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Hyper-redundant robots have good prospects for applications in confined space due to their high flexibility and slim body size. However, the super-redundant structure brings great challenges for its inverse kinematics with shape constraints. Unfortunately, traditional Jacobian pseudo-inverse-based inverse kinematics method and forward and backward reaching inverse kinematics (FABRIK) method are difficult to constrain the arm shape and realize trajectory tracking in confined spaces. To solve this problem, we propose a shape-controllable FABRIK method to satisfy the given path and shape constraints. Firstly, the kinematic model of the hyper-redundant robot is established, and the canonical FABRIK method is introduced. Based on the preliminary works, the single-layer improved FABRIK method is developed to solve the position and pointing inverse kinematics considering path environment and joint angle constraints instead of two-layer geometric iterations. For tracking the desired end roll angles, the polygonal virtual arm is designed. The real arm roll angle is achieved by controlling its winding on the virtual arm. In this way, the shape can be controlled. Finally, we compare the proposed method with other three approaches by simulations. Results show that the proposed method is more efficient and the arm shape is controllable.
Dietary antioxidant indices (DAI) may be potentially associated with relative telomere length (RTL) of leucocytes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DAI and RTL. A cross-sectional study involving 1656 participants was conducted. A generalised linear regression model and a restricted cubic spline model were used to assess the correlation of DAI and its components with RTL. Generalised linear regression analysis revealed that DAI (β = 0·005, P = 0·002) and the intake of its constituents vitamin C (β = 0·043, P = 0·027), vitamin E (β = 0·088, P < 0·001), Se (β = 0·075, P = 0·003), and Zn (β = 0·075, P = 0·023) were significantly and positively correlated with RTL. Sex-stratified analysis showed that DAI (β = 0·006, P = 0·005) and its constituents vitamin E (β = 0·083, P = 0·012), Se (β = 0·093, P = 0·006), and Zn (β = 0·092, P = 0·034) were significantly and positively correlated with RTL among females. Meanwhile, among males, only vitamin E intake (β = 0·089, P = 0·013) was significantly and positively associated with RTL. Restricted cubic spline analysis revealed linear positive associations between DAI and its constituents’ (vitamin E, Se and Zn) intake and RTL in the total population. Sex-stratified analysis revealed a linear positive correlation between DAI and its constituents’ (vitamin E, Se and Zn) intake and RTL in females. Our study found a significant positive correlation between DAI and RTL, with sex differences.
In today’s society with enormous work and study pressures, people’s mental health issues are increasingly receiving attention. Bipolar disorder is one of the serious mental illnesses that has a significant impact on patients’ lives and mental health. This study aims to explore the impact of ideological and political education combined with psychological care on patients with bipolar disorder.
Subjects and Methods
The study selected 200 patients with bipolar disorder as the experimental subjects and randomly divided them into an experimental group and a control group, with 100 patients in each group. The experimental group received treatment with ideological and political education combined with psychological care, while the control group received traditional psychological intervention treatment for a duration of 6 months. After completion, the patient’s symptoms were evaluated using the Bipolar Disorder Control Scale and the results were statistically analyzed using SPSS23.0 software.
The research results showed that patients in the experimental group showed significant improvements in emotional control and the attitudes toward work and life, with an overall decrease of 20% in depression and arrogance levels.
The research results indicate that combining ideological and political education with psychological care is an effective comprehensive intervention method that can improve the overall rehabilitation level of patients with bipolar disorder, and is worth promoting and applying in clinical practice.
It is very challenging for robots to perform grinding and polishing tasks on surfaces with unknown geometry. Most existing methods solve this problem by modeling the relationship between the force sensing information and surface normal vectors by analyzing the forces on special end tools such as spherical tools and cylindrical tools and simplified friction model. In this paper, we propose a normal vectors learning method to simultaneously control end-effector force and direction on unknown surfaces. First, the relation that mapping the force sensing information to the surface normal vectors is learned from the demonstrated data on the known plane using locally weighted regression. Next, the learned relation is used to estimate surface normal vectors on the unknown surface. To improve the force control precision on the unknown geometry surface, the adaptive force control is developed. To improve the direction control precision due to friction, the iterative learning control is developed. The proposed method is verified by comparative simulations and experiments using the Franka robot. Results show that the end-effector can be controlled perpendicular to the surface with a certain force.
The concentration of suspended particulate organic carbon (POC) and its carbon isotopic composition (δ13CPOC) were analysed in this study with the aim of exploring the sources and factors influencing levels of POC in the surface water around the Antarctic Peninsula. The scanning electron microscopy results suggest that diatom particles formed the main component of suspended particulate matter, indicating that POC was mainly from in situ primary production. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a and POC in sea water mainly occurred in nearshore and sea-ice edge regions, which might be controlled by nutrient and reactive iron inputs stemming from sea-ice melting. The δ13CPOC in the study area is significantly lower than that in low-latitude waters, with a range of -31.8‰ to -22.8‰ (mean -28.9‰), which was controlled by the high CO2 concentration in the Southern Ocean and might be influenced by phytoplankton growth rates and assemblages. This study helps us to understand material cycling in the Antarctic region under the conditions of global climate change.
Understanding user perceptions of interacting with the virtual world is one of the research focuses in recent years, given the rapid proliferation of virtual reality (VR) and driven to establish the metaverse. Users can generate a familiar connection between their bodies and the virtual world by being embodied in virtual hands, and hand representations can induce users’ embodiment in VR. The sense of embodiment represents the cognitive awareness of one's manifestation and includes three subcomponents: the sense of body ownership, agency and self-location. There is insufficient evidence in the literature about the effects of hand designs on the embodiment, especially based on studying its three subcomponents. This study investigates how virtual hand designs with five realism levels influence the three subcomponents of embodiment in VR. This research employs a self-report questionnaire commonly used in the literature to assess embodiment and evaluates agency and self-location by introducing implicit methods (intentional binding and proprioceptive measurement) derived from psychology. Besides, the objective data of eye tracking is used to explore the connection between embodiment and hand designs, and classifying participants’ eye tracking data to help analyze the link between embodiment and user attention. Overall, this research makes a major contribution through a systematic exploration of users’ embodied experience in VR and offers important evidence of the effects of virtual hand designs on body ownership, agency, and self-location, respectively. In addition, this study provides a valuable reference for further investigation of embodiment through implicit and objective methods, and practical design recommendations for virtual hand design in VR applications.
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal female reproductive system tumour. Despite the great advances in surgery and systemic chemotherapy over the past two decades, almost all patients in stages III and IV relapse and develop resistance to chemotherapy after first-line treatment. Ovarian cancer has an extraordinarily complex immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment in which immune checkpoints negatively regulate T cells activation and weaken antitumour immune responses by delivering immunosuppressive signals. Therefore, inhibition of immune checkpoints can break down the state of immunosuppression. Indeed, Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionised the therapeutic landscape of many solid tumours. However, ICIs have yielded modest benefits in ovarian cancer. Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic basis of the immune checkpoints is needed to improve the efficacy of ICIs in ovarian cancer. In this review, we systematically introduce the mechanisms and expression of immune checkpoints in ovarian cancer. Moreover, this review summarises recent updates regarding ICI monotherapy or combined with other small-molecule-targeted agents in ovarian cancer.
An experimental investigation of the stereocamera's systematic error is carried out to optimize three-dimensional (3-D) dust observation on the HL-2A tokamak. It is found that a larger 3-D region occupied by all calibration points is able to reduce the 3-D reconstruction systematic error of the stereocamera. In addition, the 3-D reconstruction is the most accurate around the region where the calibration points are located. Based on these experimental results, the design of the stereocamera on the HL-2A tokamak is presented, and a set of practical procedures to optimize the 3-D reconstruction accuracy of the stereocamera are proposed.
Drawing on the job demands-resources model and conservation of resources theory, this study investigates how and when the high-performance work systems (HPWS) influence proactive workforce. Using the data obtained from 204 supervisor-employee dyads in China, we developed and tested a moderated mediation model in which leader-member exchange (LMX) moderates the positive relationship between HPWS and proactive behavior via work engagement. Our results demonstrated that the association between HPWS and proactivity was fully mediated by work engagement. We also found that the indirect effect of HPWS on proactivity was significantly weaker among employees with high-quality LMX. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as directions for future research, are then discussed.
Whether starchy and non-starchy vegetables have distinct impacts on health remains unknown. We prospectively investigated the intake of starchy and non-starchy vegetables in relation to mortality risk in a nationwide cohort. Diet was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. Deaths were identified via the record linkage to the National Death Index. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years, 4904 deaths were documented among 40 074 participants aged 18 years or older. Compared to those with no consumption, participants with daily consumption of ≥ 1 serving of non-starchy vegetables had a lower risk of mortality (HR = 0·76, 95 % CI 0·66, 0·88, Ptrend = 0·001). Dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables (HR = 0·79, 95 % CI 0·63, 0·99, Ptrend = 0·023) and other non-starchy vegetables (HR = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·92, Ptrend = 0·004) showed similar results. Total starchy vegetable intake exhibited a marginally weak inverse association with mortality risk (HR = 0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 1·00, Ptrend = 0·048), while potatoes showed a null association (HR = 0·93, 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, Ptrend = 0·186). Restricted cubic spline analysis suggested a linear dose–response relationship between vegetable intake and death risk, with a plateau at over 300 and 200 g/d for total and non-starchy vegetables, respectively. Compared with starchy vegetables, non-starchy vegetables might be more beneficial to health, although both showed a protective association with mortality risk. The risk reduction in mortality plateaued at approximately 200 g/d for non-starchy vegetables and 300 g/d for total vegetables.
The purpose of this study is to realize virtual interaction and manipulation control of a hexacopter based on hand gesture recognition from a designed data glove, to provide an intuitive and visual real-time simulation system for flight control algorithm verification and external control equipment testing. First, the hand gesture recognition from a designed data glove is studied, which can recognize different actions, such as mobile ready, grab, loosen, landing, take-off, and hover. Then, the design of virtual simulation system for hexacopter capture is completed, with the model design of hexacopter and manipulator, and the simulation software design with
. Finally, virtual simulation experiment of hexacopter grasping and virtual flight control experiment based on data glove are tested, respectively, and quantitatively described. The overall recognition rate is 84.3%, indicating that the data glove produced has the ability to recognize gestures, but its recognition performance is not superior. In gesture recognition, the recognition rate of static gestures is relatively higher than that of dynamic gestures. Among the static gestures, the hover gesture has the highest recognition rate. The average correct rate of static gestures can reach 94%. The lowest recognition rate of dynamic gestures is upward movement, and the average recognition rate of dynamic gestures is 76.1%. The research can be used to remotely operate hexacopter using a data glove in the future and improve the control performance through virtual interaction and manipulation simulation before actual application.
Hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is a severe and life-threatening complication, characterised by multi-organ failure and high short-term mortality. However, there is limited information on the impact of various comorbidities on HBV-ACLF in a large population. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between comorbidities, complications and mortality. In this retrospective observational study, we identified 2166 cases of HBV-ACLF hospitalised from January 2010 to March 2018. Demographic data from the patients, medical history, treatment, laboratory indices, comorbidities and complications were collected. The mortality rate in our study group was 47.37%. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was the most common comorbidity, followed by alcoholic liver disease. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) were common in these patients. Diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism are risk factors for death within 90 days, together with gastrointestinal bleeding and HE at admission, HE and hepatorenal syndrome during hospitalisation. Knowledge of risk factors can help identify HBV-ACLF patients with a poor prognosis for HBV-ACLF with comorbidities and complications.
This 62-d research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine levels (DLL) and salinity on growth performance and nutrition metabolism of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) juveniles (Oreochromis niloticus). Six diets with lysine supplementation (1·34, 1·70, 2·03, 2·41, 2·72 and 3·04 % of DM) were formulated under different cultured salinities in a two-factorial design. The results indicated that supplemental lysine improved the specific growth rate (SGR) and weight gain (WG) and decreased the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Meanwhile, the fish had higher SGR and WG and lower FCR at 8 ‰ salinity. Except for moisture, the whole-body protein, lipid and ash content of GIFT were increased by 8 ‰ salinity, which showed that DLL (1·34 %) increased the whole-body fat content and DLL (2·41 %) increased whole-body protein content. Appropriate DLL up-regulated mRNA levels of protein metabolism-related genes such as target of rapamycin, 4EBP-1 and S6 kinase 1. However, 0 ‰ salinity reduced these protein metabolism-related genes mRNA levels, while proper DLL could improve glycolysis and gluconeogenesis mRNA levels but decrease lipogenesis-related genes mRNA levels in liver. 0 ‰ salinity improved GLUT2, glucokinase and G6 Pase mRNA levels; however, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase mRNA levels were higher at 8 ‰ salinity. Moreover, 8 ‰ salinity also increased plasma total protein and cholesterol levels and decreased glucose levels. These results indicated that the recommended range of lysine requirement under different salinity was 2·03–2·20 % (0 ‰) and 2·20–2·41 % (8 ‰) and 8 ‰ salinity resulted in higher lysine requirements due to changes in the related nutrient metabolism, which might provide useful information for designing more effective feed formulations for GIFT cultured in different salinity environment.
A proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) manifests with only unipolar mania (UM). This study examined relevant clinical features and psychosocial characteristics in UM compared with depressive-manic (D-M) subgroups. Moreover, comorbidity patterns of physical conditions and psychiatric disorders were evaluated between the UM and D-M groups.
This clinical retrospective study (N = 1015) analyzed cases with an average of 10 years of illness duration and a nationwide population-based cohort (N = 8343) followed up for 10 years in the Taiwanese population. UM was defined as patients who did not experience depressive episodes and were not prescribed adequate antidepressant treatment during the disease course of BD. Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to evaluate the characteristics and lifetime comorbidities in the two groups.
The proportion of UM ranged from 12.91% to 14.87% in the two datasets. Compared with the D-M group, the UM group had more psychotic symptoms, fewer suicidal behaviors, a higher proportion of morningness chronotype, better sleep quality, higher extraversion, lower neuroticism, and less harm avoidance personality traits. Substantially different lifetime comorbidity patterns were observed between the two groups.
Patients with UM exhibited distinct clinical and psychosocial features compared with patients with the D-M subtype. In particular, a higher risk of comorbid cardiovascular diseases and anxiety disorders is apparent in patients with D-M. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms for diverse presentations in subgroups of BDs.
The orogenic process and crustal growth of the Changning–Menglian Palaeo-Tethys orogenic belt in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau is not fully understood. Triassic Caojian rhyolites and granites occur extensively in this orogenic belt and represent important constraints for this issue. This study aims to examine the relationships between the Triassic Caojian rhyolites and granites and to gain a better understanding of their possible petrogenesis. The study used zircon U–Pb geochronology, trace element analyses and Sr–Nd–Hf isotope data to better understand the relationships and possible origin of the rhyolites and granites. Recent zircon U–Pb ages indicated that the Caojian rhyolites were emplaced at 227.2 Ma, whereas age estimates for Caojian granites were slightly older (233.4–236.9 Ma). The Caojian rhyolites are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements and high-field-strength elements, with elevated FeOtot/MgO and Ga/Al ratios. However, they are significantly depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, P and Ti. These geochemical characteristics indicate that they have an A-type affinity. Furthermore, the Caojian granites comprise biotite monzogranites and granodiorites and show unfractionated composition. Mineralogically, the Caojian granites were found to contain diagnostic I-type minerals such as hornblende. Geochemical data suggest that the petrogenesis of the Triassic Caojian rhyolites is characterized by rejuvenation of crystal mush represented by the Triassic Caojian granites. The necessary thermal input was supplied by mafic magma. This magmatic evolution was likely related to lithospheric delamination and upwelling of the asthenosphere during the Mid- to Late Triassic, forming post-collisional I-type granites and A-type volcanics in the Changning–Menglian Palaeo-Tethys orogenic belt.
This study aimed to determine the risk factors for chronic diseases and to identify the potential influencing mechanisms from the perspectives of lifestyle and dietary factors. The findings could provide updated and innovative evidence for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.
A cross-sectional study.
1005 adults from Yangpu district of Shanghai participated in the study, and responded to questions on dietary habits, lifestyle and health status.
Residents suffering from chronic diseases accounted for about 34·99 % of the respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, diet quality, amount of exercise and tea drinking were related to chronic diseases. Age > 60 and overeating (Diet Balance Index total score > 0) had negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease, while overexercise (Physical Activity Index > 17·1) and tea drinking had negative multiplicative interaction and negative additive interaction on the occurrence of chronic disease. Diet quality, physical activity and tea drinking were incomplete mediators of the relationship between types of medical insurance residents participating in and chronic diseases.
The residents in Yangpu District of Shanghai have a high prevalence of chronic diseases. Strengthening access of residents to health education and interventions to prevent chronic diseases and cultivating healthy eating and exercise habits of residents are crucial. The nutritional environment of the elderly population should be considered, and the reimbursement level of different types of medical insurance should be designed reasonably to improve the accessibility of medical and health services and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12 237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 years from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007–2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013–2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6·01 (95 % CI 5·09, 6·06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR for the highest v. lowest METS-VF quartile was 5·97 (95 % CI 4·28, 8·32), with a per 1-sd increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose–response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0·0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age or BMI.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
This study assessed the molecular mechanism of EPA or DHA protection against intestinal porcine epithelial cell line 1 (IPEC-1) cell damage induced by deoxynivalenol (DON). The cells were divided into six groups, including the CON group, the EPA group, the DHA group, the DON group, the EPA + DON group and the DHA + DON group. RNA sequencing was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of selected genes. Changes in ultrastructure were used to estimate pathological changes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) injury in IPEC-1 cells. Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) was tested by ELISA. Fe2+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were estimated by spectrophotometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by fluorospectrophotometry. RNA sequencing analysis showed that EPA and DHA had a significant effect on the expression of genes involved in ER stress and iron balance during DON-induced cell injury. The results showed that DON increased ER damage, the content of MDA and ROS, the ratio of X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s)/X-box binding protein 1u (XBP-1u), the concentration of Fe2+ and the activity of TFR1. However, the results also showed that EPA and DHA decreased the ratio of XBP-1s/XBP-1u to relieve DON-induced ER damage of IPEC-1 cells. Moreover, EPA and DHA (especially DHA) reversed the factors related to iron balance. It can be concluded that EPA and DHA reversed IPEC-1 cell damage induced by DON. DHA has the potential to protect IPEC-1 cells from DON-induced iron imbalance by inhibiting ER stress.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.