To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To assess the food environment at OsloMet, through the nutritional profile and processing level of available commercial foods and drinks, as well as to determine food-purchasing behaviours, preferences and opinions on the food environment, in order to identify whether interventions on campus need to be conducted.
Cross-sectional descriptive study.
Pilestredet and Kjeller campus of OsloMet (Norway).
To analyse the nutritional profile of products offered at all food outlets (seven canteens, three coffee shops and two vending machines) at the main campuses three criteria were applied: those proposed by the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition, the UK nutrient profiling model and those of the Food and Drink Industry Professional Practices Committee Norway. In addition, products were classified by processing level, using the NOVA system. Food purchasing, food choice behaviours and opinions were analysed through a survey online, in which 129 subjects participated.
With regard to the first of the objectives, the combination of the above-mentioned criteria showed that 39·8 % of the products were ‘unhealthy’ and 85·9 % were ‘ultra-processed’. Regarding the second objective, the most important determinants of food choice were taste, convenience, and cost and nutrition/health value. The most common improvements suggested were lowering the cost, improving the allergen information on labelling and increasing the variety of fresh and healthy foods.
A high proportion of the products offered were considered ‘unhealthy’ and highly processed. Interventions that improve food prices, availability and information on labelling would be well-received in this community.
The present study aimed to assess infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and the tracking of dietary diversity score (DDS), intakes of Fe- and vitamin A-rich foods and meal frequency in a peri-urban area in Nepal. Furthermore, to explore whether sociodemographic factors were associated with tracking patterns of these IYCF practices.
Longitudinal study. Monthly food intake was measured by 24 h recall. Four time slots were used (9–12, 13–16, 17–20 and 21–24 months). Tracking of IYCF practices was investigated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models and Cohen’s weighted kappa. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify determinants for tracking of the IYCF practices.
Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal.
Children (n 229) aged 9–24 months, randomly selected.
Prevalence of minimum meal frequency was higher than for minimum dietary diversity at all time slots. Tracking based on absolute measures (GEE models) was moderate for DDS (0·48) and meal frequency (0·53), and low for intakes of Fe- (0·23) and vitamin A-rich (0·35) foods. Tracking based on rank measured was moderate for DDS and meal frequency, and fair for Fe- and vitamin A-rich foods. Low socio-economic status significantly increased the odds (OR; 95 % CI) of tracking of low v. high DDS (3·31; 1·44, 7·60) and meal frequency (3·46; 1·54, 7·76).
Low tracking for intakes of Fe- and vitamin A-rich foods implies that interventions to improve these IYCF practices must address underlying causes for irregular intake to have sustainable effects.
To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin.
A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013–February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006–2007.
Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate.
One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated.
Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2).
Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.
The main objectives were to assess the adequacy of the micronutrient intakes of lactating women in a peri-urban area in Nepal and to describe the relationships between micronutrient intake adequacy, dietary diversity and sociodemographic variables.
A cross-sectional survey was performed during 2008–2009. We used 24 h dietary recall to assess dietary intake on three non-consecutive days and calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of the usual intake of eleven micronutrients and the overall mean probability of adequacy (MPA). A mean dietary diversity score (MDDS) was calculated of eight food groups averaged over 3 d. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the determinants of the MPA.
Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal.
Lactating women (n 500), 17–44 years old, randomly selected.
The mean usual energy intake was 8464 (sd 1305) kJ/d (2023 (sd 312) kcal/d), while the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 11 %, 13 % and 76 %, respectively. The mean usual micronutrient intakes were below the estimated average requirements for all micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and Zn. The MPA across eleven micronutrients was 0·19 (sd 0·16). The diet was found to be monotonous (MDDS was 3·9 (sd 1·0)) and rice contributed to about 60 % of the energy intake. The multiple regression analyses showed that MPA was positively associated with energy intake, dietary diversity, women’s educational level and socio-economic status, and was higher in the winter.
The low micronutrient intakes are probably explained by low dietary diversity and a low intake of micronutrient-rich foods.
The main objective was to assess iodine status (thyroid volume (Tvol) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC)) and their determinants in Saharawi refugee women.
A cross-sectional survey was performed during January–February 2007. Tvol was measured by ultrasound and iodine concentration was analysed in spot urine samples and in household drinking water. Anthropometry and Hb concentration were measured and background variables were collected using pre-coded questionnaires.
The survey was undertaken in four long-term refugee camps in the Algerian desert.
Non-pregnant women (n 394), 15–45 years old, randomly selected.
Median (25th percentile–75th percentile (P25–P75)) UIC was 466 (294–725) μg/l. Seventy-four per cent had UIC above 300 μg/l and 46 % above 500 μg/l. Median (P25–P75) Tvol was 9·4 (7·4–12·0) ml and the goitre prevalence was 22 %. UIC was positively associated with iodine in drinking water and negatively associated with breast-feeding, and these two variables explained 28 % of the variation in UIC. The mean (sd) Hb level was 11·8 (2·4) g/dl. In total 46 % were anaemic with 14 %, 25 % and 7 %, classified with respectively mild, moderate and severe anaemia.
The Saharawi women had high UIC, high levels of iodine in drinking water and increased Tvol and probably suffered from iodine-induced goitre. The high prevalence of anaemia is considered to be a severe public health concern. To what extent the excessive iodine intake and the anaemia have affected thyroid function is unknown and should be addressed in future studies.
To assess the prevalence of enlarged thyroid volume (Tvol) in Saharawi refugee children, and their urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and to identify possible sources of excess iodine intake.
A cross-sectional survey was performed during January–February 2007. Tvol was measured by ultrasound and iodine concentration was analysed in casual urine samples, in household drinking water and in milk samples from household livestock.
The study was undertaken in four refugee camps in the Algerian desert.
The subjects were 421 Saharawi children, 6–14 years old.
Enlarged Tvol was found in 56 % (Tvol-for-age) and 86 % (Tvol-for-body-surface-area) of the children. The median (25th percentile–75th percentile, P25–P75) UIC was 565 (357–887) μg/l. The median (P25–P75) iodine concentration in household drinking water was 108 (77–297) μg/l. None of the children had UIC below 100 μg/l, 16 % had UIC between 100 and 299 μg/l, and 84 % had UIC above 300 μg/l. There was a positive association between Tvol and whether the household possessed livestock.
The children are suffering from endemic goitre and high UIC caused probably by an excessive intake of iodine. The excessive iodine intakes probably originate from drinking water and milk.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.