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This study evaluated the effect of roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratio associated with a variable particle size of physically effective neutral detergent fibre (peNDF8) in the forage (Tifton-85 hay) on the performance, carcass traits and meat quality of lambs. Seventy-two 4-month-old, non-castrated Santa Ines male lambs (23.5 ± 2.32 kg BW) were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement [two peNDF8 hay particle sizes (13 and 6 mm) and two R:C ratios (700:300 and 500:500 g/kg DM total)]. DMI, DM, NFC and TDN digestibility's, N-intake and N-faecal excretion were affected by the R:C ratio (P < 0.05). However, the N-retained was not affected by the studied variables (P > 0.05). It was observed an interaction (P < 0.05) between the peNDF8 and R:C ratios for final BW, average daily gain (ADG), colour parameters and pH 24 h. The lower roughage ratio provided greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of C14:1, C16:1–cis9, C18:1–cis9, ΣMUFA, Σn–6:Σn–3 and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic index, enzymatic activity Δ9desaturase-C16 and -C18. Lambs fed a lower roughage diet had improved performance and feed efficiency, however, presented reduced polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations in the meat, especially Σn–3 family. Higher roughage diet and larger peNDF8 particle size improved the concentrations of PUFA while decreased Σn–6:Σn–3 ratio in meat. Larger peNDF8 particle size associated with higher roughage proportion, have reduced animal performance however, it increased protein concentration, a* and C* colour parameter without affecting fatty acids profile of Longissimus lumborum muscle.
Identifying dietary patterns in different environments attended by children is relevant to guide public politics. The aim of this study was to analyse the factors associated with dietary patterns of children under 2 years of age in childcare centres and at homes. This transversal study was enrolled in municipal childcare centres of Guaratuba, Paraná, Brazil. Food consumption data from 256 children were obtained by the food record method. From the consumption data, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis using the principal component method in each environment. ‘Traditional’ patterns were observed in both environments; the ‘less healthy’ pattern was found only at homes. Other patterns identified in childcare centres include ‘snacks’, ‘nutritive’ and ‘pasta and meats’; at homes, it was possible to identify patterns such as ‘milk and cereals’ and ‘mixed’. Children over 12 months presented higher scores for all the patterns in both environments. Obese children had lower scores for all the patterns in childcare centres. There was an association between maternal age below 21 years and higher adherence to a ‘less healthy’ pattern, maternal level of education less than 8 years and lower adherence to the ‘mixed’ pattern and lower familiar income per capita and higher adherence to the ‘snacks’ and ‘traditional’ patterns in childcare centres. In conclusion, adherence to dietary patterns was associated with socio-economic, demographic variables and nutritional status and further studies are needed, especially those with a longitudinal design, enabling the monitoring of dietary patterns.
We investigated the effects of pathogens associated with subclinical intramammary infections on yield, composition and quality indicators of goat milk. By means of a longitudinal study, individual half udder milk samples (n = 132) were collected at different lactation periods and assessed for milk yield and physicochemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC) and microbiological culture. Staphylococci species accounted for the great majority of the isolates (96.1%). Intramammary infections significantly reduced fat and total solids in goat milk and increased both SCC and TBC. However, these indicators were significantly higher in udder halves affected by S. aureus compared with other staphylococci species.
This work aimed to evaluate the effects of sire's and dam's biological type, dam's age class at calving and individual heterozygosis, and to estimate variance components for weaning weight adjusted to 210 days (WW210) in beef cattle of different breed groups. Records of 13 687 animals, obtained from 2000 to 2007, were used. Bulls from the biological types Zebu (N), Adapted (A), British (B), Continental (C) and ¼N|¼A|¼B|¼C were mated with purebred zebu (N) and crossbred females (½C|½N and ½B|½N). Dam age at calving was 3–12 years. The influence of several effects on WW210 was tested using the least square method. Variance component analysis was performed using a Bayesian approach. The model included contemporary group, dam's age class at calving, sire's and dam's biological types as systematic effects, animal's age and individual heterozygosis as linear covariates, and direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental and residual effects as random effects. The progeny of bulls from biological type B and the crossbred cows showed higher WW210 means. Cows at 6–7 years old weaned heavier calves. Direct and maternal heritability estimates for WW210 were 0.5 ± 0.04 and 0.1 ± 0.02, respectively. Calves with 100% individual heterozygosis weighed on average 25.98 kg more at weaning compared to progenies from pure breeds. Sire's and dam's biological types influence the WW210 of the crossed progenies. Crossbred cows produce heavier calves compared to biological type N cows. These results and the obtained direct and maternal heritabilities suggest it is possible to choose the lines of sires and dams that could be used to make the crosses to obtain progenies with better performance for WW210.
The production of specialty coffee has several factors and parameters that are added up in the course of production, so that the quality is expressed in the act of consumption. Based on this scenario, this study included the analysis of ten genotypes of arabica coffee, the materials being subjected to irrigated and rainfed water regimes, in a low altitude region, to identify responses for sensory and physical–chemical quality. The genotypes were evaluated in a split-plot scheme with a randomized block design, with three replications. Arabica coffee fruits were harvested with 80% cherry seeds and processed by the wet method. Subsequently, the characteristics related to physical–chemical and sensory analyses were evaluated. The genotypes of the Paraíso group showed great variability for the physical–chemical and sensory variables for rainfed and irrigated regimes. The genotypes of the Catuaí group, however, showed less variability for sensory characteristics in both cultivation environments and for physical–chemical characteristics in the irrigated regime. In the sensorial data set, the genotypes Catuaí 144 CCF and Catuaí 144 SFC (when irrigated) and Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-2, Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-11 and Catucaí 24-137 (rainfed cultivation), are more favourable to the production of specialty coffee at low altitude.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
The recently discovered massive and stockwork sulphide mineralization of Semblana-Rosa Magra and Monte Branco, situated ESE of the Neves–Corvo volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) deposit in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) is presented. Geological setting and tectonic model is discussed based on proxies such as palynostratigraphy and U–Pb zircon geochronology. The mineralization is found within the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex (VSC) Lower sequence, which includes felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolites) with U–Pb ages in zircons of 359.6 ± 1.6 Ma, and black shales of the Neves Formation of late Strunian age. Massive sulphides are enveloped by these shales, implying that felsic volcanism, mineralization and shale sedimentation are essentially coeval. This circumstance is considered highly prospective, as it represents an important exploration vector to target VMS mineralization across the IPB, in areas where the Lower VSC sequence is present. The Upper VSC sequence, with siliciclastic and volcanogenic sedimentary rocks of middle–late Visean age, shows no massive mineralization but a late Tournaisian (350.9 ± 2.3 Ma) volcanism with disseminated sulphides was also identified. Nevertheless, stratigraphic palynological gaps were found within the Strunian and in the Tournaisian sediments, between the Lower and Upper VSC sequences, reflecting probable erosion and uplift mechanisms linked with extensional tectonics. The Semblana and Monte Branco deposits and the Rosa Magra stockwork are enclosed by tectonic sheets that dismembered the VSC sequence in a fold-and-thrust tectonic complex, characteristic of the NE Neves–Corvo region. The methodologies used allow a geological comparison between Neves–Corvo and other IPB mine regions such as Lousal–Caveira, Herrerias, Tharsis and Aznalcollar.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics and chemical composition of cochineal nopal cactus silage additives with urea or Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), as well as the association of both additives in four storage times (7, 15, 60 and 120 days) and during aerobic stability, with evaluations at 0, 48 and 96 h. Four silages were used: no additive, addition of 2% urea, addition of LB and addition of 2% urea and LB. The study was divided into two experiments: the first experiment evaluated the silages at different storage times, and the second experiment evaluated the silages during the aerobic stability test. In both experiments, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 4 and 4 × 3) with three replicates per treatment. After the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria predominated in all treatments. The concentration of lactic acid increased significantly from 60 days of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid varied significantly between the storage times only for the silages treated with urea and LB alone. The silage treated with urea maintained a constant pH value up to 120 days of storage. During the 96 h aerobic stability test, no breaking in the stability of silages was observed. The exclusive or associated use of urea and LB promotes improvement in the fermentative characteristics of cochineal nopal cactus silage, without major alterations in the chemical composition or interfering with the aerobic stability of the silages.
It was aimed to simultaneously study standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan (Trp) and lysine (Lys) for gilts. A digestibility assay was previously conducted to determine the SID amino acid in the basal diet (low levels of SID Trp and Lys). Sixty-four gilts (15.04 ± 1.44 kg) were allotted to 16 diets in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement (1.55, 1.85, 2.15 and 2.45 g/kg SID Trp and 9.72, 11.12, 12.52 and 13.92 g/kg SID Lys) with four replicates per treatment. Performance, longissimus muscle (LM), backfat thickness (BF) and blood variables were evaluated. An interaction was observed for G:F, and by response surface model, the optimum Trp level was achieved at 2.15 g/kg (0.159 g/MJ of ME). A quadratic effect of Trp was observed on body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG); the daily feed intake increased linearly as Trp increased. The optimum Trp levels of 2.25 and 2.24 g/kg were estimated for BW and ADG, respectively. The BF increased with increasing levels of Trp. There was a quadratic and linear effect of Trp and Lys, respectively, on the LM, in which the optimum Trp level was determined as 2.05 g/kg in the diet. Plasma urea nitrogen decreased as Trp and Lys levels increased. Using estimates provided by response surface, maximized G:F ratio was obtained at 2.15 g SID Trp/kg of diet and at least 13.92 g SID Lys/kg of diet is necessary to optimize the G:F for 15–30 kg gilts, providing a Trp:Lys ratio of 15.4:100.
This position paper describes a common stand on methodology of human attitudes and behaviour that is suitable to use in studies regarding cow−calf contact (CCC) in dairy production, in order to create a common knowledge base and foundation for future recommendations of CCC systems. We describe how different quantitative and qualitative methods can be used to study human attitudes to CCC as well as farmer or consumer behaviour. We aim to contribute to a better understanding of the available methods, and hope that this paper can be used as a guideline for future studies in this area.
Due to increasing public concern regarding separation of the dairy cow and calf within the first days after birth, alternative systems, where cows and calves stay in contact for an extended period, are receiving increasing interest from a broad array of researchers and other stakeholders. With more research in the area, there is a risk of inconsistencies emerging in the use of terminology. To create a better consensus in further discussions, the aim of this Research Reflection is to provide definitions and propose a common terminology for cow-calf contact in dairy production. We also suggest definitions for various systems allowing cow-calf contact and describe the distinct phases of cow-calf contact systems.
This article proposes a method for incremental data dimensionality reduction in loop closure detection for robotic autonomous navigation. The approach uses dominant eigenvector concept for: (a) spectral description of visual datasets and (b) representation in low dimension. Unlike most other papers on data dimensionality reduction (which is done in batch mode), our method combines a sliding window technique and coordinate transformation to achieve dimensionality reduction in incremental data. Experiments in both simulated and real scenarios were performed and the results are suitable.
The HCV has been associated with significant impairment of quality of life, irrespective of the degree of liver injury. The association of this disease with psychiatric comorbidities, especially depression, has been well described in the scientific literature. However, despite also significantly affect the quality of life of individuals, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has not been well studied in this population.
Evaluate whether individuals perceive the liver disease as a potentially traumatic experience and investigate the impact of PTSD diagnosis on health-related quality of life in hepatitis C virus-infected subjects.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 127 consecutive hepatitis C-infected outpatients. We investigated Traumatic Experiences and the subject's perception about the disease using the Trauma History Questionnaire. PTSD and others psychiatry diagnoses were assessed trough M.I.N.I. PLUS. Quality of life was assessed by the Short-Form 36.
Approximately 38.6% of the patients perceived the hepatitis C as a traumatic experience, 60.7% had PTSD diagnosis. It were no associate with the disease severity (been eligible for transplant), however there was a significant association with diagnosis of PTSD (p = 0.003). Roughly 22% of the sample showed PTSD diagnosis. PTSD imposed a significant impairment in quality of life of individuals in seven of the eight domains in the bivariate and multivariate analysis. This difference remained significant after adjustment for covariates such as major depressive disorder comorbidity.
The results suggest high prevalence of PTSD diagnosis in VHC infected patients and it impose impairment in their quality of life.
Fatigue is an important clinical finding in Hepatitis Virus Chronic Infection. However, the absence of scales to measure fatigue, translated and validated for Brazilian Portuguese, prevents access to information essential to clarify specific clinical conditions in this population.
To determine the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Impact Scale for Daily Use (D-FIS), in Brazilian Portuguese, in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection.
In this cross-sectional study, the authors evaluated the D-FIS in 101 outpatients, followed at the reference hospital.
Relevant psychometric D-FIS results were: floor effect proved to be 1%; skewness was 0.46; item homogeneity was 0.59 and SEM (SD = 8.51) was 2.4. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.920 and item-total correlation yielded coefficients ranging from 0.65 (item 1) to 0.85 (item 3). In a linear regression model, fatigue and depression influenced the self-report quality of life.
This study concludes that the Fatigue Scale for Daily use in Brazilian Portuguese can be considered as a useful tool to verify the presence of fatigue in patients with hepatitis viruses B and C.
Leprosy is an infectious disease with high physical disability and is strongly associated with chronic pain, since there may be significant impairment of the peripheral nervous system. Additionally, the stigma associated with the label of leprosy persists and imposes a high social commitment of the disease.
Describe the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in leprosy patients and check if they had been previously diagnosed and were in psychiatric care.
The study was conducted with a sample of 120 leprosy patients treated at two hospitals for leprosy: Hospital Dom Rodrigo de Menezes and University Hospital of Federal University of Bahia, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Survey participants were older than 18 years of age, had confirmed the diagnosis of leprosy and were in antimicrobial treatment. Patients were evaluated face to face with a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINIPlus) in Portuguese. The period of data collection was limited from October 2009 to June 2012.
The assessment using the MINI-Plus showed that 34 (28.33%) patients did not have any psychiatric diagnosis and 86 (71.66%) had at least one. Of these 86 patients, 25(20.83%), met the criteria for one diagnosis, 26 (21.66%) had two diagnoses and the rest, 35 (29.16%), had three or more psychiatric diagnoses. All patients with moderate or high risk for suicide had one or more psychiatric comorbidities.
Leprosy patients have a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities. Beyond that, most of them had no previous psychiatric diagnosis and the absolute majority were not in treatment.
Humans have been shown to be particularly sensitive to dynamic information processing. When simple animations are shown which, moreover, is compatible with biological and/or social events, perception obeys that biological and/or social interpretation. Likewise, when the animation is compatible with a physical event (mechanical causality), the correspondent causal structure is brought to awareness. The perception of these events is, in sum, direct, irresistible and automatic. Although perception of causality impairments are well documented in clinical populations (e.g. autism), literature is short in studies on this matter in schizophrenia. Both control and schizophrenia groups were shown a set of animations featuring two squares moving in the same direction. Relative distances and movements were systematically manipulated so that a continuous variation between physical, social and independent events was achieved. In each trial, one of those animations was displayed at random and the subjects asked to identify which of three possible causal structures (“physical”, “social” or “independent”) best matched the event seen. Schizophrenics were less prone to provide social causality responses, but more inclined to independent or physical causality perceptions. Moreover, the physical to social causality threshold was shown to be higher for schizophrenic patients. Taken as a whole, these results suggest an apprehension deficit in social events perception in schizophrenic patients.
The liaison psychiatry (LP) is a feature used by the psychiatrist in order to improve the management of patients with mental suffering and/or mental disorder admitted to general hospital.
To characterize the epidemiological profile of hospitalized patients at the university hospital of the federal university of Sergipe (HU-UFS) submitted to LP.
retrospective and observational study, through analysis of medical records of patients admitted in the wards of clinical medicine and surgery from the HU-UFS, in the period from January to December 2015, submitted to LP. The information collected fed a specific questionnaire developed by the authors, intended for research of socio-demographic data and clinical profile.
the frequency of request for IP was of 3.5%, with the majority of applications was performed by clinical medicine (71.2%), while the surgical clinic was responsible for 28.8%. The main reason for the request of LP was the presence of depressive symptoms (49.1%). There was a predominance of females (52.5%) and the mean age was 45.9 ± 14.6 years.
The frequency of request for LP was very low, suggesting a difficulty in the early detection of mental disorders by physicians. This finding points to an underreporting of cases, since the prevalence of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients is over 50% in this institution.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The diagnosis of a primary psychiatric disorder requires the exclusion of an organic etiology. However, Brazilian public hospitals commonly lack resources. Diagnostic precision requires also the congruence of the clinical history and the natural history of the investigated disorder.
This study reports a rare case of hallucinations and retrograde amnesia, due to organic brain lesion but without other cognitive impairments.
Fifty-three-years-old male Brazilian, was evaluated after one year in Brazil after being missing for 25 years in USA. Encountering his family, he did not recognize his mother, did not remember his life in Brazil, including his infancy, nationality and mother language. He was found as a homeless in poor hygiene. In the exam, he only presented retrograde amnesia, without any disturbances of fixation memory, intelligence, formal thought, affect or psychomotor function. Patient reported hallucinations. Blood tests showed no abnormalities. EEG showed diffuse slow rhythms. Brain MRI showed cortical and hippocampal atrophy. After weekly evaluations for 5 months, he remained stable despite lack of prescription. Some weeks after MRI, patient reported frequent alcohol and inhalant use when missing. No hints of secondary gain were found until present.
Organic etiology was suspected due to atypical presentation: hallucinations, evocative amnesia, with no further cognitive and affect disturbances. This is not compatible with schizophrenia, dementia or dissociative disorder. The brain abnormalities and recent data highly suggest this etiological hypothesis.
Since this clinical presentation does not fit into any specific psychiatric category, the case will continue to be studied.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Some kinds of hallucinations are misdiagnosed due to primary psychotic disorders. Hallucinations can be classified into 3 categories: true hallucinations, pseudo-hallucinations and hallucinosis. True hallucinations are different from the others due to incapacity of insight of the unreal and pathologic character of the phenomenon.
This study reports a case initially diagnosed as psychotic depression that after a rigorous psychopathologic investigation revealed to be an unspecified dissociative disorder.
Twenty-four-year-old female, with a past of psychiatric treatment since 18-years-old, reports brief dysphoric episodes associated with visions of bleeding clowns and skulls that were always connected to a psychosocial stressor. At the interview she asserts that she understands those symptoms as pathological and caused by her mind, and associate them with external stressors. These episodes were brief and remitted spontaneously. The mental state examination did not show any psychopathological disturbance. The reduction and suspension of antipsychotics did not result in worsening of these symptoms.
The psychopathological disturbances reported by the patient did not represent a true hallucination. The presence of insight, the evolution and duration of the symptoms, and the association with psychosocial stressors has shown that the phenomena and symptoms are associated to a dissociative disorder. Therefore, the prescription of antipsychotics involves unnecessary pharmacological and clinical risks for this patient at the moment.
Despite the use of psychopathology is considered by some as outdated, it is still an important semiological instrument for an accurate diagnosis and planning therapeutic conduct.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present the latest data release of the Planetary Nebulae Spectrograph Survey (PNS) of ten lenticular galaxies and two spiral galaxies. With this data set we are able to recover the galaxies’ kinematics out to several effective radii. We use a maximum likelihood method to decompose the disk and spheroid kinematics and we compare it with the kinematics of spiral and elliptical galaxies. We build the Tully- Fisher (TF) relation for these galaxies and we compare with data from the literature and simulations. We find that the disks of lenticular galaxies are hotter than the disks of spiral galaxies at low redshifts, but still dominated by rotation velocity. The mechanism responsible for the formation of these lenticular galaxies is neither major mergers, nor a gentle quenching driven by stripping or Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback.