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Associations have been shown between father’s absence and menarcheal age, but most studies have focused on absence resulting from divorce, abandonment or death. Little research has been conducted to evaluate the effect on menarcheal age of paternal absence through migrant work. In a sample of 400 middle school students, this study examined the association between paternal migrant work and menarcheal age against a backdrop of extensive rural-to-urban migration in China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire, including social-demographic characteristics, aspects of family relationships, information about father’s migrant work and age at menarche. After adjusting for BMI, parent marital status and perceived relationship with mother, lower self-perceived quality of father–daughter relationship (both ‘father present, relationship poor’ and ‘father absent, relationship poor’) and lower frequency of contact with the father were associated with higher odds for early menarche. These findings suggest that the assumption that father’s absence for work influences the timing of menarche needs to be examined in the context of the quality of the father–daughter relationship and paternal care, which appear to play a critical role in the timing of menarche. These findings also emphasize the importance of enhancing paternal involvement and improving father–daughter relationships in the development of appropriate reproductive strategy in daughters.
Thermomigration (TM) and electromigration (EM) are two persistent reliability issues and they generally appear concurrently in solder joints. Many previous studies have attempted to understand the fundamental principles behind these phenomena with the majority of which focusing their interest into the faster migration elements in solders like Bi, Ni, or Cu. However, Sn as the slower migration element has not received that much attention. In the present study, a special linearly symmetrical structure was used. An unusual TM phenomenon of Sn atoms in the Sn58Bi solder joint was observed. The unusual TM of Sn atoms along the vertical edges was attributed to the coupled effect of the EM in the horizontal direction and the TM in vertical direction. The relationships between the microstructural characteristics and the temperature distribution were established. The results also indicated that elevated temperature and sufficient thermal gradient were the two major factors that caused TM.
Creep and electromigration (EM) have been two reliability concerns in microelectronic devices for a long time. The related failure mechanisms have been widely investigated and comprehended individually. However, there is a lack of attention with regard to the interaction(s) between current density and creep, the coupling effect of which is more analogous to the real service conditions of lead-free solder joint. In this study, a series of experiments were carried out on the simple shear lap joint to investigate the effects of current density magnitude on the creep behavior of solder joints. The results indicated that dislocation creep was the main failure mechanism for low current density sample. For high current density sample, the failure mechanism was mainly dominated by copper atom migrating process which led the joint experience a higher risk of brittle fracture failure.
Zr70Ni23Ti7 alloy contains a single amorphous phase when it is melt-spun at a wheel surface velocity over 20 m/s. The crystallization of these amorphous ribbons takes place through two exothermic reactions and shows a significant supercooled liquid region of about 30 K, indicating that the Zr70Ni23Ti7 alloy has a good glass-forming ability. The crystallization products of the first exothermic reaction for the ribbon prepared at a wheel surface velocity of 40 m/s are mainly an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase (I-phase) and some Zr2Ni phases. Further heating to a higher temperature will lead to the transformation of the metastable I-phase to Zr2Ni. Some icosahedral atomic clusters with a structure similar to those in face-centered-cubic Zr2Ni may exist in the alloy after rapid quenching, and most of them may act as nuclei of I-phase. The formation of I-phase in this alloy without any noble metals may be due to the proper atomic ratios in the system.
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