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Bringing together work from a team of international scholars, this groundbreaking book explores how language users employ translingualism playfully, while, at the same time, negotiating precarious situations, such as the breaking of social norms and subverting sociolinguistic boundaries. It includes a range of ethnographic studies from around the globe, to provide us with insights into the everyday lives of language users and learners and their lived experiences, and how these interact in translingual practices. A number of mixed methodological frameworks are included to study language users' behaviours, experiences and actions, cover the complexity of language evolutionary processes, and ultimately show that precarity is as fundamental to translingualism as playfulness. It points to a future research direction in which research should be pragmatically applied into real pedagogical actions by revealing the sociolinguistic realities of translingual users, fundamentally addressing broader issues of racism, social injustice, language activism and other human rights issues.
The silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a lepidopteran model insect of great economic importance. The parasitoid Exorista sorbillans (Diptera, Tachinidae) is the major pest of B. mori and also a promising candidate for biological control. However, the molecular interactions between hosts and dipteran parasitoids have only partially been studied. Gene expression analysis by reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is indispensable to characterise their interactions. Accurate normalisation of RT-qPCR-based gene expression requires the use of reference genes that are constantly expressed irrespective of experimental conditions. In this study, the expression stability of 13 traditionally used reference genes was estimated by five statistical algorithms (ΔCt, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) to determine the best reference genes for gene expression studies in different tissues of B. mori under E. sorbillans parasitism. Specifically, TATA-box-binding protein was the best reference gene in epidermis and testis, while elongation factor 1α was the most stable gene in prothoracic gland and midgut. Elongation factor 1γ, ribosomal protein L3, actin A1, ribosomal protein L40, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A were the most suitable genes in head, silk gland, fat body, haemolymph, Malpighian tubule and ovary, respectively. Our study offers a set of suitable reference genes for gene expression normalisation in B. mori under the parasitic stress of E. sorbillans, which will benefit the in-depth exploration of host-dipteran parasitoid interactions, and also provide insights for further improvements of B. mori resistance against parasitoids and biocontrol efficacy of dipteran parasitoids.
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has been proposed to replace the term non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in 2020. The association between micronutrients and MAFLD has not been reported. Therefore, this study aims to explore the association between micronutrients intake and MAFLD. This was a cross-section study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The dietary intake of copper, zinc, iron, and selenium was evaluated using the 24-h dietary recall interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between micronutrients and MAFLD, and the results were shown as odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 5976 participants were finally included for analysis, with 3437 participants in the MAFLD group. After adjusting potential confounders, copper intake at quartile Q3 (OR = 0⋅68, 95 % CI 0⋅50, 0⋅93) and Q4 (OR = 0⋅60, 95 % CI 0⋅45, 0⋅80) was found to be associated with lower odds of MAFLD. Iron intake at Q2 (OR = 0⋅64, 95 % CI 0⋅45, 0⋅92) and Q3 (OR = 0⋅61, 95 % CI 0⋅41, 0⋅91) was associated with the lower odds of MAFLD. Our findings found that high intake of copper and adequate intake of iron were associated with MAFLD, which may provide guidance for the management of MAFLD.
Using a combination of proper variable transformation and integral methods, we rigorously derive an analytical formulation for the mean wall-normal velocity in turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) subjected to arbitrary pressure gradients. The accuracy and robustness of this novel formulation are validated extensively through comparisons with two independent sets of numerical simulation data, demonstrating excellent agreement in both near-equilibrium and non-equilibrium TBLs. In addition, the robustness of the analytical formulations to various choices of boundary-layer edge definition is further confirmed in non-equilibrium TBLs. Our formulation includes a streamwise derivative term, which has minimal significance in near-equilibrium TBLs but plays a crucial role in determining the mean wall-normal velocity in non-equilibrium TBLs. Moreover, we investigate the physical significance of the pre-factors associated with the mean wall-normal velocity components, and unveil a close connection between a previously defined pressure gradient parameter and the ratio of these pre-factors in the analytical equation governing the mean wall-normal velocity. The insights gained from the examination of the pre-factors and their connection to the pressure gradient parameter offer valuable knowledge for interpreting and predicting the behaviour of turbulent boundary layers in various practical applications.
Constraining the timing and extent of Quaternary glaciations in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is significant for the reconstruction of paleoclimatic environment and understanding the interrelationships among climate, tectonics, and glacial systems. We investigated the late Quaternary glacial history of the Qinggulong and Juequ valleys in the Taniantaweng Mountains, southeastern TP, using cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating. Four major glacial events were identified based on 26 10Be ages. The exposure ages of the oldest late Quaternary glaciation correspond to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. The maximum glacial extent was dated to 48.5–41.1 ka (MIS 3), during the last glaciation, and was more advanced than that of the last glacial maximum (LGM). Geochronology and geomorphological evidence indicate that multiple glacial fluctuations occurred in the study area during the Early–Middle Holocene. These glacial fluctuations likely were driven by the North Atlantic climate oscillations, summer solar insolation variability, Asian summer monsoon intensity, and CO2 concentration.
There is growing evidence that gray matter atrophy is constrained by normal brain network (or connectome) architecture in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, whether this finding holds true in individuals with depression remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gray matter atrophy and normal connectome architecture at individual level in depression.
In this study, 297 patients with depression and 256 healthy controls (HCs) from two independent Chinese dataset were included: a discovery dataset (105 never-treated first-episode patients and matched 130 HCs) and a replication dataset (106 patients and matched 126 HCs). For each patient, individualized regional atrophy was assessed using normative model and brain regions whose structural connectome profiles in HCs most resembled the atrophy patterns were identified as putative epicenters using a backfoward stepwise regression analysis.
In general, the structural connectome architecture of the identified disease epicenters significantly explained 44% (±16%) variance of gray matter atrophy. While patients with depression demonstrated tremendous interindividual variations in the number and distribution of disease epicenters, several disease epicenters with higher participation coefficient than randomly selected regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus, and medial frontal gyrus were significantly shared by depression. Other brain regions with strong structural connections to the disease epicenters exhibited greater vulnerability. In addition, the association between connectome and gray matter atrophy uncovered two distinct subgroups with different ages of onset.
These results suggest that gray matter atrophy is constrained by structural brain connectome and elucidate the possible pathological progression in depression.
This study aimed to investigate the causal effect of dietary habits on COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalisation and severity. We used data from a large-scale diet dataset and the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative to estimate causal relationships using Mendelian randomisation. The inverse variance weighted (IVW) method was used as the main analysis. For COVID-19 susceptibility, IVW estimates indicated that milk (OR: 0·82; 95 % CI (0·68, 0·98); P = 0·032), unsalted peanut (OR: 0·53; 95 % CI (0·35, 0·82); P = 0·004), beef (OR: 0·59; 95 % CI (0·41, 0·84); P = 0·004), pork (OR: 0·63; 95 % CI (0·42, 0·93); P = 0·022) and processed meat (OR: 0·76; 95 % CI (0·63, 0·92); P = 0·005) were causally associated with reduced COVID-19 susceptibility, while coffee (OR: 1·23; 95 % CI (1·04, 1·45); P = 0·017) and tea (OR: 1·17; 95 % CI (1·05, 1·31); P = 0·006) were causally associated with increased risk. For COVID-19 hospitalisation, beef (OR: 0·51; 95 % CI (0·26, 0·98); P = 0·042) showed negative correlations, while tea (OR: 1·54; 95 % CI (1·16, 2·04); P = 0·003), dried fruit (OR: 2·08; 95 % CI (1·37, 3·15); P = 0·001) and red wine (OR: 2·35; 95 % CI (1·29, 4·27); P = 0·005) showed positive correlations. For COVID-19 severity, coffee (OR: 2·16; 95 % CI (1·25, 3·76); P = 0·006), dried fruit (OR: 1·98; 95 % CI (1·16, 3·37); P = 0·012) and red wine (OR: 2·84; 95 % CI (1·21, 6·68); P = 0·017) showed an increased risk. These findings were confirmed to be robust through sensitivity analyses. Our findings established a causal relationship between dietary habits and COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalisation and severity.
The Hamiltonian of a conventional quantum system is Hermitian, which ensures real spectra of the Hamiltonian and unitary evolution of the system. However, real spectra are just the necessary conditions for a Hamiltonian to be Hermitian. In this paper, we discuss the metric operators for pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian which is similar to its adjoint. We first present some properties of the metric operators for pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians and obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for an invertible operator to be a metric operator for a given pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian. When the pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian has real spectra, we provide a new method such that any given metric operator can be transformed into the same positive-definite one and the new inner product with respect to the positive-definite metric operator is well defined. Finally, we illustrate the results obtained with an example.
Sound wave propagation in rarefied flows of molecular gases confined in micro-channels is investigated numerically. We first validate the employed kinetic model against the experimental results and then systematically study the gas damping and surface force on the transducer as well as the resonance/anti-resonance in confined space. To quantify the impact of the finite relaxation rates of the translational and internal energies on wave propagation, we examine the roles of bulk viscosity and thermal conductivity in depth over a wide range of rarefactions and oscillation frequencies. It is found that the bulk viscosity only exerts influence on the pressure amplitude and its resonance frequency in the slip regime in high oscillations. In addition, the internal degree of freedom is frozen when the bulk viscosity of a molecular gas is large, resulting in the pressure amplitude of sound waves in the molecular gas being the same as in a monatomic gas. Meanwhile, the thermal conductivity has a limited influence on the pressure amplitude in all the simulated flows. In the case of the thermoacoustic wave, we prove that the Onsager–Casimir reciprocal relation also holds for molecular gases, i.e. the pressure deviation induced by the temperature variation is equal to the heat flux induced by the plate oscillation. Our findings enable an enhanced understanding of sound wave propagation in molecular gases, which may facilitate the design of nano-/micro-scale devices.
Typical unconventional gas/liquid plays of China were studied using field-emission/focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for clay mineralogy and microstructural development. The SEM microstructural investigations of clay-rich shale and mudstone reservoirs provided significant information about clay mineral type, size, distribution and aggregates, which allows for interpretations regarding porosity preservation and petrophysical variability. The major clay-hosted porosity types are interparticle clay pores, intraparticle clay pores and aggregate pores. Interparticle clay pores occur in open spaces of the clay aggregates and include four subtypes: (1) elongated pores, (2) packed pores, (3) jagged pores and (4) card-house pores. Intraparticle clay pores are present within clay particles and have mostly secondary origin. These pores are diagenesis dependent and are restricted to secondary illite particles during the transformation of clay minerals from smectite to illite. Intraparticle clay pores constitute only isolated porosity and could not contribute to hydrocarbon molecule storage and migration. Aggregate pores were predominantly encountered in association with organic–clay and pyrite–clay aggregates. In places, organic–pyrite–clay aggregates can also display polymerization, but they do not contribute significantly to overall porosity and permeability. Combining SEM morphological analyses with the software ImageJ is critical in clay microstructure and porosity analyses via semi-quantitative characterization of the 3D pore surface, 2D pore profile, pore quantity, pore size, areal porosity, etc. These visual and semi-quantitative results highlight the significance of jagged pores and pyrite–clay aggregate pores in shale gas/liquid reservoirs because they may be important facilitators of gas storage and transmission.
The aim was to explore the implications of follicular output rate (FORT), ovarian sensitivity index (OSI), ovarian response prediction index (ORPI), and follicle-to-oocyte index (FOI) in low-prognosis patients defined by POSEIDON criteria. In total, 4030 fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles from January 2013 to October 2021 were included in this retrospective cohort analysis and were categorized into four groups based on the POSEIDON criteria. The FORT between Groups 1 and 2 (0.61 ± 0.34 vs. 0.65 ± 0.35, P = 0.081) and Groups 3 and 4 (1.08 ± 0.82 vs. 1.09 ± 0.94, P = 0.899) were similar. The OSI in the order from the highest to the lowest were 3.01 ± 1.46 in Group 1, 2.28 ± 1.09 in Group 2, 1.54 ± 1.04 in Group 3, and 1.34 ± 0.96 in Group 4 (P < 0.001). The trend in the ORPI values was consistent with that in the OSI. FORT, OSI, ORPI, and FOI complemented each other and offered excellent effectiveness in reflecting ovarian reserve and response, but they were not good predictors of clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) from IVF.
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) is considered to be a major regulator to control cholesterol homoeostasis in mammals. However, the role of SREBP2 in teleost remains poorly understand. Here, we explored the molecular characterisation of SREBP2 and identified SREBP2 as a key modulator for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, which were rate-limiting enzymes of cholesterol biosynthesis. Moreover, dietary palm oil in vivo or palmitic acid (PA) treatment in vitro elevated cholesterol content through triggering SREBP2-mediated cholesterol biosynthesis in large yellow croaker. Furthermore, our results also found that PA-induced activation of SREBP2 was dependent on the stimulating of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in croaker myocytes and inhibition of ERS by 4-Phenylbutyric acid alleviated PA-induced SREBP2 activation and cholesterol biosynthesis. In summary, our findings reveal a novel insight for understanding the role of SREBP2 in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in fish and may deepen the link between dietary fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis.
Longitudinal studies on the variations of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae across two decades are rare. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors for K. pneumoniae isolated from patients with bacteraemia or urinary tract infection (UTI) from 1999 to 2022. A total of 699 and 1,267 K. pneumoniae isolates were isolated from bacteraemia and UTI patients, respectively, and their susceptibility to twenty antibiotics was determined; PCR was used to identify capsular serotypes and virulence-associated genes. K64 and K1 serotypes were most frequently observed in UTI and bacteraemia, respectively, with an increasing frequency of K20, K47, and K64 observed in recent years. entB and wabG predominated across all isolates and serotypes; the least frequent virulence gene was htrA. Most isolates were susceptible to carbapenems, amikacin, tigecycline, and colistin, with the exception of K20, K47, and K64 where resistance was widespread. The highest average number of virulence genes was observed in K1, followed by K2, K20, and K5 isolates, which suggest their contribution to the high virulence of K1. In conclusion, we found that the distribution of antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene profiles, and capsular types of K. pneumoniae over two decades were associated with their clinical source.
Rodents and shrews are major reservoirs of various pathogens that are related to zoonotic infectious diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate co-infections of zoonotic pathogens in rodents and shrews trapped in four provinces of China. We sampled different rodent and shrew communities within and around human settlements in four provinces of China and characterised several important zoonotic viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens by PCR methods and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 864 rodents and shrews belonging to 24 and 13 species from RODENTIA and EULIPOTYPHLA orders were captured, respectively. For viral pathogens, two species of hantavirus (Hantaan orthohantavirus and Caobang orthohantavirus) were identified in 3.47% of rodents and shrews. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp., Anaplasmataceae, Babesia spp., Leptospira spp., Spotted fever group Rickettsiae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella burnetii were 31.25%, 8.91%, 4.17%, 3.94%, 3.59%, 3.47%, and 0.58%, respectively. Furthermore, the highest co-infection status of three pathogens was observed among Bartonella spp., Leptospira spp., and Anaplasmataceae with a co-infection rate of 0.46%. Our results suggested that species distribution and co-infections of zoonotic pathogens were prevalent in rodents and shrews, highlighting the necessity of active surveillance for zoonotic pathogens in wild mammals in wider regions.
Giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca exhibits are popular attractions for zoos and wildlife parks. However, it remains to be investigated whether such exhibits enhance visitor knowledge about pandas and broader conservation issues. We conducted questionnaire surveys at giant panda exhibits at three city zoos and five wildlife parks in China. Although visitors were generally interested in the giant panda, this was not reflected in their post-exhibit knowledge of giant panda biology. Socio-demographically, men were more knowledgeable of giant panda biology than women. Knowledge correlated positively with respondent level of education. Younger respondents (< 45 years) knew most about giant pandas and expressed an interest in learning more about them using social media. The most informed respondents had visited other giant panda exhibits previously. Respondents were generally satisfied with the giant panda exhibits (mean score 4.44/5). Wildlife parks delivered a better educational outcome than city zoos. We recommend approaches to improve the visitor experience further and to leverage public interest in broader conservation engagement and action in China.
Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proven to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C. rotundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the GA3 content decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3ox genes) and two upregulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2ox genes), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expression of two CrDELLA genes and CrGID1 declines with tuber growth and decreased GA3, and yeast two-hybrid assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tubers and represses the growth of the tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.