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Universal admission screening and follow-up symptom-based testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may play critical roles in controlling nosocomial transmission. We describe the performance of test strategies for inpatients and their companions during various disease incidences in Taiwan.
Retrospective population-based cohort study.
The study was conducted across 476 hospitals in Taiwan.
The data for both testing strategies by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 in newly admitted patients and their companions during May 2021—June 2022 were extracted and analyzed.
The positivity rate of universal admission screening was 0.76% (14,640 of 1,928,676) for patients and 0.37% (5,372 of 1,438,944) for companions. The weekly community incidences of period 1 (May 2021–June 2021), period 2 (July 2021–March 2022), and period 3 (April 2022–June 2022) were 6.57, 0.27, and 1,261, respectively, per 100,000 population. The positivity rates of universal admission screening for patients and companions (4.39% and 2.18%) in period 3 were higher than those in periods 1 (0.29% and 0.04%) and 2 (0.03% and 0.003%) (all P < .01). Among the 22,201 confirmed cases, 9.86% were identified by symptom-based testing. The costs and potential savings of universal admission screening for patients and companions achieved a breakeven point when the test strategy was implemented in a period with weekly community incidences of 27 and 358 per 100,000 population, respectively.
Universal admission screening and follow-up symptom-based testing is important for reducing nosocomial transmission. Implementing universal admission screening at an appropriate time would balance the benefits with costs and potential unintended harms.
Globally, an aging population is increasing, and aging is a natural physiological process and a major risk factor for all age-related diseases. It seriously threatens personal health and imposes a great economic burden. Therefore, there is a growing scientific interest in strategies for well-aging with prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. The seed, root, stem or leaves of Cassia tora Linn. are useful for anti-bacteria, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-obesity due to its pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant both in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, no clinical trials have been attempted so far, therefore here we would like to understand the current preclinical activities for aging-related disease models including cataract, metabolic dysfunction and neurodegeneration, then discuss their preparation for clinical trials and perspectives.
The coexistence of underweight (UW) and overweight (OW)/obese (OB) at the population level is known to affect iron deficiency (ID) anaemia (IDA), but how the weight status affects erythropoiesis during pregnancy is less clear at a population scale. This study investigated associations between the pre-pregnancy BMI (pBMI) and erythropoiesis-related nutritional deficiencies.
Anthropometry, blood biochemistry and 24-h dietary recall data were collected during prenatal care visits. The weight status was defined based on the pBMI. Mild nutrition deficiency-related erythropoiesis was defined if individuals had an ID, folate depletion or a vitamin B12 deficiency.
The Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (Pregnant NAHSIT 2017–2019).
We included 1456 women aged 20 to 45 years with singleton pregnancies.
Among these pregnant women, 9·6 % were UW, and 29·2 % were either OW (15·8 %) or OB (13·4 %). A U-shaped association between the pBMI and IDA was observed, with decreased odds (OR; 95 % CI) for OW subjects (0·6; 95 % CI (0·4, 0·9)) but increased odds for UW (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 2·0)) and OB subjects (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 1·8)). The pBMI was positively correlated with the prevalence of a mild nutritional deficiency. Compared to normal weight, OB pregnant women had 3·4-fold (3·4; 95 % CI (1·4, 8·1)) higher odds for multiple mild nutritional deficiencies, while UW individuals had lowest odds (0·3; 95 % CI (0·1, 1·2)). A dietary analysis showed negative relationships of pBMI with energy, carbohydrates, protein, Fe and folate intakes, but positive relationship with fat intakes.
The pre-pregnancy weight status can possibly serve as a good nutritional screening tool for preventing IDA during pregnancy.
Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks in Taiwan. On 27 April 2018, a salmonellosis outbreak among customers of a restaurant was reported to the Taiwan CDC. We investigated the outbreak to identify infection sources and prevent further transmission. We interviewed ill customers and their dining companions. We conducted a case-control study to identify foods associated with the illness. Case-patients were those who had diarrhoea within 72 h after eating at the restaurant during 16–27 April 2018. Specimens, food samples and environmental samples were collected and tested for enteric pathogens. Salmonella isolates were analysed with pulse-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing. We inspected the restaurant sanitation and reviewed kitchen surveillance camera recordings. We identified 47 case-patients, including one decedent. Compared with 44 controls, case-patients were more likely to have had a French toast sandwich (OR: 102.4; 95% CI: 18.7–952.3). Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from 16 case-patients shared an indistinguishable genotype. Camera recordings revealed eggshell contamination, long holding time at room temperature and use of leftovers during implicated food preparation. Recommendations for restaurant egg-containing food preparation are to use pasteurised egg products and ensure a high enough cooking temperature and long enough cooking time to prevent Salmonella contamination.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on promoting postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis and systemic energy substrate utilisation in young college students. A total of eight healthy male participants (age: 22·0 (se 1·0) years, BMI: 24·2 (se 0·7) kg/m2, VO2max: 43·2 (se 2·4) ml/kg per min) participated in this study. GTE (500 mg/d for 8 weeks) was compared with placebo in participants in a double-blind/placebo-controlled and crossover study design with an 8-week washout period. Thereafter, all participants performed a 60-min cycling exercise (75 % VO2max) and consumed a carbohydrate-enriched meal immediately after exercise. Vastus lateralis muscle samples were collected immediately (0 h) and 3 h after exercise, and blood and gaseous samples were collected during the 3-h postexercise recovery period. An 8-week oral GTE supplementation had no effects on further promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle, but the exercise-induced muscle GLUT type 4 (GLUT4) protein content was greater in the GTE supplementation trial (P<0·05). We observed that, during the postexercise recovery period, GTE supplementation elicited an increase in energy reliance on fat oxidation compared with the placebo trial (P<0·05), although there were no differences in blood glucose and insulin responses between the two trials. In summary, 8-week oral GTE supplementation increases postexercise systemic fat oxidation and exercise-induced muscle GLUT4 protein content in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. However, GTE supplementation has no further benefit on promoting muscle glycogen resynthesis during the postexercise period.
Fe is an essential element for erythropoiesis and Hb synthesis. High Hb levels affect the blood’s viscosity and are associated with cardiovascular dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of Hb and cardiometabolic abnormalities with the risk of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation in adolescents.
A population-based, cross-sectional study.
National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010–2011, adolescents).
Healthy adolescents aged 13–18 years.
In total, 1941 adolescents (963 boys and 978 girls) were entered in the study. The mean age was 15·3 (sd 0·1) years (boys, 15·3 (sd 0·1) years; girls, 15·2 (sd 0·1) years). ALT tertile cut-off points for boys were 11 and 16 U/l, and for girls were 9 and 12 U/l. Girls without dyslipidaemia and presenting in the highest quartile (Q1) of Hb (>13·6 g/dl) were 1·89 and 3·76 times more likely to have raised serum ALT (9 and >12 U/l, respectively) than the reference (lowest quartile of Hb (Q1), <12·4 g/dl). Moreover, for those girls with dyslipidaemia, serum ALT seemed to increase with an increase in Hb levels. Specifically, girls with dyslipidaemia and Hb levels of 12·4, 13·1 and 13·6 g/dl were, respectively, 2·86, 3·53 and 5·64 times more likely to have elevated serum ALT levels (>12 U/l) than the reference (Q1 of Hb, <12·4 g/dl). The only effect found in boys was for those who had dyslipidaemia and presenting in Q4 of Hb (>15·4 g/dl), who were 7·40 times more likely to have elevated serum ALT of >16 U/l than the reference (Q1 of Hb, <14·1 g/dl).
Our findings suggest that an increased Hb level is a predictor of elevated serum ALT in adolescent girls with dyslipidaemia. Our study also highlights the importance of further research to establish cut-off points for Hb and its utility in diagnosing and preventing the onset of dyslipidaemia in adolescents.
The role that BMI plays in the association between dietary quality and CVD risk is not known. We aimed to better understand this relationship using statistical methods which correct for sex-specific underreporting of dietary intake. Overall, dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) on data from 9797 non-pregnant adults (aged >20 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2010. CVD risk factors included blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, homeostatic models of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP). We controlled for demographic and lifestyle covariates, and we used the population ratio approach (which adjusts for the underreporting of intake) to compare mean HEI scores between the top and bottom quartiles of covariate-adjusted CVD risk factors. In women, the total HEI score was not associated with any CVD risk factors (all Q>0·11). In men, the total HEI score was associated with covariate-adjusted residuals for fasting insulin (Q< 0·001), HOMA-IR (Q< 0·001), HDL-C (Q= 0·01), TAG (Q= 0·03) and CRP (Q< 0·001). When we additionally adjusted for BMI, the association with total HEI score was not significant (all P>0·10). In the present analyses, dietary quality was associated with five CVD risk factors in a sex-specific manner. Moreover, the association of BMI with CVD risk attenuated the relationship between CVD risk and diet, which suggests that BMI is an important factor in heart disease prevention.
Asians and Pacific Islanders have higher circulating serum ferritin (SF) compared with Caucasians but the clinical significance of this is unclear. There is a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Taiwanese Indigenous than Han Chinese. Genetically, Indigenous are related to Austronesians and account for 2 % of Taiwan's population. We tested the hypothesis that accumulation of Fe in the body contributes to the ethnic/racial disparities in MetS in Taiwan.
A population-based, cross-sectional study.
National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan and Penghu Island.
A total of 2638 healthy adults aged ≥19 years. Three ethnic groups were included.
Han Chinese and Indigenous people had comparable levels of SF. Austronesia origin was independently associated with MetS (OR = 2·61, 95 % CI 2·02, 3·36). After multiple adjustments, the odds for MetS (OR = 2·49, 95 % CI 1·15, 5·28) was significantly higher among Indigenous people in the highest SF tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Hakka and Penghu Islanders yielded the lowest risks (OR = 1·08, 95 % CI 0·44, 2·65 and OR = 1·21, 95 % CI 0·52, 2·78, respectively). Indigenous people in the highest SF tertile had increased risk for abnormal levels of fasting glucose (OR = 2·34, 95 % CI 1·27, 4·29), TAG (OR = 1·94, 95 % CI 1·11, 3·39) and HDL-cholesterol (OR = 2·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·73) than those in the lowest SF tertile.
Our results raise the possibility that ethnic/racial differences in body Fe store susceptibility may contribute to racial and geographic disparities in MetS.
Static-gap, single-spark tests were used to investigate the arc erosion behavior of newly developed silicon carbide and alumina particle reinforced silver matrix composites (SiCp/Ag, Al2O3p/Ag). Craters and hills exist on the surfaces of eroded silver matrix composites, and their depths and sizes decrease as the particle content increases and the particle size decreases. Obvious melting, flow, severe splash of molten silver, and the segregation of particles are present on the surfaces of eroded composites containing low volume percents of large particles. Easier silver flow results in smooth surfaces and reduces the total surface areas of the eroded composites containing large particles. The flow and splash of silver decreased with increasing particle content and decreasing particle size, exhibiting a better erosion resistance to single-spark tests. The static-gap, single-spark erosion behavior of silver matrix composites is dominated by the flow and splash of molten composites. A high viscosity of the liquids provides the composites a good arc erosion resistance.
An electroless plating and hot-pressing process was developed to fabricate silver matrix composites reinforced with uniformly distributed graphite and Saffil short fibers (Graphitesf and Saffilsf). The hardness of the composites increases as the content of short fibers increase. Static-gap, single-spark erosion and repeated-collision, multiple-arc erosion tests were used to investigate the arc erosion behavior of the composites. The composites exhibited better arc erosion resistance when the contents of short fibers were increased in a static-gap, single-spark erosion test. However, the weight loss of the composites after 10,000 times repeated-collision, multiple-arc erosion operation shows that the composites with low volume percents of short fibers have a good arc erosion resistance. The Saffilsf/Ag composites show a better arc erosion resistance than Graphitesf/Ag because of the greater strengthening effect of the finer Saffil short fibers. The erosion behavior of the composites is dominated by the viscosity of composites in single-spark tests, while it depends on the competition of viscosity and thermal properties in multiple-arc tests.
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