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In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
Reliable diagnosis of human helminth infection(s) is essential for ongoing disease surveillance and disease elimination. Current WHO-recommended diagnostic assays are unreliable in low-endemic near-elimination settings and typically involve the invasive, onerous and potentially hazardous sampling of bodily fluids such as stool and blood, as well as tissue via biopsy. In contrast, diagnosis by use of non-invasive urine sampling is generally painless, more convenient and low risk. It negates the need for specialist staff, can usually be obtained immediately upon request and is better accepted by patients. In some instances, urine-based diagnostic assays have also been shown to provide a more reliable diagnosis of infection when compared to traditional methods that require alternative and more invasive bodily samples, particularly in low-endemicity settings. Given these relative benefits, we identify and review current research literature to evaluate whether non-invasive urine sampling is currently exploited to its full potential in the development of diagnostic tools for human helminthiases. Though further development, assessment and validation are needed before their routine use in control programmes, low-cost, rapid and reliable assays capable of detecting transrenal helminth-derived antigens and cell-free DNA show excellent promise for future use at the point-of-care in high-, medium- and even low-endemicity elimination settings.
To assess if there is a difference in salt intake (24 h urine collection and dietary recall) and dietary sources of salt (Na) on weekdays and weekend days.
A cross-sectional study of adults who provided one 24 h urine collection and one telephone-administered 24 h dietary recall.
Community-dwelling adults living in the State of Victoria, Australia.
Adults (n 598) who participated in a health survey (53·5 % women; mean age 57·1 (95 % CI 56·2, 58·1) years).
Mean (95 % CI) salt intake (dietary recall) was 6·8 (6·6, 7·1) g/d and 24 h urinary salt excretion was 8·1 (7·8, 8·3) g/d. Mean dietary and 24 h urinary salt (age-adjusted) were 0·9 (0·1, 1·6) g/d (P=0·024) and 0·8 (0·3, 1·6) g/d (P=0·0017), respectively, higher at weekends compared with weekdays. There was an indication of a greater energy intake at weekends (+0·6 (0·02, 1·2) MJ/d, P=0·06), but no difference in Na density (weekday: 291 (279, 304) mg/MJ; weekend: 304 (281, 327) mg/MJ; P=0·360). Cereals/cereal products and dishes, meat, poultry, milk products and gravy/sauces accounted for 71 % of dietary Na.
Mean salt intake (24 h urine collection) was more than 60 % above the recommended level of 5 g salt/d and 8–14 % more salt was consumed at weekends than on weekdays. Substantial reductions in the Na content of staple foods, processed meat, sauces, mixed dishes (e.g. pasta), convenience and takeaway foods are required to achieve a significant consistent reduction in population salt intake throughout the week.
The re-emergence of debates on the decolonisation of knowledge has revived interest in the National Question, which began over a century ago and remains unresolved. Tensions that were suppressed and hidden in the past are now being openly debated. Despite this, the goal of one united nation living prosperously under a constitutional democracy remains elusive. This edited volume examines the way in which various strands of left thought have addressed the National Question, especially during the apartheid years, and goes on to discuss its relevance for South Africa today and in the future. Instead of imposing a particular understanding of the National Question, the editors identified a number of political traditions and allowed contributors the freedom to define the question as they believed appropriate – in other words, to explain what they thought was the Unresolved National Question. This has resulted in a rich tapestry of interweaving perceptions. The volume is structured in two parts. The first examines four foundational traditions: Marxism-Leninism (the Colonialism of a Special Type thesis); the Congress tradition; the Trotskyist tradition; and Africanism. The second part explores the various shifts in the debate from the 1960s onwards, and includes chapters on Afrikaner nationalism, ethnic issues, black consciousness, feminism, workerism and constitutionalism. The editors hope that by revisiting the debates not popularly known among the scholarly mainstream, this volume will become a catalyst for an enriched debate on our identity and our future.
The 2015 academic year seemed to begin on a familiar note as students struggled to find sought-after places at South Africa's top universities. Then a protest broke out in February at the University of Cape Town (UCT). The target was the prominent statue of Cecil John Rhodes (the arch-imperialist of the British Empire) which had occupied a central position in the university for nearly a century. The trigger for the protest was the deep sense of injustice felt by black students by this ‘celebration’ of the symbol of colonial conquest, exploitation and land dispossession. The demand, named ‘Rhodes Must Fall’, rapidly spread across South African universities, culminating in the dramatic removal of the statue. In October a demand for no university fee increases – ‘Fees Must Fall’ – took centre stage. By the end of the year the protest had developed into a broader call for the decolonisation of universities, with the issue of race at the centre of nationwide campus protests (Habib, 2015).
Seized with the challenge of the present, the architects of this new movement, not surprisingly, seemed impatient with the narratives of the past. But we have to grasp ‘the present as history’ (a phrase drawn from The Eye of the Needle by political philosopher and anti-apartheid activist Richard Turner, initially published in 1972). The National Question – the drive to build one united, democratic nation – is a ‘century-long discourse on South Africa's nationhood’ (Mistra, 2014: 49) framed by a number of popular narratives or stories:
• Colonialism of a Special Type (CST) – the notion that South Africa consists of two nations, the colonising and the colonised, in the same territory;
• the approach that recognises the numerical superiority of indigenous Africans as the most oppressed and exploited members of society, and places special emphasis on African leadership, as well as prioritising the conditions of African people;
• the ‘rainbow nation’ approach, which emphasises the multiple identities that constitute South Africa's diverse population (Mistra, 2014: 49–50).
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
To update the estimate of mean salt intake for the Australian population made by the Australian Health Survey (AHS).
A secondary analysis of the data collected in a cross-sectional survey was conducted. Estimates of salt intake were made in Lithgow using the 24 h diet recall methodology employed by the AHS as well as using 24 h urine collections. The data from the Lithgow sample were age- and sex-weighted, to provide estimates of daily salt intake for the Australian population based upon (i) the diet recall data and (ii) the 24 h urine samples.
Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia.
Individuals aged ≥20 years residing in Lithgow and listed on the 2009 federal electoral roll.
Mean (95 % CI) salt intake estimated from the 24 h diet recalls was 6·4 (6·2, 6·7) g/d for the Lithgow population compared with a corresponding figure of 6·2 g/d for the Australian population derived from the AHS. The corresponding estimate of salt intake for Lithgow adults based upon the 24 h urine collections was 9·0 (8·6, 9·4) g/d. When the age- and sex-specific estimates of salt intake obtained from the 24 h urine collections in the Lithgow sample were weighted using Australian census data, estimated salt intake for the Australian population was 9·0 (8·6, 9·5) g/d. Further adjustment for non-urinary Na excretion made the best estimate of daily salt intake for both Lithgow and Australia about 9·9 g/d.
The dietary recall method used by the AHS likely substantially underestimated mean population salt consumption in Australia.
The aim of the present study was to determine general paediatrician knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards electrocardiogram (ECG) screening in school athletes during pre-participation screening exam (PPSE).
Paediatricians affiliated with a tertiary children’s hospital completed a survey about ECGs for PPSE.
In total, 205/498 (41%) responded; 92% of the paediatricians did not include an ECG as part of PPSE; 56% were aware of a case in which a student athlete in their own community had died of sudden unexplained death; 4% had an athlete in their practice die. Only 16% of paediatricians perform all 12 American Heart Association recommended elements of the PPSE. If any of these screening elements are abnormal, 69% obtain an ECG, 36% an echocardiogram, and 30% restrict patients from sports activity; 73% of them refer the patient to a cardiologist.
Most of the general paediatricians surveyed did not currently perform ECGs for PPSE. In addition, there was a low rate of adherence to performing the 12 screening elements recommended by the American Heart Association. They have trouble obtaining timely, accurate ECG interpretations, worry about potential unnecessary exercise restrictions, and cost-effectiveness. The practical hurdles to ECG implementation emphasise the need for a fresh look at PPSE, and not just ECG screening. Improvements in ECG performance/interpretation would be necessary for ECGs to be a useful part of PPSE.
The anticipated release of EnlistTM cotton, corn, and soybean cultivars likely will increase the use of 2,4-D, raising concerns over potential injury to susceptible cotton. An experiment was conducted at 12 locations over 2013 and 2014 to determine the impact of 2,4-D at rates simulating drift (2 g ae ha−1) and tank contamination (40 g ae ha−1) on cotton during six different growth stages. Growth stages at application included four leaf (4-lf), nine leaf (9-lf), first bloom (FB), FB + 2 wk, FB + 4 wk, and FB + 6 wk. Locations were grouped according to percent yield loss compared to the nontreated check (NTC), with group I having the least yield loss and group III having the most. Epinasty from 2,4-D was more pronounced with applications during vegetative growth stages. Importantly, yield loss did not correlate with visual symptomology, but more closely followed effects on boll number. The contamination rate at 9-lf, FB, or FB + 2 wk had the greatest effect across locations, reducing the number of bolls per plant when compared to the NTC, with no effect when applied at FB + 4 wk or later. A reduction of boll number was not detectable with the drift rate except in group III when applied at the FB stage. Yield was influenced by 2,4-D rate and stage of cotton growth. Over all locations, loss in yield of greater than 20% occurred at 5 of 12 locations when the drift rate was applied between 4-lf and FB + 2 wk (highest impact at FB). For the contamination rate, yield loss was observed at all 12 locations; averaged over these locations yield loss ranged from 7 to 66% across all growth stages. Results suggest the greatest yield impact from 2,4-D occurs between 9-lf and FB + 2 wk, and the level of impact is influenced by 2,4-D rate, crop growth stage, and environmental conditions.
A study was conducted to evaluate interactions of imazethapyr co-application with propanil, thiobencarb, or a prepackaged mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb. At 7, 14, 21, and 49 d after treatment (DAT), synergism occurred for red rice treated with imazethapyr at 70 g ai ha−1 mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at 1,680 and 3,360 g ai ha−1. A synergistic response was also observed with imazethapyr at 70 g ha−1 mixed with propanil at 1,680 g ha−1; however, all other co-applications evaluated resulted in a neutral response with no antagonism observed. At 7 DAT, antagonism was observed for barnyardgrass when treated with imazethapyr at 70 g ha−1 mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at 1,680 g ha−1, propanil at 840 g ha−1, or thiobencarb at 840 and 1,680 g ha−1; however, a synergistic response occurred for barnyardgrass control at 14, 21, and 49 DAT with imazethapyr at 70 g ha−1 mixed with propanil plus thiobencarb at 3,360 g ha−1. The synergistic response observed for red rice and barnyardgrass control with a mixture of imazethapyr plus propanil plus thiobencarb can benefit producers by increasing control of red rice and barnyardgrass, and this mixture contains three herbicides with three different modes of action, which can be part of an overall resistance-management strategy in imidazolinone-resistant (IR) rice.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.