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The current COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented strain on underfunded public health resources in the Southeastern United States. The Memphis, TN metropolitan region has lacked infrastructure for health data exchange.
This manuscript describes a multidisciplinary initiative to create a community-focused COVID-19 data registry, the Memphis Pandemic Health Informatics System (MEMPHI-SYS). MEMPHI-SYS leverages test result data updated directly from community-based testing sites, as well as a full complement of public health datasets and knowledge-based informatics. It has been guided by relationships with community stakeholders and is managed alongside the largest publicly funded community-based COVID-19 testing response in the Mid-South. MEMPHI-SYS has supported interactive web-based analytic resources and informs federally funded COVID-19 outreach directed towards neighborhoods most in need of pandemic support.
MEMPHI-SYS provides an instructive case study of how to collaboratively establish the technical scaffolding and human relationships necessary for data-driven, health equity-focused pandemic surveillance, and policy interventions.
Obesity in adolescents with intellectual and developmental disabilities) occurs at twice the frequency as their typically developing peers. Typically developing adolescents with obesity have abnormal cardiac function (as measured by strain echocardiography) and cardiac mass, but the effects of obesity on cardiac health in adolescents with Down syndrome or autism spectrum disorder are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of body mass index on cardiac function in adolescents with Down syndrome or autism.
Adolescents (age 12–21 years) with Down syndrome (n = 28), autism (n = 33), and age-/sex-matched typically developing controls (n = 15) received an echocardiogram optimised for strain analysis at a single timepoint. Measures of ventricular function, mass, and size were collected. Regression modelling evaluated the impact of body mass index and intellectual and developmental disabilities diagnosis on these cardiac measures.
In regression modelling, an elevated body mass index z-score was associated with diminished systolic biventricular function by global strain (left ventricular longitudinal strain β 0.87, P < 0.001; left ventricular circumferential strain β 0.57, p 0.003; right ventricular longitudinal strain β 0.63, P < 0.001). Diminished left ventricular diastolic function by early diastolic strain rate was also associated with elevated body mass index (global longitudinal end-diastolic strain rate β −0.7, P < 0.001). No association was found between traditional (non-strain) measures of systolic and diastolic ventricular function and body mass index z-score.
Obesity in adolescents with Down syndrome or autism negatively impacts cardiac function as measured by echocardiographic strain analysis that was not detected by traditional parameters.
Psychiatric mother and baby units (MBUs) are recommended for severe perinatal mental illness, but effectiveness compared with other forms of acute care remains unknown.
We hypothesised that women admitted to MBUs would be less likely to be readmitted to acute care in the 12 months following discharge, compared with women admitted to non-MBU acute care (generic psychiatric wards or crisis resolution teams (CRTs)).
Quasi-experimental cohort study of women accessing acute psychiatric care up to 1 year postpartum in 42 healthcare organisations across England and Wales. Primary outcome was readmission within 12 months post-discharge. Propensity scores were used to account for systematic differences between MBU and non-MBU participants. Secondary outcomes included assessment of cost-effectiveness, experience of services, unmet needs, perceived bonding, observed mother–infant interaction quality and safeguarding outcome.
Of 279 women, 108 (39%) received MBU care, 62 (22%) generic ward care and 109 (39%) CRT care only. The MBU group (n = 105) had similar readmission rates to the non-MBU group (n = 158) (aOR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86–1.04, P = 0.29; an absolute difference of −5%, 95% CI −14 to 4%). Service satisfaction was significantly higher among women accessing MBUs compared with non-MBUs; no significant differences were observed for any other secondary outcomes.
We found no significant differences in rates of readmission, but MBU advantage might have been masked by residual confounders; readmission will also depend on quality of care after discharge and type of illness. Future studies should attempt to identify the effective ingredients of specialist perinatal in-patient and community care to improve outcomes.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder with complex etiology, with a significant portion of disease risk imparted by genetics. Traditional genome-wide association studies (GWAS) produce principal evidence for the association of genetic variants with disease. Transcriptomic imputation (TI) allows for the translation of those variants into regulatory mechanisms, which can then be used to assess the functional outcome of genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) in a broader setting through the use of phenome-wide association studies (pheWASs) in large and diverse clinical biobank populations with electronic health record phenotypes.
Here, we applied TI using S-PrediXcan to translate the most recent PGC-ED AN GWAS findings into AN-GReX. For significant genes, we imputed AN-GReX in the Mount Sinai BioMe™ Biobank and performed pheWASs on over 2000 outcomes to test the clinical consequences of aberrant expression of these genes. We performed a secondary analysis to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) and sex on AN-GReX clinical associations.
Our S-PrediXcan analysis identified 53 genes associated with AN, including what is, to our knowledge, the first-genetic association of AN with the major histocompatibility complex. AN-GReX was associated with autoimmune, metabolic, and gastrointestinal diagnoses in our biobank cohort, as well as measures of cholesterol, medications, substance use, and pain. Additionally, our analyses showed moderation of AN-GReX associations with measures of cholesterol and substance use by BMI, and moderation of AN-GReX associations with celiac disease by sex.
Our BMI-stratified results provide potential avenues of functional mechanism for AN-genes to investigate further.
Little is known about mental health problems of children and young people (CYP) involved with public and private law family court proceedings, and how these CYP fare compared to those not involved in these significant disruptions to family life.
This study examined records of depression/anxiety in CYP involved in public and private law proceedings using linked population-level data across Wales.
Retrospective e-cohort study. We calculated the incidence of primary-care-recorded depression/anxiety among CYP involved in these proceedings and in a comparison group, using Poisson regression. Depression/anxiety outcomes following proceedings were evaluated using pairwise Cox regression, with age- and gender-matched controls of CYP who had no involvement with the courts.
CYP in the public group had twice the risk of depression (adjusted incidence rate ratio aIRR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.9–2.6) and 20% higher risk of anxiety (aIRR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.0–1.5) relative to the comparison group. The private group had 60% higher risk of depression (aIRR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.4–1.7) and 30% higher risk of anxiety (aIRR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.2–1.4). Following private law proceedings, CYP were more likely to have depression (hazard ratio HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.7–2.1), and anxiety (HR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2–1.6) than the control group. Following public proceedings, CYP were more likely to have depression (HR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.7–2.5). Incidence of anxiety or depression following court proceedings was around 4%.
Findings highlight the vulnerability of CYP involved in family court proceedings and increased risk of depression and anxiety. Schools, health professionals, social and family support workers have a role to play in identifying needs and ensuring CYP receive appropriate support before, during and after proceedings.
To identify eating occasion-level and individual-level factors associated with the consumption of larger portions in young children and estimate their relative importance.
Data from parent-reported 4-d food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–2017) were analysed. Multilevel models explored variation in eating occasion size (kJ) within (n 48 419 occasions) and between children (n 1962) for all eating occasions. Eating contexts: location, eating companion, watching TV, and sitting at a table and individual characteristics: age, gender, ethnicity and parental socio-economic status were explored as potential correlates of eating occasion size.
Children aged 1·5–5 years.
Median eating occasion size was 657 kJ (IQR 356, 1117). Eating occasion size variation was primarily attributed (90 %) to differences between eating occasions. Most (73 %) eating occasions were consumed at home. In adjusted models, eating occasions in eateries were 377 kJ larger than at home. Eating occasions sitting at a table, v. not, were 197 kJ larger. Eating in childcare, with additional family members and friends, and whilst watching TV were other eating contexts associated with slightly larger eating occasion sizes.
Eating contexts that vary from one eating occasion to another are more important than demographic characteristics that vary between children in explaining variation in consumed portion sizes in young children. Strategies to promote consumption of age-appropriate portion sizes in young children should be developed, especially in the home environment, in eating contexts such as sitting at the table, eating with others and watching TV.
The ancient city of Gabii—an Italian polity of the first millennium BC and a peer to early Rome—has often been presented as an example of urban decline, a counterpoint to Rome's rise from a collection of hilltop huts to a Mediterranean hegemon. Here the authors draw on the results from recent excavations at Gabii that challenge such simplistic models of urban history. Diachronic evidence documenting activity at the site over the course of 1400 years highlights shifting values and rhythms materialised in the maintenance, transformation and abandonment of different urban components. This complex picture of adaptation and resilience provides a model of ancient urbanism that calls into question outdated narratives of urban success and failure.
Understanding the socio-economic inequalities in dietary intake is crucial when addressing the socio-economic gradient in obesity rates and non-communicable diseases. We aimed to systematically assess the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and dietary intake in Chile.
We searched for peer-reviewed and grey literature from inception until 31 December 2019 in PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Sciences and LILACS databases. Observational studies published in English and Spanish, reporting the comparison of at least one dietary factor between at least two groups of different SEP in the general Chilean population, were selected. Two researchers independently conducted data searches, screening and extraction and assessed study quality using an adaptation of the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale.
Twenty-one articles (from eighteen studies) were included. Study quality was considered low, medium and high for 24, 52 and 24 % of articles, respectively. Moderate-to-large associations indicated lower intake of fruit and vegetables, dairy products and fish/seafood and higher pulses consumption among adults of lower SEP. Variable evidence of association was found for energy intake and macronutrients, in both children and adults.
Our findings highlight some socio-economic inequalities in diets in Chile, evidencing an overall less healthy food consumption among the lower SEP groups. New policies to reduce these inequalities should tackle the unequal distribution of factors affecting healthy eating among the lower SEP groups. These findings also provide important insights for developing strategies to reduce dietary inequalities in Chile and other countries that have undergone similar nutritional transitions.
An adequate intake of PUFA plays a vital role in human health. Therefore, it is important to assess PUFA intakes in different populations and validate them with biomarkers, but only a few small studies are in paediatric populations. We calculated the dietary intake of PUFA and their main food sources in children and assessed associations between PUFA intakes and plasma proportions. Dietary intakes of 7-year-old children (n 8242) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were calculated from the parental-completed FFQ. Plasma PUFA were measured in 5571 children 8 months later, and 4380 children had complete dietary and plasma data. The association between dietary and plasma PUFA proportions was estimated using Spearman’s correlation coefficients, quintile cross-classification and Cohen’s κ coefficients. Mean total PUFA intake was 13·2 g/d (sd 4·2), contributing 6·5 % of total energy intake; n-6 PUFA contributed 5·2 % and n-3 PUFA 0·7 %. The n-6:n-3 ratio was 7·9:1. Mean intakes of EPA and DHA were 35·7 mg/d and 49·7 mg/d, respectively. Most n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes were weakly correlated with their respective plasma lipids (0·07 ≤ r ≤ 0·16, P < 0·001). The correlation between dietary and plasma DHA was stronger though (r = 0·34, P < 0·001), supported by a modest level of agreement between quintiles (k = 0·32). The results indicate that the FFQ was able to reasonably rank the long-chain (LC) PUFA, DHA, in this paediatric population. Public health initiatives need to address the suboptimal ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA and very low n-3 LC-PUFA intakes in school-age children in the UK.
This study compared the level of education and tests from multiple cognitive domains as proxies for cognitive reserve.
The participants were educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. We examined independent and interactive effects of education, baseline cognitive scores, and MRI measures of cortical gray matter change on longitudinal cognitive change.
Baseline episodic memory was related to cognitive decline independent of brain and demographic variables and moderated (weakened) the impact of gray matter change. Education moderated (strengthened) the gray matter change effect. Non-memory cognitive measures did not incrementally explain cognitive decline or moderate gray matter change effects.
Episodic memory showed strong construct validity as a measure of cognitive reserve. Education effects on cognitive decline were dependent upon the rate of atrophy, indicating education effectively measures cognitive reserve only when atrophy rate is low. Results indicate that episodic memory has clinical utility as a predictor of future cognitive decline and better represents the neural basis of cognitive reserve than other cognitive abilities or static proxies like education.
To conduct formative research using qualitative methods among stakeholders of secondary schools to explore their perceptions, barriers and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) among Malaysian adolescents.
A qualitative study involving eight focus groups and twelve in-depth interviews. Focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data.
Four secondary schools in Perak and Selangor states (two urban and two rural schools) in Malaysia.
Focus groups were conducted with seventy-six adolescents aged 13–14 years, and in-depth interviews were conducted with four headmasters, four PA education teachers and four food canteen operators.
Stakeholders thought that adolescents’ misperceptions, limited availability of healthy options, unhealthy food preferences and affordability were important challenges preventing healthy eating at school. Low-quality physical education (PE) classes, limited adolescent participation and teachers’ commitment during lessons were perceived as barriers to adolescents being active at school. Affordability was the main challenge for adolescents from rural schools. Stakeholders perceived that a future school-based intervention should improve the availability and subsidies for healthy foods, provide health education/training for both adolescents and PE teachers, enhance active adolescent participation in PE and develop social support mechanisms to facilitate engagement with PA.
These findings provide important insights into developing school-based lifestyle interventions to improve healthy eating and strengthening PA of Malaysian adolescents.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: 1. Understand the association between patient perceptions of care measured by the Interpersonal Processes of Care (IPC) Survey and glycemic control, appointment no-shows/cancellations and medication adherence in patients with type II diabetes. 2. Determine how these relationships differ by race for non-Hispanic White and Black patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 100 White and 100 Black Type II diabetic patients followed in Duke primary care clinics and prescribed antihyperglycemic medication. We will recruit through email and phone calls. Enrolled patients will complete the Interpersonal Processes of Care Short Form and Extent of Medication Adherence survey to measure patient perceptions of care (predictor) and medication adherence (secondary outcome). No show appointments and cancellations (secondary outcomes) and most recent hemoglobin A1c (primary outcome) will be collected from the Electronic Medical Record. We will also collect basic demographic information, insurance status, financial security, significant co-morbidities, and number and type (subcutaneous vs oral) of antihyperglycemic medications. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: -The study is powered to detect a 0.6% difference in HbA1c, our primary outcome, between high and low scorers on the Interpersonal Processes of Care subdomains. -We expect that higher patient scores in the positive domains of the IPC survey and lower DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study will provide information to develop and implement targeted interventions to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in patients with Type II diabetes. We hope to gain information on potentially modifiable factors in patient-provider interactions that can be intervened upon to improve prevention and long-term outcomes in these populations.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
Interventions to reduce adolescents’ non-core food intake (i.e. foods high in fat and sugar) could target specific people or specific environments, but the relative importance of environmental contexts v. individual characteristics is unknown.
Data from 4d food diaries in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008–2012 were analysed. NDNS food items were classified as ‘non-core’ based on fat and sugar cut-off points per 100g of food. Linear multilevel models investigated associations between ‘where’ (home, school, etc.) and ‘with whom’ (parents, friends, etc.) eating contexts and non-core food energy (kcal) per eating occasion (EO), adjusting for variables at the EO (e.g. time of day) and adolescent level (e.g. gender).
Adolescents (n 884) aged 11–18 years.
Only 11 % of variation in non-core energy intake was attributed to differences between adolescents. In adjusted models, non-core food intake was 151 % higher (ratio; 95 % CI) in EO at ‘Eateries’ (2·51; 2·14, 2·95) and 88 % higher at ‘School’ (1·88; 1·65, 2·13) compared with ‘Home’. EO with ‘Friends’ (1·16; CI 1·03, 1·31) and ‘Family & friends’ (1·21; 1·07, 1·37) contained 16–21 % more non-core food compared with eating ‘Alone’. At the individual level, total energy intake and BMI, but not social class, gender or age, were weakly associated with more non-core energy intake.
Regardless of individual characteristics, adolescents’ non-core food consumption was higher outside the home, especially at eateries. Targeting specific eating contexts, not individuals, may contribute to more effective public health interventions.
High protein intake in young children is associated with excess gains in weight and body fat, but the specific role of different protein sources has yet to be described. The study aimed to investigate the role of different types of protein in the post-weaning stage on weight, BMI and overweight/obesity at 60 months. Intakes of animal, dairy and plant protein and a dietary pattern characterising variation in protein types at 21 months of age were estimated using a 3-d diet diary in a cohort of 2154 twins; weight and height were recorded every 3 months from birth to 60 months. Longitudinal mixed-effect models investigated the associations between sources of protein intake or dietary pattern scores and BMI, weight and overweight/obesity from 21 months up to 60 months. Adjusting for confounders, dairy protein intake at 21 months was positively associated with greater weight (46 (95 % CI 21, 71) g and BMI up to 60 months (0·04 (95 % CI 0·004, 0·070) kg/m2) and the odds of overweight/obesity at 3 years (OR 1·12; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·24). Milk showed associations of similar magnitude. A dietary pattern low in dairy protein and high in plant protein was associated with lower weight gain up to 60 months, but not overweight/obesity. Intake of dairy products in early childhood is most strongly associated with weight gain, compared with other protein sources. A dietary pattern characterised by lower protein intake and greater protein source diversity at 2 years may confer a lower risk of excess weight gain.
Identify factors referred to as barriers and facilitators that can prevent or assist safe injection practices in ambulatory care settings to guide quality improvement.
In this mixed-methods study, we utilized observations and interviews.
This study was conducted at ambulatory clinics at a midwestern academic medical center from May through August 2017. Sites included a variety of clinical settings that performed intramuscular, intradermal, intravenous, or intra-articular injections.
PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS
Direct observations of injections and interviews of ambulatory care staff were conducted. An observation checklist was created, including standards of injection safety from nationally recognized guidelines. Interview questions were developed using the System Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded by 2 investigators.
In total, 106 observations and 36 interviews were completed at 21 clinics. Injection safety standards with the lowest adherence included using needleless access devices to prepare injections (33%) and the proper use of multidose vials (<80%). Of 819 coded interview segments, 461 (56.3%) were considered facilitators of safe injection practices. The most commonly identified barriers were patient movement during administration, feeling rushed, and inadequate staffing. The most commonly identified facilitators were availability of supplies, experience in the practice area, and availability of safety needles and prefilled syringes.
Perceived barriers and facilitators to infection control elements of injection safety are interconnected with SEIPS elements of persons, organizations, technologies, tasks, and environment. Direct observations demonstrated that knowledge of safety injection standards does not necessarily translate to best practices and may not match self-reported data.
The World Health Organization’s (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland) Emergency Medical Team (EMT) Initiative created guidelines which define the basic procedures to be followed by personnel and teams, as well as the critical points to discuss before deploying a field hospital. However, to date, there is no formal standardized training program established for EMTs before deployment. Recognizing that the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) Congress brings together a diverse group of key stakeholders, a pre-Congress workshop was organized to seek out collective expertise and to identify key EMT training competencies for the future development of training programs and protocols. The future of EMT training should include standardization of curriculum and the recognition or accreditation of selected training programs. The outputs of this pre-WADEM Congress workshop provide an initial contribution to the EMT Training Working Group, as this group works on mapping training, competencies, and curriculum. Common EMT training themes that were identified as fundamental during the pre-Congress workshop include: the ability to adapt one’s professional skills to low-resource settings; context-specific training, including the ability to serve the needs of the affected population in natural disasters; training together as a multi-disciplinary EMT prior to deployment; and the value of simulation in training.
AlbinaA, ArcherL, BoivinM, CranmerH, JohnsonK, KrishnarajG, ManeshiA, OddyL, Redwood-CampbellL, RussellR. International Emergency Medical Teams Training Workshop Special Report. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):335–338.
Introduction: Emerging evidence suggests a heightened interest in healthy behaviour changes, including smoking cessation, at the beginning of the week. Evidence from Google searches, quitlines, and cessation websites show greater information-seeking and interest in early week quitting.
Aims: This pilot assesses the comparative effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention that encourages participants to use Mondays as a day to quit or recommit to quitting smoking.
Methods: We partnered with existing smoking cessation group programs to conduct a quasi-experimental, pre–post study. Both comparison and intervention groups received the same standard-care curriculum from program instructors. Intervention group participants received Monday materials including a wallet card and a mantra card during enrolment. On Mondays, intervention participants received an emailed tip-of-the-week and were encouraged to quit or recommit to quitting. Quit buddies were recommended in both groups, but intervention participants were encouraged to check-in with quit buddies on Mondays. The outcomes of smoking abstinence, number and length of quit attempts, and self-efficacy were assessed at the final program session and three months later.
Results: At the last session, intervention group participants who were still smoking had a higher self-efficacy of quitting in the future, rated their programs as more helpful in quitting smoking, and were more likely to rate quit buddies as very helpful. Differences in self-efficacy were no longer observed at the second follow-up. No differences were observed between intervention and standard group participants in abstinence, number of quits, length of quits, or self-efficacy of staying quit at either follow-up.
Conclusions: Encouraging results from this pilot study indicate that further research is needed to explore how Monday messaging may improve smoking cessation programs.