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The current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of variable doses of the weedicide glyphosate on the ileal (the final section of the small intestine) structure of rats of both sexes, using histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural methods. Forty animals were classified into four groups of 10 animals per group (five males and five females). The first group acted as a control, and the remaining groups were treated with glyphosate-Roundup® 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 15 days. The results indicated extinct histopathological changes manifested in the deformation of villi, foci of leukocytic infiltration in the core of villi, and hyperplasia of goblet cells. Histochemical examination (Alcian blue and Periodic acid–Schiff stain) revealed a strong positive reaction of goblet cells and an increase in their number in all treated groups. In addition, the immunohistochemical investigation revealed the immunoreactivity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. Furthermore, electron microscopic alternations were represented by the deformation of nuclei, destruction of microvilli, and deposition of lipid droplets. Collectively, the present findings indicate that treatment with glyphosate results in extensive morphological alternations to the ileal structure of rats of both sexes and that female rats are more affected than male rats are.
A congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a rare birth defect characterized by a diaphragmatic defect allowing herniation of abdominal contents into the chest, subsequently impeding normal lung development. This results in structural and functional changes to lung structure, pulmonary circulation, and the heart. The size of the defect can significantly affect the prognosis, as the severity of this condition is proportional to the severity of lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is considered a last resort, life-preserving option for neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia who have failed all other medical therapies. This chapter details the management of an infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, currently on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support and requiring repair of his hernia.
This is the second of a two-part profile on mental healthcare in Bangladesh. It describes the state of mental health research in the country and presents a set of priorities for addressing improvements to the fundamental gaps in mental healthcare highlighted in part 1. Focus on building infrastructure for public mental health facilities, training skilled mental health professionals, adequate distribution of financial resources and addressing stigma are all priorities that will contribute to significantly improving mental healthcare in Bangladesh.
Mental health is a significant factor for a sound and productive life; nevertheless, mental disorders do not often receive adequate research attention and are not addressed as a serious public health issue in countries such as Bangladesh. Part 1 of this two-part profile describes the current situation of mental health in Bangladesh in its wider sociocultural context, outlining existing policies and highlighting mental illness as a neglected healthcare problem in the country using a narrative synthesis method. The prevalence of mental disorders is very high and augmented in nature among different population groups in Bangladesh. A lack of public mental health facilities, scarcity of skilled mental health professionals, insufficient financial resource distribution, inadequately stewarded mental health policies and stigma contribute to making current mental healthcare significantly inadequate in Bangladesh. The country has few community care facilities for psychiatric patients. Furthermore, the current mental health expenditure by the Bangladeshi government is only 0.44% of the total health budget. Less than 0.11% of the population has access to free essential psychotropic medications.
Prototyping is an essential activity in the early stages of product development. This activity can provide insight into the learning process that takes place during the implementation of an idea. It can also help to improve the design of a product. This information and the process are useful in design education as they can be used to enhance students' ability to prototype their ideas and develop creative solutions. To observe the activity of prototype development, we conducted a study on students participating in a 7-week course: Principles of Digital Fabrication. During the course, eight teams made prototypes and shared their weekly developments via internet blog posts. The posts contained prototype pictures, descriptions of their ideas, and reflections on activities. The blog documentation of the prototypes developed by the students was done without the researchers' intervention, providing essential data or research. Based on a review of other methods of capturing the prototype development process, we compare existing documentation tools with the method used in the case study and outline the practices and tools related to the effective documentation of prototyping activity.
In this work, a printed coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed single band antenna based on expanded graphite material is introduced. The proposed antenna is based on a CPW-monopole antenna with a U-shape conductor strip connected with the ground. Expanded graphite, a grade of graphene, is used as a conductor to design the uniplanar antenna over a flexible paper substrate. The antenna is designed for 2.4 GHz applications. The antenna design procedures are discussed. The material preparation and analysis are illustrated. Finally, the antenna fabrication and measurements of the reflection coefficient are discussed. The measured antenna reflection coefficient agrees with the simulated one, ensuring the antenna validity for serving the required applications. The radiation antenna parameters are discussed and simulated results from two-simulation software are included for comparison. The antenna has a simulated gain of 4 dBi and simulated efficiency of around 90% at 2.4 GHz.
The World Health Organization set a target of a 15% relative reduction in the prevalence of insufficient physical activity (IPA) by 2025 among adolescents and adults globally. In Bangladesh, there are no national estimates of the prevalence of IPA among adolescents. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with IPA among adolescent girls and boys. Data for 4865 adolescent girls and 4907 adolescent boys, collected as a part of a National Nutrition Surveillance in 2018–19, were analysed for this study. A modified version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect physical activity data. The World Health Organization recommended cut-off points were used to estimate the prevalence of IPA. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with IPA. Prevalences of IPA among adolescent girls and boys were 50.3% and 29.0%, respectively, and the prevalence was significantly higher among early adolescents (10–14 years) than late adolescents (15–19 years) among both boys and girls. The IPA prevalence was highest among adolescents living in non-slum urban areas (girls: 77.7%; boys: 64.1%). For both boys and girls, younger age, non-slum urban residence, higher paternal education and increased television viewing time were significantly associated with IPA. Additionally, residing in slums was significantly associated with IPA only among the boys. Higher maternal education was associated with IPA only among the girls. This study identified several modifiable risk factors associated with IPA among adolescent boys and girls in Bangladesh. These factors should be addressed through comprehensive public health interventions to promote physical activity among adolescent girls and boys.
We characterized the morphological and anatomical adaptations of the lingual microstructures of the Eurasian collared dove and discussed their implications for its dietary niche. We analyzed tongues of nine S. decaocto using histological, histochemical, stereomicroscopic, and scanning electron microscopic techniques. Our findings showed that the tongue is relatively short with a tapered apex that carries a terminal lingual nail. However, the lingual body has median scales and is bordered laterally by filiform papillae. Further, the tongue body bears a distinctive papillary crest. The tongue root is nonpapillate and infiltered with orifices of the posterior salivary glands. The bulky laryngeal mound has a circular glottic fissure, carrying a single row of papillae at the rear edge. Concurrently, our histological and histochemical findings demonstrate that the tongue has taste buds, anterior and posterior salivary glands, along with an elongated entoglossum that extends from lingual apex to root. Besides, ovoid and globular mucous glands displayed intense alcianophilic reactions. More substantially, the palate is made up of three palatine ridges with a caudal choanal cleft that was bounded by two rows of palatine papillae. Our data indicate multiple and novel structural variations for the lingual and palatal sculptures coopted for their feeding style.
The testis of bamboo shark is characterized by diametric development leading to zonation architecture. Here, we investigated the staining pattern of 12 lectins in 6 groups of differential binding specificities within the germ, somatic, and interstitial cells of each zone. The neutral mucopolysaccharides appeared in the interstitial tissue in all the zones and became more significant in the spermatozoal–Sertoli cell junction. The cellular localization of the lectins varies in testicular zones and cell types. There was a gradual increase in glycosylation toward the degenerative zone. The increased intensity of most lectins in the interstitial cells indicates the association of glycoconjugates in their androgen-secreting activity. Statistical analyses showed a significant correlation between the groups of lectins and each lectin used, stronger response to lectins in the interstitial cells (ICs) than other cell types. Moreover, the response to glucosamine (GlcNAc), galactosamine (GalNAc), and fucose tended to be higher than glucose and galactose. Furthermore, the intensity of response was increased toward the degenerative zone. In addition, we can use peanut agglutinin (PNA) as an acrosomal marker in combination with other marker proteins for studying shark spermatogenesis. These findings refer to the crucial role of glycoconjugates in spermatogenesis in the bamboo shark testis.
Achieving robust and fast two-dimensional adaptive beamforming of phased array antennas is a challenging problem due to its high-computational complexity. To address this problem, a deep-learning-based beamforming method is presented in this paper. In particular, the optimum weight vector is computed by modeling the problem as a convolutional neural network (CNN), which is trained with I/O pairs obtained from the optimum Wiener solution. In order to exhibit the robustness of the new technique, it is applied on an 8 × 8 phased array antenna and compared with a shallow (non-deep) neural network namely, radial basis function neural network. The results reveal that the CNN leads to nearly optimal Wiener weights even in the presence of array imperfections.
There is a paucity of evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for symptomatic infection among children. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its risk factors in children and adolescents aged 0–18 years in Qatar. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all children aged 0–18 years diagnosed with COVID-19 using polymerase chain reaction in Qatar during the period 1st March to 31st July 2020. A generalised linear model with a binomial family and identity link was used to assess the association between selected factors and the prevalence of symptomatic infection. A total of 11 445 children with a median age of 8 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3–13 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19 was 36.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 35.7–37.5), and it was similar between children aged <5 years (37.8%), 5–9 years (34.3%) and 10 + years (37.3%). The most frequently reported symptoms among the symptomatic group were fever (73.5%), cough (34.8%), headache (23.2%) and sore throat (23.2%). Fever (82.8%) was more common in symptomatic children aged <5 years, while cough (38.7%) was more prevalent in those aged 10 years or older, compared to other age groups. Variables associated with an increased risk of symptomatic infection were; contact with confirmed cases (RD 0.21; 95% CI 0.20–0.23; P = 0.001), having visited a health care facility (RD 0.54; 95% CI 0.45–0.62; P = 0.001), and children aged under 5 years (RD 0.05; 95% CI 0.02–0.07; P = 0.001) or aged 10 years or older (RD 0.04; 95% CI 0.02–0.06; P = 0.001). A third of the children with COVID-19 were symptomatic with a higher proportion of fever in very young children and a higher proportion of cough in those between 10 and 18 years of age.
We aimed to assess the impact of the current pandemic on the mental well-being of undergraduate medical students of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Egypt.
We designed a structured anonymous online questionnaire and encourage students to fill it in on social platforms. The questionnaire is composed of seven parts, each one includes multiple choice questions aimed to measure the impact of the pandemic on different aspect of daily activities namely: academic performance, social and family relationship, eating and smoking habits, sleep pattern, physical activity and the Depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21). The last part was an open question where participants can state their comments about the experiences during the quarantine and how they affected their mental health.
A total of 1181 students from the six academic grades responded. Females and students in the third academic year showed the highest prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress. Overall, most respondents reported that the current pandemic had negative impacts on their academic performance (71%) and social relationship (67.5 %). The majority of the students stated that they became less physically active (74.6%) and 52.2% experienced a weight gain. Despite that 60% of the studied population rated their sleeping quality as ‘’very good’’ and ‘’fairly good’’, 45.3% and 39.6% suffered from increased sleeping hours and disturbed sleep respectively. Based on students’ responses of the DASS-21, over half of the participants (62.2%) were experiencing moderate to extremely severe stress and over 33% were consistent with symptoms of extremely severe anxiety. In respect of depression, nearly half of the sample (46.4%) can be described as having extremely severe depression according to the cut-off points of the DASS-21.
The current pandemic has increased the challenges and burdens on undergraduate medical students. These impacts can be more profound in developing countries such as Egypt. The levels of psychiatric symptoms are alarming compared to previous local and international studies. These unprecedented consequences should be addressed promptly through students’ counselling and psychiatric assistance. To date, this is the largest psychiatric and survey-based study conducted on Alexandria Faculty of Medicine.
Financial disclosure: The study was not funded by any organization, the authors did not receive any financial aids.
Medical students are vulnerable to infection by the coronavirus. Their awareness of the disease is crucial for their safety and for the management of the epidemic by spreading supportive information in their communities. The aim of this study was to assess coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among Egyptian medical students.
We conducted a cross-sectional study from the beginning of April to June 2020; a total of 439 undergraduate medical students (1st to 6th academic years) were assessed using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 33 questions, including 5 items regarding socio-demographic features, 23 items concerning COVID-19 related knowledge, 2 items regarding attitude, and 3 items related to preventive measures.
We observed an acceptable level of knowledge (74.3%) among the sample studied. Preclinical and female students were significantly more optimistic as 69.1% expected successful control of COVID-19, and 48.9% predicted that Egypt will win the fight against COVID-19. The majority of participants reported wearing a facemask in public places as a preventive measure (56.7%).
Egyptian medical students had an acceptable level of knowledge, positive attitude, and good practices of preventive measures regarding the COVID-19 virus. There is no significant difference in almost all items of knowledge, attitude, and practices in relation to gender or academic grade.
COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a global health crisis. The gut microbiome critically affects the immune system, and some respiratory infections are associated with changes in the gut microbiome; here, we evaluated the role of nutritional and lifestyle habits that modulate gut microbiota on COVID-19 outcomes in a longitudinal cohort study that included 200 patients infected with COVID-19. Of these, 122 cases were mild and seventy-eight were moderate, according to WHO classification. After detailed explanation by a consultant in clinical nutrition, participants responded to a written questionnaire on daily sugar, prebiotic intake in food, sleeping hours, exercise duration and antibiotic prescription, during the past 1 year before infection. Daily consumption of prebiotic-containing foods, less sugar, regular exercise, adequate sleep and fewer antibiotic prescriptions led to a milder disease and rapid virus clearance. Additionally, data on these factors were compiled into a single score, the ESSAP score (Exercise, Sugar consumption, Sleeping hours, Antibiotics taken, and Prebiotics consumption; 0–11 points), median ESSAP score was 5 for both mild and moderate cases; however, the range was 4–8 in mild cases, but 1–6 in moderate (P = 0·001, OR: 4·2, 95 % CI 1·9, 9·1); our results showed a negative correlation between regular consumption of yogurt containing probiotics and disease severity (P = 0·007, OR: 1·6, 95 % CI 1·1, 2·1). Mild COVID-19 disease was associated with 10–20 min of daily exercise (P = 0·016), sleeping at least 8 h daily, prescribed antibiotics less than 5 times per year (P = 0·077) and ate plenty of prebiotic-containing food.
Pigeonpea is an important grain legume. It contributes to the improvement of soil fertility through biological nitrogen (N) fixation. However, the symbiotic efficiency of pigeonpea with native soil rhizobia has not been determined adequately. This study was designed to determine the variation in the N fixation ability of pigeonpea inoculated with the native rhizobia. Forty soil samples were collected from diverse locations across South Africa and used for inoculating pigeonpea seed. Each pigeonpea genotype was inoculated separately with each soil sample and raised in a nitrogen-depleted growth medium in the greenhouse. A split-plot experimental design was used in the study. Several N fixation variables of pigeonpea were measured. There was >40.0% difference in the number of nodules between genotypes ‘Ex-PP-MD-321’ and ‘Mpuma-B-Spot’ but the nodule dry weight between the two genotypes was >80.0%. In contrast, the heaviest dry shoots (0.4513 g), weighed 52.0% heavier than those that were observed for ‘Mpuma-B-Spot’. Pigeonpea showed differential N fixation ability with the nodules, suggesting that there was potential to select for optimum host × rhizobial isolate combinations for the process and to expand the production area of the crop.
Adequate dietary intake during pregnancy is vital for the health and nutritional status of both mother and fetus. The nutritional status of reproductive age women in Pakistan is poor, with 14 % being underweight (BMI < 18·5) and 42 % experiencing Fe deficiency anaemia. This may stem from beliefs, practices and other barriers influencing dietary intake. This qualitative study seeks to determine which factors impact dietary intake during pregnancy in rural Punjab.
In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted and then analysed using thematic analysis.
Three purposively selected rural districts (Sahiwal, Okara and Pakpatan) with the highest prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition in the province of Punjab, Pakistan
Mothers with children under age two (n 29) and healthcare providers with at least 5 years of experience working in the district (n 12).
We identified a combination of physiological, socio-cultural and structural barriers that inhibited healthful dietary intake during pregnancy. The primary physiological barriers to optimal dietary intake and dietary practices included food aversions and food cravings. Food classification, fear of a difficult childbirth, fear of high blood pressure and household food politics were the principal socio-cultural barriers. Additionally, two structural barriers, inadequate antenatal counseling and a lack of affordable food options, were identified.
Our study demonstrates that complex barriers prevent pregnant women in the Punjab area from consuming adequate dietary intake and that antenatal health education programmes and structural interventions are needed to support healthful dietary practices during this critical period.
Tramadol is used worldwide and is listed in many medical guidelines to treat both acute and chronic pains. There is a growing evidence of abuse of tramadol in some African and West Asian countries. Tramadol has some side effects. The present study designed to follow up the treatment of the cellular responses which might be induced in the kidney of tramadol mice. Treated mice received daily injection of tramadol dose (125 μg/100 g b.wt) for 20 and 40 days. Other mice received tramadol for 40 days and then were divided into three groups: the first received distilled water, the second received Lagenaria siceraria, and the third received melatonin daily for 40 days. Both the daily injection of tramadol for 20 and 40 days resulted in radical, extensive, and severe alterations in the normal histological architecture of the kidney. Treatment with Lagenaria siceraria or melatonin after tramadol administration for a long-term, markedly changed the collagen content and other chemical components, that may reach nearly normal levels. Such findings propose that although tramadol has many cytological and histopathological side effects on the kidneys of male mice, the treatments via Lagenaria siceraria and melatonin have effective therapeutic impacts on the tramadol side effects.