptoms at baseline and the availability of data. 110 participants had > 50% data available across all data types, and thus able to contribute to multiparametric analyses.
RADAR-MDD is the largest multimodal RMT study in the field of mental health. Here, we have shown that collecting RMT data from a clinical population is feasible.
This paper provides a new interpretation of the date, form, meanings and theological sources of the former painted cycle on the vaults of Salisbury Cathedral. As the cycle is now known predominantly from antiquarian evidence, we begin with a discussion of the nature and significance of that evidence, namely the series of sketches, drawings and notes produced by Jacob Schnebbelie in the late eighteenth century before the whitewashing of the medieval paintings. Through consideration of the archaeological and stylistic evidence, we propose a date for the cycle between c 1235 and 1245, thus contemporary with the new building campaign begun in 1220. Two connected interpretations of the cycle are offered: first, we argue that the painted cycle was designed to function as a map of the major liturgical sites of the eastern arm; second, we suggest that the imagery was designed to structure an allegory of religious experience and personal salvation in accord with reform-minded thinking in the post-Lateran period.
The process-induced stress in interconnects within integrated circuits (IC) has a direct influence on the mean time to failure of the devices. Since measurement of stress in individual metallised lines is not possible by existing techniques, another approach has been adopted where a test structure is generated during fabrication based on a micro-rotating cantilever sensor. To support the design, finite element modeling (FEM) has been performed. By comparing the rotation predicted by FEM simulations and that observed experimentally, a clear discrepancy is observed which is critically dependent on the details of the sensor design, the pattern transfer of the lithographic process and on the dry etching processing.
As the trend for miniaturisation in the microelectronics field continues, metallisation connecting components has smaller and smaller dimensions, especially width and thickness. The mechanical properties of the deposited metal are very different from those of the bulk material and it is important to evaluate them accurately if the reliability of the metallisation is to be optimised. The assessment of the mechanical properties of thin aluminium metallisation is possible by nanoindentation but to extract properties useful for lifetime prediction such as yield stress or creep relaxation behaviour additional modelling is necessary using finite elements analysis (FEA). In this study evaporated aluminium layers from 50nm to 600nm thick on (100) silicon were indented to various depths. Proportional loading was used to minimise the effect of creep. The loading curves were then simulated by FEA and the results compared to identify the yield properties of the coating. Modelling data for thicker samples closely follows experimental data but for thinner coatings there is a considerable gradient in properties through the film thickness.
A simple ion-implanted bipolar transistor technology in 4H-SiC is presented. Suitable for both high-voltage vertical devices and lateral high-temperature transistors (for circuit applications), the technology is based on an implanted boron p-well with nitrogen and boron (or aluminium) implanted n+ and p+ regions respectively. The effects of base doping and carrier lifetime on device performance have been studied using TCAD techniques. It is shown that understanding the strong variation of carrier concentration with temperature (due to deep activation levels) and applied field (so-called field ionization) is critical in device design optimisation. The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the physical and electrical characteristics of the junctions are investigated. It is shown that annealing can remove much of the damage induced by high dose nitrogen implantation but that residual damage is still present. The electrical characteristics of simple BJT transistors with breakdown voltages in excess of 1000V and common-emitter gains of ∼2 is related to the level of such residual damage.
The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the level of residual damage resulting from nitrogen and boron implants after different anneal processes are investigated using the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) technique. It is shown that after implantation there is a substantial defect concentration significantly below the range of the implants. However such damage is almost completely recovered after anneal in contrast with the damage close to the implant range point. Such residual damage has a strong effect on the electrical characteristics of double implanted bipolar transistors - principally though reduction in carrier mobility and lifetime. It is shown that the precise implant and anneal conditions play a strong role in the level of such damage and the subsequent electrical performance of bipolar devices.
The swimming behaviour of Corophium volutator from Wales and East Anglia was investigated to establish whether differences apparent from two previous studies are real or artefacts of the different techniques used. Swimming C. volutator were caught in a Welsh estuary in the summer, but only rarely in the autumn and winter, and in both daylight and darkness. In simulated tidal conditions in the laboratory C. volutator from two sites in East Anglia never swam, while those from Wales swam whenever the substratum was immersed, in daylight and darkness, mostly on the ebb tide and in winter. The unnatural swimming in winter may have been stimulated by laboratory conditions, but the East Anglian amphipods were not so affected. The tidal swimming rhythm is different to east coast C. volutator which only swim at night. This difference may be related to the time of spring tides, when most swimming occurs. In Wales high water of spring tides may occur only in daylight in summer and nocturnal swimming may not be possible. The ebb tide swimming by C. volutator in Wales contrasts with the flood and ebb swimming of east coast amphipods and may reflect differences in their habitats. The former were collected close to the sea while the latter were 15 km up a narrow estuary and may represent a sub-population of amphipods with a disposition to swim early (on the flood tide) enabling them to colonise upstream habitats.
Total glossectomy is the most crippling of all oral cavity resections. Speech problems are unavoidable and post-operative aspiration is often severe. Two patients are presented who have had tongue reconstructions following near-total glossectomies. In each case a quilted, split-skin grafted pectoralis major muscle flap was used. The speech and swallowing results of these two patients are compared with two patients who underwent a hemiglossectomy and total glossectomy respectively without tongue reconstruction. Only if the suprahyoid and extrinsic tongue muscles are preserved can an active oral phase of swallowing and usable speech be regained by tongue reconstruction.