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Residents who lived near the Fukushima Power Plant accident were forced to change their lifestyle after the 2011 accident. This study aimed to elucidate the association of resident lifestyle and psychological factors with onset of hepatobiliary enzyme abnormalities (HEA) after the accident.
This longitudinal study included 15705 residents who underwent a comprehensive health check, as well as a mental health and lifestyle survey between June 2011 and March 2012. Follow-up surveys were conducted between June, 2012 and March 2018. Risk factors for new HEA onset were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model, moreover, population attributable risks for new HEA onset were calculated.
HEA developed in 29.7% of subjects. In addition to metabolic factors such as overweight, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia; there were differences in alcohol intake, evacuation, unemployment, educational background, and psychological distress between subjects with and without HEA onset. After we adjusted for potential confounding factors, an association of being overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, as well as alcohol consumption, evacuation, and psychological distress with increased risk of HEA onset was realized. Among these identified risk factors, evacuation accounted for the greatest share.
Metabolic characteristics and disaster-related lifestyle aspects, including mental status, were risk factors for HAE onset after the Fukushima Power Plant accident.
This study evaluated the association between maternal magnesium intake (MMI) and childhood wheezing incidence in 3-year-old offspring. We hypothesised that higher MMI imparts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that decrease childhood wheezing incidence in offspring. Data of 79 907 women (singleton pregnancy, ≥ 22 weeks) from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (enrolled between 2011 and 2014) were analysed. Participants were categorised into quintiles of MMI (< 148·00, 148·00–187·99, 188·00–228·99, 229·00–289·99 and ≥ 290·00 mg/d), quintiles of adjusted MMI for daily energy intake (aMMI) (< 0·107, 0·107–0·119, 0·120–0·132, 0·133–0·149 and ≥ 0·150 mg/kcal) and MMI levels either below or above the ideal value (< 310·00 or ≥ 310·00 mg/d). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate OR for the incidence of childhood wheezing in offspring among participants in each MMI category, with the lowest MMI group considered the reference group. Maternal demographic, socio-economic, medical and other nutrient intake backgrounds were considered potential confounding factors. The adjusted OR (aOR) for childhood wheezing in the offspring of women with the highest MMI was 1·09 (95 % CI, 1·00, 1·20), whereas that calculated based on aMMI categories and offspring of women with above-ideal MMI levels remained unchanged. The highest MMI was associated with slightly increased childhood wheezing incidence in the offspring. MMI during pregnancy had an insignificant clinical impact on this incidence; moreover, modifying MMI would not significantly improve childhood wheezing incidence in offspring. Therefore, further studies should clarify the association between other prenatal factors and childhood wheezing incidence in offspring.
Maternal prenatal psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, may affect offspring’s motor/cognitive development. However, research findings have been inconsistent. We used a dataset from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study to evaluate associations between maternal six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) scores and motor/cognitive development among offspring at two years of age. Their offspring’s motor/cognitive development was assessed using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. Records for 1859 male and 1817 female offspring were analyzed. The maternal K6 was administered twice during pregnancy: at a median of 14.6 weeks (M-T1) and 27.3 weeks (M-T2) of gestation. Multiple regression analysis was performed with the group with K6 scores ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2 as a reference. In the group with K6 scores ≥5 at both M-T1 and M-T2, male offspring had significantly lower developmental quotients (DQ) in the posture-motor area (partial regression coefficient [B]: −3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −5.92 to −1.44) and language-social area (B: −1.93; 95%CI: −3.73 to −0.12), while female offspring had a lower DQ for the language-social area (B: −1.95; 95%CI: −3.73 to −0.17). In those with K6 scores ≥5 only at M-T1 or M-T2, male and female offspring did not differ significantly in DQ for any area. Continuous maternal psychological distress from the first to the second half of pregnancy was associated with lower motor and verbal cognitive development in male offspring and lower verbal cognitive development in female offspring at 2 years compared with the group without persistent maternal prenatal psychological distress.
Maternal prenatal psychological distress, which includes depression and anxiety, affects the onset of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is no consistent knowledge regarding at which term during pregnancy psychological distress affects the risk of ASD among children. We used a dataset obtained from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study, which is a nationwide prospective birth cohort study, to evaluate the association between the six-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) and ASD among 3-year-old children. A total of 78,745 children were analyzed, and 355 of them were diagnosed with ASD (0.45%). The maternal K6 was administered twice during pregnancy: at a median of 15.1 weeks (M-T1) and at that of 27.4 weeks (M-T2) of gestation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the group with a maternal K6 score of ≥5 at both M-T1 and M-T2 was significantly associated with ASD among the children (adjusted odds ratio, 1.440; 95% confidence interval, 1.104–1.877) compared to the group with a score of ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2. There was no significant difference between the group with a score of ≥5 only at M-T1 or M-T2 and that with a score of ≤4 at both M-T1 and M-T2. In conclusion, from the first to the second half of pregnancy, continuous maternal psychological distress was associated with ASD among 3-year-old children. Contrarily, in the group without persistent maternal psychological distress during pregnancy, there was no significant association.
We evaluated the association between maternal prenatal folic acid supplementation/dietary folate intake and motor and cognitive development in 2-year-old offspring using data from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study database. Neurodevelopment of 2-year-old offspring were evaluated using the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001. In total, data of 3839 offspring were analysed. For folic acid supplementation, a multiple regression analysis showed that offspring of mothers who started using folic acid supplements before conception had a significantly lower developmental quotient (DQ) in the postural-motor DQ area than offspring of mothers who did not use them at any time throughout their pregnancy (partial regression coefficient (B) −2·596, 95 % CI −4·738, −0·455). Regarding daily dietary folate intake from preconception to early pregnancy, a multiple regression analysis showed that the group with ≥ 200 µg had a significantly higher DQ in the language-social area than the group with <200 µg. The DQ was higher in the ≥ 400 µg group (B 2·532, 95 % CI 0·201, 4·863) than the 200 to <400 µg group (B 1·437, 95 % CI 0·215, 2·660). In conclusion, our study showed that maternal adequate dietary folate intake from preconception to early pregnancy has a beneficial association with verbal cognition development in 2-year-old offspring. On the other hand, mothers who started using folic acid supplements before conception had an inverse association with motor development in 2-year-old offspring. There were no details on the amount of folic acid in the supplements used and frequency of use. Therefore, further studies are required.
Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
To identify predictive factors for hyperglycaemic progression in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to determine whether hyperglycaemic progression rates differ among antipsychotics in regular clinical practice.
We recruited 1166 patients who initially had normal or prediabetic glucose levels for a nationwide, multisite, l-year prospective cohort study to determine predictive factors for hyperglycaemic progression. We also examined whether hyperglycaemic progression varied among patients receiving monotherapy with the six most frequently used antipsychotics.
High baseline serum triglycerides and coexisting hypertension significantly predicted hyperglycaemic progression. The six most frequently used antipsychotics did not significantly differ in their associated hyperglycaemic progression rates over the 1-year observation period.
Clinicians should carefully evaluate baseline serum triglycerides and coexisting hypertension and perform strict longitudinal monitoring irrespective of the antipsychotic used.
Declaration of interest
The authors report no financial or other relationship that is relevant to the subject of this article. Relevant financial activities outside the submitted work are as follows. I.K. has received honoraria from Astellas, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Nippon Chemiphar, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin; has received research/grant support from AbbVie GK, Asahi Kasei Pharma, Astellas, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin; and is a member of the advisory boards of Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma. Y.T. has received speaker's honoraria from Dainippon-Sumitomo Pharma, Otsuka, Meiji-Seika Pharma, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Daiichi-Sankyo Company, UCB Japan and Ono Pharmaceutical. K.U. has received honoraria from Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin. B.Y. has received speaker's honoraria from Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Janssen Pharmaceutical. J. I. has received honoraria from Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Mochida Pharma.
Our recent single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) study of patients with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) revealed that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was reduced in the frontal, temporal, and limbic lobes, and to a lesser degree in the parietal and occipital lobes. Moreover, these patients’ scores on the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) were significantly correlated with rCBF in some gyri of the frontal, parietal, and limbic lobes. Our present study aimed to understand how vascular factors and metabolic disease influenced the relationship between rCBF and ADAS-cog scores.
We divided late-onset AD patients into two groups according to their Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS), low vascular risk patients had values of ≤4 (n=25) and high vascular risk patients had scores ≥5 (n=15). We examined rCBF using brain perfusion SPECT data.
The degrees and patterns of reduced rCBF were largely similar between late-onset AD patients in both groups, regardless of HIS values. Cognitive function was significantly associated with rCBF among late-onset AD patients with low vascular risk (HIS≤4), but not among those with high vascular risk (HIS≥5). Furthermore, metabolic diseases, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, disrupted the relationships between hypoperfusion and cognitive impairments in late-onset AD patients.
Factors other than hypoperfusion, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, could be involved in the cognitive dysfunction of late-onset AD patients with high vascular risk.
Treatment-resistant depression is a challenging problem in the clinical setting. Tipepidine has been used as a non-narcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959.
We administered tipepidine to 11 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Tipepidine was given for 8 weeks as an augmentation.
Tipepidine significantly improved depression scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression. Add-on treatment with tipepidine significantly improved scores on the trail making test and Rey auditory verbal learning test. However, no changes were observed in blood concentrations of stress-related hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate) with tipepidine augmentation.
Tipepidine might be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment-resistant depression.
A novel and fundamental method was reported to judge states of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using the capacitance and the voltage of the cells that were estimated from the real-time currents and voltage characteristics of the cells. We measured the differential capacitance, that is, dQ/dV or delta Q/ delta V that is equal to the currents (I) divided by differential voltages (dV/dt) calculated from the current and the voltage characteristics of the cell during the charging/ discharging, where Q is the charge that flows through the cell, V is the voltage of the cell and t is time. It is thought that the capacitance decrease with the degradation of the cell because the effective area of the electrodes is decreasing due to formation of undesirable compounds. The differential capacitance in some specific voltage range for the LIBs was approximately directly proportional to the state of the degradation of the cell. Therefore, it is concluded that the novel method is very useful to judge the state of the LIBs.
The Tokyo Twin Cohort Project (ToTCoP) is a large-scale longitudinal study of 5 years based on 1619 pairs of infant twins reared together. The purpose of the study is to construct a population-based twin registry in Japan and to investigate human growth and development and twin themselves. It covers behavioral, neurological, physical and environmental variables measured by questionnaire, home visiting and brain imaging technology. The full registry contains over 47,000 multiple births collected from the Basic Resident Register, and the targeted population is 3070 probable twins of 0 to 2 years old. Preliminary analysis of the entry questionnaire data showed no serious sampling biases. Descriptive statistics of parental characteristics (parental age, gestation age, parity and placentation, maternal weight, parenting stress) and children's characteristics (body size at birth, 4 and 10 months of age, milk consumption, and sleeping and social behavior) and their correlations, genetic and environmental contributions and correlations are reported.
Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) using cross-linked olefin polymer as a gate insulator were fabricated on a plastic film. An olefin polymer layer was formed by spin-coating and baking at temperatures below 150°C. Pentacene was used as an organic semiconductor layer. The fabricated OTFTs with a short 5-μm-long channel showed a mobility of 0.1-0.2 cm2/Vs and a current ON/OFF ratio of 107. These OTFTs also exhibited good stable performance in the atmosphere. On the basis of the results, we fabricated a 5 inches OTFT-driven flexible active-matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display. The gate insulator, some metal wirings and electrodes on the OTFT backplane were formed on the plastic film by photolithography. After fabrication of the OTFT backplane, OLED layers were formed by vacuum deposition through a shadow-mask. Clear color moving images were observed on the flexible display even when it was bent.
The highly pathogenic avian protozoan Leucocytozoon caulleryi infects host chicken cells, and interference by the host genome results in difficulty in obtaining protozoal DNA for genetic analysis. We used flow cytometry analysis to separate expelled L. caulleryi gametocytes from infected chicken blood and to analyse cell populations and sorting by FACS efficiency. Infected blood cells stained with SYTO-24 showed a specific area on 2-dimensional scattergrams compared to uninfected blood. The specific area was sorted, and approximately 85% of the sorted cells were identified as L. caulleryi gametocytes by microscopic observation. DNA was also extracted from the sorted fraction, and a clear increase in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of protozoal DNA was observed compared to infected blood without sorting. Host-derived DNA was also detected by PCR; however, its amplification was decreased compared to that in unsorted infected blood. This is the first report of the separation of L. caulleryi gametocytes from infected host blood using flow cytometry. This method may be applied to further genetic analyses such as studies of the dynamics of stage-specific L. caulleryi gene expression.
Diffusion behavior of Ca2+ ions in water-saturated, compacted Na-montmorillonite was studied for the safety assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The diffusion coefficients of Ca2+ ions in compacted Na-montmorillonite obtained in this study were from 1.7×10-11 to 6.0×10-12 m2 s-1 with increasing dry density of 1.0 to 1.8 Mg m-3. These values were approximately a quarter those of Na+ ions at each dry density. This suggests that the diffusion of Ca2+ ions could be the rate-determining mechanism for the alteration of Na-montmorillonite into Ca-montmorillonite. The activation energy for diffusion of Ca2+ ions was almost equal to that in free water (17.3 kJ mol-1) at dry densities of 1.0 to 1.6 Mg m-3. However, the activation energy suddenly increased to 25.1 kJmol-1 at a dry density of 1.8 Mg m-3. This increase cannot be explained using a single-diffusion process model, such as the pore-water diffusion model. Diffusion behavior of Ca2+ ions in compacted montmorillonite along with the experimental data on the basal spacing and water content of montmorillonite, and the activation energy for diffusion of Ca2+ and several other ions are discussed.
The growth of bulk GaN by sublimation method and a homoepitaxial growth by MOCVD are reported. A photo-pumped stimulated emission is obtained from a homoepitaxial layer. The source powder used as a source in the sublimation method is investigated in detail, and it is shown that the powder contains many kinds of compounds consisting mainly of gallium, nitrogen and hydrogen. Growth nucleation control is performed by partly covering an MOCVD-GaN or a scratched-sapphire (0001) by Si02. Hexagonal columns of the size of about 200 μm in diameter and about 200 μm in height are selectively and uniformly grown at the window sites. This technique enables the device processing of crystallites and also helps to increase crystal size by increasing growth time, since it prevents the nucleation of new crystallites which work as sink of the growing species.
The fundamental reference of the Earth rotation observation by the method of optical astrometry, such as VZT, PZT, astrolabe, transit instrument and so on, relies upon the stellar system. Hence the stellar positions and proper motions, and the celestial reference coordinate system are essential to preserve the system of the Earth orientation parameters determined by the optical astrometry.
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