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Across the globe, the implementation of quality improvement science and collaborative learning has positively affected the care and outcomes for children born with CHD. These efforts have advanced the collective expertise and performance of inter-professional healthcare teams. In this review, we highlight selected quality improvement initiatives and strategies impacting the field of cardiovascular care and describe implications for future practice and research. The continued leveraging of technology, commitment to data transparency, focus on team-based practice, and recognition of cultural norms and preferences ensure the success of sustainable models of global collaboration.
NUMO and JAEA have been conducting a joint research since FY2011, which is aimed
to enhance the methodology of repository design and performance assessment in
preliminary investigation stage for the deep geological disposal of high-level
radioactive waste. As a part of this joint research, we have been developing
glass dissolution models which include various processes derived from
glass-overpack-bentonite buffer interaction, considering the precipitation of
Fe-silicates associated with steel overpack corrosion, and Si transport through
altered layer of glass. The objective of this modeling work is to show
comprehensively the lifetime of the vitrified waste due to glass matrix
dissolution timescales through sensitivity analysis, and to identify the
feature/process that most strongly influences the lifetime, and to identify
future R&D issues that would help to improve the nuclide transport
analysis with confidential value and the safety case in future. The sensitivity
analysis suggested that the duration of the glass dissolution might be predicted
in the ranges from 3.8×103 to 1.9×105
years. Also, the results indicated that the precipitation of
Fe–silicate has the strongest influence on the long-team behavior of
Directional information should play a significant role
for a firm detection of the galactic dark matter.
We developed a prototype three-dimensional gaseous tracking device
for a direction-sensitive dark matter direct detection.
We investigated the performance of the prototype detector and demonstrated
a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment in a
We set the first limit
on the spin-dependent WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles)-proton cross s
ection by a direction-sensitive method.
We discuss a number of topics relevant to disk-magnetosphere interaction and how numerical simulations illuminate them. The topics include: (1) disk-magnetosphere interaction and the problem of disk-locking; (2) the wind problem; (3) structure of the magnetospheric flow, hot spots at the star's surface, and the inner disk region; (4) modeling of spectra from 3D funnel streams; (5) accretion to a star with a complex magnetic field; (6) accretion through 3D instabilities; (7) magnetospheric gap and survival of protoplanets. Results of both 2D and 3D simulations are discussed.
Background and objective: Thiopental has been reported to reduce sympathetic tone, however, it is not clear whether change in heart rate variability is associated with depth of anaesthesia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate changes in heart rate variability at different depths of hypnosis during induction of anaesthesia with thiopental. Methods: We studied 17 ASA I patients scheduled for minor surgery. The depth of hypnosis was monitored by the BIS. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability using a maximum entropy method resulted in a characteristic power spectrum with two main regions, a high frequency and a low frequency. Haemodynamics, entropy, low frequency, high frequency and low frequency/high frequency were monitored in an awake state and after the induction of anaesthesia. Results: Heart rate increased in a BIS-dependent manner, whereas blood pressure showed no significant changes during the study period. High frequency, entropy and low frequency decreased with a reduction in the BIS value. Low frequency/high frequency showed no significant change during the study period. Conclusions: Induction of anaesthesia with thiopental increased heart rate and decreased high frequency, entropy and low frequency in a BIS-dependent manner, indicating that thiopental reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone depending on the depth of hypnosis.
As telecommunication equipment that supports high-level information networks is being made portable, the requirements for telecommunication equipment to be small and lightweight are becoming stricter. Thus, miniaturization of semiconductor devices is necessary, and wafer dicing and chip thinning technologies are important key technologies to achieve it. Wafers are thinned by mechanical in-feed grinding using a grindstone containing diamond particles, and wafers are divided by mechanical blade dicing using a diamond blade. However, mechanical processes using diamond grits leave damage such as chipping, saw mark or residual strain on chip surfaces; thus, chip strength decreases. At chip thicknesses of 50 to 200 μm, such damage has to be avoided.
In this study, the relationship between chip residual damage and chip strength is examined, and novel wafer dicing and thinning technologies that realize an average chip strength have increased from 253 MPa to 1903 MPa are described.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious health problem in the southwestern region of Nepal. Serological diagnostic kits for routine diagnostic use in this region have not been available. This study was performed to examine if the particle agglutination (PA) assay for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) IgM could be applicable to the samples collected in Nepal and also to evaluate the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of JE. One hundred and ninety-three blood samples were collected from the patients clinically diagnosed with JE or other infectious diseases in the JE-endemic, southwestern region of Nepal, in 2000. The PA assay was performed on these 193 serum samples and the results were compared with those by IgM-capture ELISA. Eighty-six samples were IgM-positive by the PA assay, and 71 of 86 were also positive by IgM-capture ELISA (sensitivity, 99%; specificity, 88%; positive predictive value, 0·82; negative predictive value, 0·99). These results suggest that the PA assay is a simple, reliable and useful diagnostic test to support clinical diagnosis in rural hospitals of Asia including Nepal.
We prepared a series of (AgBiTe2)1−x(Ag2Te)x (0≤×≤1) composite materials by melt and cool down . The Hall coefficient and the electrical conductivity were measured by the standard van der Pauw technique over the temperature range from 93K to 283K from which the Hall carrier mobility was calculated. Ag2Te had the highest mobility while the mobility of AgBiTe2 was the lowest of all samples at 283K. However the mobility of the (AgBiTe2)0.125(Ag2Te)0.875 composite material was higher than the motility of Ag2Te below 243K. It seems that a small second phase dispersed in the matrix phase is effective against the increased mobility.
Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to clarify the ability of flowing groundwater in contact with bentonite to generate bentonite colloidal particles and disperse such colloids. This information is required to determine (a) the long-term stability of bentonite as a buffer material for borehole disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic media and (b) the potential influence of bentonite colloidal particles on radionuclide transport, specifically for use in scenario analyses in the performance assessment of waste disposal.
In this study, the minimum groundwater velocity required to erode particles of Nabentonite or Ca-bentonite from a bentonite surface in contact with groundwater was derived from shear strengths of aqueous bentonite gel suspensions, as determined by viscometer tests. The shear strengths were used to estimate the corresponding shear force on bentonite particle-particle bonds, using an estimated value for the number of initial bentonite particle-particle bonds in the experimental systems studied. The derived shear force was converted to corresponding groundwater velocity by using Stokes' equation and simplifying assumptions. The results indicate that groundwater velocities in a range of about 10−5 to 10−4 m/s would be required to initiate bentonite erosion. This range is higher than the groundwater flow velocity generally found in deep geologic media in Japan. In addition, known groundwater electrolyte concentrations were compared with theoretical estimates of aqueous electrolyte concentrations required to flocculate colloidal bentonite particles (for example 1 × 10−3 mol/l Na+). The comparison indicates that, even if erosion of bentonite occurred, the colloidal bentonite particles formed would flocculate. As a result, this study has shown that the effect of bentonite colloids on radionuclide transport is likely to be negligible in the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic media.
Photographs of x-ray transmission images by x-ray films have been used for observing the inside nondestructively. Further, Imaging Plates(IP) are used for precise measurements of x-ray diffraction patterns. But, these integrating area detectors are not suitable for real time nor time resolved measurements. For real time and time resolved measurements, the X-Ray Image Intensifier(XRII, a large image tube that converts an x-ray image into a visible image) is used for biological x-ray TV systems, x-ray nondestructive inspection systems etc. These TV x-ray image systems require high energy x-rays, x-ray tube voltage of 30 to 150 kV, and show faint contrast for x-ray images of light element substances owing to its low absorption coefficients. However, light elements have intense x-ray absorption coefficients in a low energy x-ray region, x-ray tube voltage of 5 to 20 kV, and give fine contrast for x-ray images of light element substances.
We prepared composite materials of AgBiTe2 with several contents of Ag2Te small-size grains for applications to thermoelectric devices. By enhancing long-wavelength phonon scattering at the grain boundaries, lattice thermal conductivity (thermal conductivity due to lattice vibrations) decreased 30% and thus the thermoelectric characteristics were significantly improved.
Silica film coatings were demonstrated using photo-chemical vapor deposition with a 172-nm Xe excimer lamp. Tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) molecules were successfully dissociated into SiO2+2C2H5-OH+;(residual C and H) with the 7.2-eV photons. The films were deposited onto a quartz or Al203 single crystal substrate with the deposition rate of 1 nm/min. The films were uniform and smooth enough for optical applications.
α–ZrP whiskers have been prepared from ZrCl4 + PCl3 + H2 + Ar gas mixtures at 1050–1250 °C using the mixed metal impurity-activated chemical vapor deposition process. The growth conditions, morphology, growth mechanism, and some properties were examined. The mixed impurities of Si + Pt and Si + Pd were very effective for the ZrP whisker growth with 8–12 mm (avg. 10 mm) long whiskers being obtained at 1300 °C for 1 h. The growth direction of the whiskers having hexagonal and square cross sections were along the c-axis and a-axis, respectively. The whiskers were very stable to an 80 min immersion in a concentrated HCl solution.
The argon excimer laser provides 9.8-eV photons that readily surmount the electronic bandgap energy of SiO2 (∼9.0 eV), directly generating excitons in a single-photon absorption process. We have shown by Si L2,3 (Si 3s→2p) X-ray emission spectroscopy, Si 2p X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy that this absorption process is responsible for silicon precipitation in the silica. The X-ray emission studies further show that the silicon precipitates are crystalline, forming in highest concentration in 120–230 nm layer beneath the laserirradiated surface. Silicon precipitation was not observed on samples irradiated with 146-nm krypton excimer radiation due to a smaller 8.5-eV photon energy that is below the silica bandgap.
An imaging plate containing photostimulable phosphor material, BaFBr:Eu2+, was found to be applicable to store images for nanosecond pulses as well as quasi-continuous radiations in 4 – 35 eV photon energy range. The sensitivity, which was defined as photostimulated luminescence intensity for a given incident photon number increased with the photon energy and had a peak at 6.2 eV. The intensity of the luminescence was confirmed to increase in proportion to incident photon numbers of the radiation. The readout system was improved and then pattern images were successfully restored. The resolution of imaging plate was found to be lower than 100 μm with our system, which depends on the intensity of a He-Ne laser for restoring images.
A nine-year-old girl with short stature was referred to the department of pediatrics at Kyushu University. The clinical diagnosis was Turner syndrome; karyotypic analysis performed on peripheral blood, using GTG techniques, demonstrated a 45,X/47,XYY (17:83) mosaicism. Her twin brother, a phenotypically normal male, had the same karyotype; 45,X/47,XYY (3:97) on peripheral blood. Their skin fibroblast karyotypes showed the same mosaicism, ie. 45,X/47,XYY (41:59 and 31:69 respectively). On eleven biochemical genetic markers the twin pair were concordant, thus the likelihood of monozygosity was 0.99527034. In addition, the analysis of variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) markers revealed the likelihood of monozygosity to be 0.99944386. The most plausible explanation of the X/XYY mosaicism was nondisjunction of the Y in the first cleavage division of the 46,XY zygote. A disproportionate rate of cell populations with 45,X and 47.XYY in the twinning process of the X/XYY embryo, especially in the germ lines, would result in discordant sex in twin pairs.
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