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To assess dietary behaviours and related lifestyles according to the presence or absence of skipping breakfast.
We analysed the cross-sectional data from a baseline survey of a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan conducted in 2011–2016. Participants provided information on dietary behaviours and lifestyles through a self-administered questionnaire. Skipping breakfast was defined as not eating breakfast at least once a week and was classified according to the frequency of skipping breakfast as 1–2, 3–4 or ≥5 times/week.
Sixteen municipalities in seven prefectural areas across Japan under the Japan Public Health Centre-based prospective study for the Next Generation.
112 785 residents (51 952 males and 60 833 females) aged 40–74 years.
After adjustment for age, socio-demographic status, drinking status and smoking status, individuals who skipped breakfast at least once a week, compared with those who ate breakfast every day, were more likely to have adverse dietary behaviours such as frequent eating out (multivariable OR = 2·08, 95 % CI (1·96, 2·21) in males and 2·15, 95 % CI (1·99, 2·33) in females), frequent eating instant foods (1·89, 95 % CI (1·77, 2·01) in males and 1·72, 95 % CI (1·56, 1·89) in females). They had late bedtime (1·85, 95 % CI (1·75, 1·95) in males and 1·98, 95 % CI (1·86, 2·11) in females) and living alone (2·37, 95 % CI (2·17, 2·58) in males and 2·02, 95 % CI (1·83, 2·21) in females), using the logistic regression model.
Both adult males and females who skipped breakfast were likely to eat out, to have a dietary habit of eating instant foods and have lifestyles such as late bedtime and living alone than those who ate breakfast.
We sought to examine the prospective associations of specific fruit consumption, in particular flavonoid-rich fruit (FRF) consumption, with the risk of stroke and subtypes of stroke in a Japanese population. A study followed a total of 39 843 men and 47 334 women aged 44–76 years, and free of CVD, diabetes and cancer at baseline since 1995 and 1998 to the end of 2009 and 2012, respectively. Data on total and specific FRF consumption for each participant were obtained using a self-administrated FFQ. The hazard ratios (HR) of stroke in relation to total and specific FRF consumption were estimated through Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 13·1 years, 4091 incident stroke cases (2557 cerebral infarctions and 1516 haemorrhagic strokes) were documented. After adjustment for age, BMI, study area, lifestyles, dietary factors and other risk factors, it was found that total FRF consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of stroke in women (HR = 0·70; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·84), while the association in men was not significant (HR = 0·93; 95 % CI 0·79, 1·09). As for specific FRF, consumptions of citrus fruits, strawberries and grapes were found associated with a lower stroke risk in women. Higher consumptions of FRF, in particular citrus fruits, strawberries and grapes, were associated with a lower risk of developing stroke in Japanese women.
To examine the associations of salt perception with salt intake and blood pressure levels in general populations, we performed a cross-sectional study in two communities where salt intake level is different, Akita and Osaka in Japan. Taste perception (detection for certain taste and recognition for salt taste) was determined using a Na-impregnated test strip for 1024 Akita and 1199 Osaka adults aged 30–74 years. The proportions of detection for 0·1 % salt were 61, 62, 79, and 79 % in Akita men, Osaka men, Akita women and Osaka women, respectively. The corresponding proportions of not recognising of 1·6 % salt taste (>1·6 %) were 34, 30, 16 and 21 %. Detection threshold was higher in Akita than in Osaka for women aged 60–74 years, and recognition threshold was lower in Akita than in Osaka for women aged 30–59 and 60–74 years. The high detection (≥0·4 %) and recognition (>1·6 %) thresholds of salt taste were associated with higher salt intake scores for Akita men aged 30–59 years, whose detection and recognition thresholds tended be positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) after adjustment for potential confounders. Among Akita elderly men, detection threshold tended to be positively associated with SBP and DBP, while among Akita middle-aged women, recognition threshold was associated with SBP. In conclusion, the high thresholds of salt perception were inversely associated with salt intake for Akita middle-aged men and with blood pressure levels for Akita middle-aged and elderly men and middle-aged women.
Although the association between fruit consumption and CHD risk has been well studied, few studies have focused on flavonoid-rich fruits (FRF), in particular strawberries and grapes. We aimed to verify the association of total and specific FRF consumption with risk of CHD by a large prospective cohort study. A total of 87 177 men and women aged 44–75 years who were free of CVD and cancer at study baseline were eligible for the present analysis. FRF consumption was assessed using a FFQ. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of CHD in relation to FRF consumption with adjustment for potential risk factors and confounders. During a mean follow-up of 13·2 years, we identified 1156 incident CHD cases. After full adjustment for covariates including demographics, lifestyles and dietary factors, the HR were 0·93 (95 % CI 0·77, 1·11), 0·91 (95 % CI 0·75, 1·11), 0·84 (95 % CI 0·67, 1·04) and 0·78 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·99) for the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles compared with the lowest quintile of FRF consumption. Regarding specific fruits, we observed a significant inverse association for citrus fruit consumption and a borderline inverse association for strawberry consumption, while no association was observed for apple/pear or grape consumption. Although the associations appeared to be stronger in women, they were not significantly modified by sex. Higher consumption of FRF, in particular, citrus fruits, may be associated with a lower risk of developing CHD.
The association of chocolate consumption with risk of gestational diabetes has not been examined. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between chocolate consumption and risk of gestational diabetes in a large birth cohort in Japan. A total of 97 454 pregnant women with a median gestational age of 12 weeks were recruited from January 2011 to March 2014. Data on demographic information, disease history, socio-economic status, lifestyle and dietary habits were obtained at the study enrolment. Dietary intake during the past 12 months before study enrolment was assessed through a semi-quantitative FFQ. The logistic regression was used to obtain the OR of gestational diabetes in relation to chocolate consumption. Among 84 948 women eligible for the analysis, 1904 cases of gestational diabetes (2·2 %) were identified during the period of pregnancy. After controlling for potential confounding factors including age, smoking status, drinking status, education level, occupation, pre-pregnant BMI, depression, previous history of macrosomia babies, parity, physical activity and dietary factors, women in the highest quartile of chocolate consumption, compared with those in the lowest quartile, had a significantly lower risk of developing gestational diabetes (OR 0·78, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·90; P for trend = 0·002). Stratified analyses suggested that the association was not significantly modified by pre-pregnancy BMI, age, parity, smoking status or drinking status. The present prospective cohort study provided evidence that chocolate consumption was associated with a significant lower risk of gestational diabetes in Japanese women.
To investigate long-term trends in dietary intakes of vitamins A, C and E in Japanese adults.
Time series by community-based nutrition survey.
Two rural communities (Ikawa and Kyowa) between 1974 and 2001 in Japan.
A total of 3713 men and 3726 women aged 40–69 years.
Dietary intake data were collected by the 24 h dietary recall.
In Ikawa, mean intake of vitamin A (β-carotene and retinol) increased by 13–40 %; vitamins C and E increased by approximately 23–33 % among men and women from 1974–1977 to 1998–2000. In Kyowa, mean intake of vitamin A, primarily retinol, increased by 13–21 % among men and women; vitamin C from fruits decreased by 16 % among men; and vitamin E increased by 29 % among women from 1982–1986 to 1998–2001. Mean intake of vitamin E in the latest survey period was lower than the Adequate Intake among men and women in both communities. Generally, there were increased intakes of β-carotene and vitamin C from green/yellow and other vegetables; increased retinol intake from fish/shellfish, eggs, milk/dairy products and fats/oils; and increased vitamin E intake from green/yellow and other vegetables, fish/shellfish, eggs, milk/dairy products and fats/oils.
Mean intakes of the antioxidant vitamins A, C and E increased among middle-aged Japanese men and women between the 1970s and the 1990s except for decreased vitamin C among Kyowa men. The lower mean intake of vitamin E than the Adequate Intake should be considered a potential public health issue for the prevention of CVD.
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