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Regionalizing pre-colonial Africa aids in the collection and interpretation of primary sources as data for further analysis. This article includes a map with six broad regions and 34 sub-regions, which form a controlled vocabulary within which researchers may geographically organize and classify disparate pieces of information related to Africa’s past. In computational terms, the proposed African regions serve as data containers in order to consolidate, link, and disseminate research among a growing trend in digital humanities projects related to the history of the African diasporas before c. 1900. Our naming of regions aims to avoid terminologies derived from European slave traders, colonialism, and modern-day countries.
This article contributes to a body of work exploring the possibilities of a popular politics in Ireland before the rising of 1641. It does so by revisiting the ‘recusancy revolt’ of 1603 in which, in the interregnum created by Elizabeth I's death, churches and civic space in towns in the south and west of Ireland were reoccupied for Catholic worship. Reading for meaning in the shaping and timing of the crowd rituals at the heart of the protest, the article argues that Old English elites and people physically acted out the recovery of these spaces for the public performance of a civic Catholicism, in which corporate worship was integral both to the maintenance of the civic order and to the defence of ancient liberties and freedoms against the encroachments of an anglicizing and Protestant regime. Analysing the dynamics of these confessional protests, the article assesses the potential for an active citizenry represented by popular political mobilization in 1603 and contrasts this with later popular mobilization in the 1641 rising. It explores the paradox at the heart of a protest in which it was believed that the restoration of public Catholic worship could co-exist with continuing civic loyalty to an English and Protestant monarchy.
Individuals with schizophrenia are at higher risk of physical illnesses, which are a major contributor to their 20-year reduced life expectancy. It is currently unknown what causes the increased risk of physical illness in schizophrenia.
To link genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia to anonymised National Health Service (NHS) records. To assess (a) rates of physical illness in those with schizophrenia, and (b) whether physical illness in schizophrenia is associated with genetic liability.
We linked genetic data from a clinically ascertained sample of individuals with schizophrenia (Cardiff Cognition in Schizophrenia participants, n = 896) to anonymised NHS records held in the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. Physical illnesses were defined from the General Practice Database and Patient Episode Database for Wales. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was indexed by (a) rare copy number variants (CNVs), and (b) polygenic risk scores.
Individuals with schizophrenia in SAIL had increased rates of epilepsy (standardised rate ratio (SRR) = 5.34), intellectual disability (SRR = 3.11), type 2 diabetes (SRR = 2.45), congenital disorders (SRR = 1.77), ischaemic heart disease (SRR = 1.57) and smoking (SRR = 1.44) in comparison with the general SAIL population. In those with schizophrenia, carrier status for schizophrenia-associated CNVs and neurodevelopmental disorder-associated CNVs was associated with height (P = 0.015–0.017), with carriers being 7.5–7.7 cm shorter than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that the increased rates of poor physical health outcomes in schizophrenia were associated with genetic liability for the disorder.
This study demonstrates the value of and potential for linking genetic data from clinically ascertained research studies to anonymised health records. The increased risk for physical illness in schizophrenia is not caused by genetic liability for the disorder.
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare congenital heart defect. We report an infant with a mixed form of supracardiac TAPVC, in whom all pulmonary veins, except the right upper, entered a pulmonary venous confluence that is connected to a vertical vein and drained into the superior vena caval–right atrial junction. Several segmental right upper pulmonary veins entered the superior vena cava, superior to the entry of the vertical vein. Surgical repair consisted of the Warden procedure combined with direct anastomosis of the vertical vein to the left atrium. Separate pulmonary venous drainage pathways decreased the risk of post-operative pulmonary venous obstruction. Our patient had an uneventful post-operative course and encouraging 2-month follow-up echocardiography. Careful follow-up is warranted to detect post-operative complications, including obstruction of the pulmonary venous and cavoatrial anastomoses.
Objective: We evaluated whether memory recall following an extended (1 week) delay predicts cognitive and brain structural trajectories in older adults
Clinically normal older adults (52–92 years old) were followed longitudinally for up to 8 years after completing a memory paradigm at baseline [Story Recall Test (SRT)] that assessed delayed recall at 30 min and 1 week. Subsets of the cohort underwent neuroimaging (N = 134, mean age = 75) and neuropsychological testing (N = 178–207, mean ages = 74–76) at annual study visits occurring approximately 15–18 months apart. Mixed-effects regression models evaluated if baseline SRT performance predicted longitudinal changes in gray matter volumes and cognitive composite scores, controlling for demographics.
Worse SRT 1-week recall was associated with more precipitous rates of longitudinal decline in medial temporal lobe volumes (p = .037), episodic memory (p = .003), and executive functioning (p = .011), but not occipital lobe or total gray matter volumes (demonstrating neuroanatomical specificity; p > .58). By contrast, SRT 30-min recall was only associated with longitudinal decline in executive functioning (p = .044).
Memory paradigms that capture longer-term recall may be particularly sensitive to age-related medial temporal lobe changes and neurodegenerative disease trajectories. (JINS, 2020, xx, xx-xx)
Background: Successful containment of regional outbreaks of emerging multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) relies on early outbreak detection. However, deploying regional containment is resource intensive; understanding the distribution of different types of outbreaks might aid in further classifying types of responses. Objective: We used a stochastic model of disease transmission in a region where healthcare facilities are linked by patient sharing to explore optimal strategies for early outbreak detection. Methods: We simulated the introduction and spread of Candida auris in a region using a lumped-parameter stochastic adaptation of a previously described deterministic model (Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 28. doi:10.1093/cid/ciz248). Stochasticity was incorporated to capture early-stage behavior of outbreaks with greater accuracy than was possible with a deterministic model. The model includes the real patient sharing network among healthcare facilities in an exemplary US state, using hospital claims data and the minimum data set from the CMS for 2015. Disease progression rates for C. auris were estimated from surveillance data and the literature. Each simulated outbreak was initiated with an importation to a Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care hospital referral region. To estimate the potential burden, we quantified the “facility-time” period during which infectious patients presented a risk of subsequent transmission within each healthcare facility. Results: Of the 28,000 simulated outbreaks initiated with an importation to the community, 2,534 resulted in patients entering the healthcare facility network. Among those, 2,480 (98%) initiated a short outbreak that died out or quickly attenuated within 2 years without additional intervention. In the simulations, if containment responses were initiated for each of those short outbreaks, facility time at risk decreased by only 3%. If containment responses were initiated for the 54 (2%) outbreaks lasting 2 years or longer, facility time at risk decreased by 79%. Sentinel surveillance through point-prevalence surveys (PPSs) at the 23 skilled-nursing facilities caring for ventilated patients (vSNF) in the network detected 50 (93%) of the 54 longer outbreaks (median, 235 days to detection). Quarterly PPSs at the 23 largest acute-care hospitals (ie, most discharges) detected 48 longer outbreaks (89%), but the time to detection was longer (median, 716 days to detection). Quarterly PPSs also identified 76 short-term outbreaks (in comparison to only 14 via vSNF PPS) that self-terminated without intervention. Conclusions: A vSNF-based sentinel surveillance system likely provides better information for guiding regional intervention for the containment of emerging MDROs than a similarly sized acute-care hospital–based system.
To assess the time to achieve reliable reporting of electronic health record data compared with manual reporting during validation.
Secondary analysis of aggregate data for number of patients present, number of patients with a central venous catheter, and number of patients with an indwelling urinary catheter during validation of an electronic health record reporting tool.
Mayo Clinic Health System in Wisconsin.
Mayo Clinic infection prevention and control staff, unit champions, and all inpatients.
We simultaneously collected electronic and manual counts of device data and compared discrepancies to determine their source. If manual data entry was incorrect, manual counts were coded as inaccurate. If electronically abstracted data did not reflect an accurate count, errors were attributed to the system. Data were compared using standard statistical methods.
Within 30 days after beginning validation of electronic reporting for central venous catheter days and urinary catheter days, electronic counts were durably more reliable than manual counts.
Manual validation for capturing and reporting electronic data and reporting can be shorter than the 90 days currently mandated by National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. Compared with a longer validation period, a shorter validation period may yield substantial savings while achieving the same validity.
Cycads in the Zamiaceae are well known for their host-specific insect pollination mutualisms. Pollination of Cycas in the sister family Cycadaceae is less well-documented, with beetle pollination possibly coexisting with a limited potential for wind pollination, a hypothesis we tested for C. ophiolitica in Central Queensland, Australia. Cones were associated with three species of beetle: an undescribed weevil (Curculionidae), Hapalips sp. (Erotylidae) and Ulomoides sp. (Tenebrionidae). Pollination-vector exclusion experiments compared the pollination success (quantified as % ovules pollinated per cone) of control cones against bagged or netted cones that excluded wind or insects respectively (n = 10 for all treatments). Insects do pollinate C. ophiolitica in the absence of wind, the median (first quartile-third quartile) pollination success of control plants being 83.7% (60.8–87.2%) while bagged cones, from which wind, but not insects, were excluded, pollinated at 52.9% (19.5–74.8%). For netted cones, (excluding insects but not wind), pollination fell to 12.6% (10.9–45.9%). Airborne pollen (as quantified by capture on a series of adhesive pollen traps) decreased rapidly with distance from male cones, potentially becoming ineffective for wind pollination at ~5 m. Airborne pollen load in the vicinity of female cones, and distance of females from neighbouring males, suggests wind pollination may occur sporadically, but only at high spatial densities. Although Cycas appears to be primarily insect pollinated, this limited potential for ambophily may be significant given the history of dispersal and pollinator host shifts among these cycads.
Though not often discussed explicitly in literature, sample handling and preparation for advanced characterization techniques is a significant challenge for radiological materials. In this contribution, a detailed description is given of method development associated with characterization of highly radioactive and, in some cases, hygroscopic oxides of technetium. Details are given on developed protocols, fixtures, and tooling designed for x-ray and neutron diffraction, x-ray absorption, Raman spectroscopy, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron paramagnetic resonance. In some cases, multiple iterations of improved sample holder design are described. Lessons learned in handling Tc compounds for these and similar characterization methods are discussed.
Quantification of lean body mass and fat mass can provide important insight into epidemiological research. However, there is no consensus on generalisable anthropometric prediction equations to validly estimate body composition. We aimed to develop and validate practical anthropometric prediction equations for lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat in adults (men, n 7531; women, n 6534) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2006. Using a prediction sample, we predicted each of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured lean body mass, fat mass and percent fat based on different combinations of anthropometric measures. The proposed equations were validated using a validation sample and obesity-related biomarkers. The practical equation including age, race, height, weight and waist circumference had high predictive ability for lean body mass (men: R2=0·91, standard error of estimate (SEE)=2·6 kg; women: R2=0·85, SEE=2·4 kg) and fat mass (men: R2=0·90, SEE=2·6 kg; women: R2=0·93, SEE=2·4 kg). Waist circumference was a strong predictor in men only. Addition of other circumference and skinfold measures slightly improved the prediction model. For percent fat, R2 were generally lower but the trend in variation explained was similar. Our validation tests showed robust and consistent results with no evidence of substantial bias. Additional validation using biomarkers demonstrated comparable abilities to predict obesity-related biomarkers between direct DXA measurements and predicted scores. Moreover, predicted fat mass and percent fat had significantly stronger associations with obesity-related biomarkers than BMI did. Our findings suggest the potential application of the proposed equations in various epidemiological settings.
John Bynner, Emeritus Professor of Social Sciences in Education at the London Institute of Education,
Glen H. Elder, Odum Distinguished Research Professor of Sociology at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
Walter R. Heinz, Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Psychology at the University of Bremen, Germany,
Ingrid Schoon, Professor of Human Development and Social Policy at the University College London Institute of Education
What have we learned about the changing nature of youth transitions and the effect of the Great Recession on them? In this final chapter we draw conclusions and seek further insights from the evidence presented. First we give a brief overview, taking the discussion back to the initial questions about the recession effects to which the preceding chapters were directed. Second, we discuss the evidence in the light of key themes of contemporary youth research and draw out their intersection with life course theory. We then consider the theoretical and policy insights to be gained from the evidence reported. Our discussion focuses on young people in the USA, the UK, and Germany, but also takes into account developments across a range of industrialized countries.
What was the impact of the Great Recession on young people making the transition to independent adulthood? The overall conclusion to be drawn is that the Great Recession was a significant but not principal influence on young people's changing life course post-2007. Better to characterize it as a major economic shock that intensified the impact of preexisting economic and social processes on young people's lives. Originating principally in Western countries in the period of technological transformation and de-industrialization of the late 1970s, as the contributors to the book show, these effects presented new obstacles to entering and sustaining employment within the adult labor market. There were also wider repercussions for functioning in the family and other life domains. Although the short-term effects may have been modest, they might be followed by more serious outcomes and long-term scarring effects. There could also be lagged effects (i.e., a delay between the exposure and onset of adjustment problems) and therefore continued monitoring of life chances for young people is necessary.
The recession effects varied with each successive cohort embarking on the transition to independent adulthood, i.e., they differed for different age groups, for different countries, and between different sections of the youth population. Younger cohorts, aged 15–18 when the effects of the Great Recession began to be felt, faced heightened difficulties in gaining entry to jobs or to the vocational education and training (VET) routes that previously ensured access to them.
Early modern government, conscious of its limited powers of repression and of the potential consequences of social and economic change, subscribed to the image of the people as ‘the many-headed monster’, ‘likely to mutiny and rebel on the least occasion’. Many historians, noting the grievances of the victims of change and subscribing to an economically determinist reading of the causes of protest, have shared this belief in the ubiquity of popular disorder. But the reality of protest was, nevertheless, rather different. Awareness of the limited coercive powers at their disposal meant that in their handling of the people and protest early modern governments and their local officers were capable of a more nuanced approach. The theoretical acceptance of a commercial society lagged behind the realities of economic change, and in consequence both Church and government could share popular hostility to the consequences of an increasingly capitalist economy. In turn, popular protest often defied the contemporary stereotype of collective violence unleashed in riot and rebellion. That protesters employed a broader range of tactics and strategies has encouraged more recent studies to emphasise the negotiative politics that lay behind protest and to talk of a popular political culture informing protest. And finally, and paradoxically, in the longer run the restructuring of society that economic change sponsored in this period helps to explain some marked changes in the pattern of collective protest, including the disappearance of large-scale rebellions and (arguably) the eventual ‘pacification’ of much of the countryside.
Early modern governments lacked a substantial bureaucracy, professional police force and standing army. To govern the country, they were therefore forced to rely on the unpaid service of landed and civic elites such as sheriffs and magistrates, and parochial elites of farmers, traders and craftsmen as constables and churchwardens. Where rulers and ruled agreed about the proper priorities of government, this could be a very effective means of maintaining order – the gentry and middling sort lending their authority and power to implementing the orders of royal government. But early modern governments were aware that where class interest cut across consensus then a dependence on propertied elites could itself cause disorder.
As the scaling of the device dimensions in CMOS devices runs into physical limitations, new materials beyond Si with high electron and hole mobilities such as Ge, SiGe, and III-V materials are introduced. Challenges of CMP for these materials are reviewed in this paper. First we discussed the challenge of the new integration schemes to CMP. Loading effects can result in different growth rates for varying feature sizes, which results in a critical dimension dependent overburden. This makes it more difficult to meet the targets of the CMP process with respect to oxide loss and Ge/SiGe/III-V dishing. Secondly we discuss the challenge for the reduction of the defects during CMP for these new materials. Finally the challenge that is relevant especially for the introduction of III-V materials is studied. During the polishing of III-V materials, toxic gases as well as III-V containing liquid waste will be created. The chemical mechanism of the waste control is discussed.
The local chemistry of technetium-99 (99Tc) in oxide glasses is important for understanding the incorporation and long-term release of Tc from nuclear waste glasses, both those for legacy defense wastes and fuel reprocessing wastes. Tc preferably forms Tc(VII), Tc(IV), or Tc(0) in glass, depending on the level of reduction of the melt. Tc(VII) in oxide glasses is normally assumed to be isolated pertechnetate TcO4- anions surrounded by alkali, but can occasionally precipitate as alkali pertechnetate salts such as KTcO4 and NaTcO4 when Tc concentration is high. In these cases, Tc(VII) is 4-coordinated by oxygen. A reinvestigation of the chemistry of alkali-technetium-oxides formed under oxidizing conditions and at temperatures used to prepare nuclear waste glasses showed that higher coordinated alkali Tc(VII) oxide species had been reported, including those with the TcO5- and TcO6- anions. The chemistry of alkali Tc(VII) and other alkali-Tc-oxides is reviewed, along with relevant synthesis conditions.
Additionally, we report attempts to make 5- and 6-coordinate pertechnetate compounds of K, Na, and Li, i.e. TcO5- and TcO6-. It was found that higher coordinated species are very sensitive to water, and easily decompose into their respective pertechnetates. It was difficult to obtain pure compounds, but mixtures of the pertechnetate and other phase(s) were frequently found, as evidenced by x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), neutron diffraction (ND), and Raman spectroscopy. Low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements showed the possibility of Tc(IV) and Tc(VI) in Na3TcO5 and Na5TcO6 compounds.
It was hypothesized that the smaller counter cation would result in more stable pertechnetates. To confirm the synthesis method, LiReO4 and Li5ReO6 were prepared, and their Raman spectra match those in the literature. Subsequently, the Tc versions LiTcO4 and Li5TcO6 were synthesized and characterized by ND, Raman spectroscopy, XANES, and EXAFS. The Li5TcO6 was a marginally stable compound that appears to have the same structure as that known for Li5ReO6. Implications of the experimental work on stability of alkali technetate compounds and possible role in the volatilization of Tc are discussed.
The CMP challenges for advanced technology nodes are discussed. Global and local uniformity challenges and their cumulative effects are presented. Uniformity improvements for advanced node integration were achieved through slurry, pad and platen optimization, innovative integration schemes, the reduction of incoming variation and the reduction of cumulative effects. We discuss reduction of typical CMP defect types. Defects resulting from simple mechanisms (foreign material, polish residues) and those resulting from chemical and physical interactions (corrosion, chemical attack, scratches, physical migration) and strategies for control are studied. Defectivity reduction measures include new post-CMP clean chemicals, new slurries and pads and reduction of incoming defectivity. Finally we discuss an observed tradeoff between good defectivity and good uniformity.
The relationship between the duration of depressive symptoms and mortality remains poorly understood.
To examine whether the duration of depressive symptoms is associated with mortality risk.
Data (n = 9560) came from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We assessed depressive symptom duration as the sum of examinations with an eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of ⩾3; we ascertained mortality from linking our data to a national register.
Relative to those participants who never reported symptoms, the age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios for elevated depressive symptoms over 1, 2, 3 and 4 examinations were 1.41 (95% CI 1.15–1.74), 1.80 (95% CI 1.44–2.26), 1.97 (95% CI 1.57–2.47) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.90–3.23), respectively (P for trend <0.001). This graded association can be explained largely by differences in physical activity, cognitive function, functional impairments and physical illness.
In this cohort of older adults, the duration of depressive symptoms was associated with mortality in a dose–response manner.