To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter examines plant macrofossils from Lower Bed II, Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania). During field surveys in 1998, pieces of fossilized sedge culm were identified eroding from the earthy clay exposures of Lower Bed II. The gaps in plant taphonomic literature relating to sedges and marshlands led us to initiate a long-term actualistic field study in a modern seasonal wetland, specifically the living seasonal wetland plant community at Seekoeivlei (South Africa). The results of this study, as applied to the fossil evidence from Olduvai, are invaluable in interpreting the nature of the marshland of Lower Bed II.
Social innovation has come to be widely embraced as a fresh problem-solving approach to address what are framed as stubborn and costly social policy challenges. Paradoxically, despite claims to newness, SI is often cast as a neutral path to identify ‘what works’ to solve problems. This apolitical positioning fails to contextualize the socio-economic and political dynamics in which problems and SI have arisen. This chapter engages in such a contextualization and re-politicization of the SI agenda.
The SI agenda jumped into prominence in the wake of the 2008 ‘Great Recession’ and must be understood as tightly tied to neoliberal projects of austerity. In this chapter, we argue that SI helps us to understand the ways in which the neoliberal project has proven to be ‘an adaptive creature of crisis’, embracing policy ideas and reforms needed to drive forward its agenda. Its engagement in a ‘permanent revolution’ of experimentation and policy shapeshifting has been necessary, ironically, because so much of its market-based reforms have been failures (Peck et al 2012). We argue that the movement from ‘roll back’ (‘greed-is-good’) to ‘roll out’ (‘markets-with-morals’) neoliberalism has been facilitated through SI (Peck nd) and warn that this current phase of ‘neoliberalism with a smile’ remains centred in austerity. Neoliberalism's adaptive abilities enables it to co-opt many seemingly alternative ideas, stripping them of more progressive political projects that might be at their root. For instance, the Stanford Social Innovation Review has accepted the austerity argument that there is just not enough state fiscal capacity to deal with meaningful social policy reform. It endorses a non-statist ‘realist position’ of employing the use of the non-profit sector, charity and venture-based philanthrocapitalism as a way to harness private initiative and capital for public good. Yet, this was not always the case as SI has roots in radical, restorative and transformative movements. In this chapter, we explore the lineage of SI, including its amorphous definition, seemingly conflicting idea-sets, and associated tools and techniques to understand how it has been used to extend the neoliberal project through austerity and to identify internal conflicts that might be exploited to challenge austerity politics.
We made 28 collections of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) at 24 locations in central and northeastern Washington state, United States of America, and identified 10 species in three genera, including Simulium arcticum Malloch, which we studied cytogenetically. We analysed 745 larvae of S. arcticum cytogenetically from nine of the 11 sites where it occurred; five sites had small sample sizes. For the collections with large sample sizes, the distribution of S. arcticum may have a geographic pattern. Larvae in western tributaries of the Columbia River have the sex-linked IIL-2 inversion and heterozygotes for the IS-1 autosomal polymorphism in abundance but lack the IIL-21 sex-linked inversion, whereas larvae in eastern tributaries of the Columbia River possess the IIL-21 inversion but lack IIL-2 and the IS-1 inversions. A cytotype new to science, S. arcticum IIL-81, occurs in some larvae at the Methow River in the eastern Cascades region. All females, regardless of location, possess enhanced (Ce Ce) centromere bands in their IIL-chromosomes, whereas all males possess the enhanced, thin (Ce Ct) centromere band dimorphism. The Methow River had nine types of chromosomally identified males in 2019 and eight types in 2020.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
The previous chapter examined the range of reward plans associated with the recognition and reward of individual behaviour and/or results. This chapter focuses on plans where reward outcomes are contingent on measures of collective results; that is, on collective incentive plans. Because such plans are generally geared to measures of group results over a relatively brief time frame – typically monthly, quarterly or annually – they are also known as collective or group short-term incentive plans, or ‘STIs’.
We begin our exploration of collective STIs by outlining the general rationale for such plans and by overviewing the four main plan types: profit-sharing, gainsharing, goal-sharing and team incentives. Subsequent sections explore each of these four plan types in more detail, noting the advantages and disadvantages of each. Consistent with the approach taken in earlier chapters, a final section considers the strategic priorities to which each plan type would be most and least appropriate.
Chapter 1 introduced the basic ‘tools’ of performance and reward management, including key aspects of purpose and practice. In this chapter we introduce two overarching concepts of alignment that recur throughout this book: ‘strategic alignment’ and ‘psychological engagement’. The design, implementation and maintenance of effective performance and reward management systems requires simultaneous, systematic and constant attention to both of these dimensions of alignment.
‘Strategic alignment’ refers to the plans, processes and actions involved in establishing and maintaining an alignment between an organisation’s overarching purpose or intent and how it manages employee performance and reward, as well as all other aspects of people management.
A remuneration system typically comprises three main elements: base pay, benefits and performance-related pay. In designing any remuneration system careful attention should be paid to three key considerations: first, the relative role that each of these three components will play in total remuneration; second, the practices that will be drawn on to configure each component; and third, the target level of total remuneration for each position. Any discussion of remuneration practice must consider what, for most employees, is the primary component of their total remuneration, namely base pay.
This is a book about two of the core activities integral in the field of human resource management: managing employee performance and managing how employees are rewarded. As we shall see throughout the book, there is a close and complex inter-dependence between these two activities; so much so that it makes little sense to consider them in isolation from each other. Equally, while the book’s central concerns are with performance and reward practices and processes, attention is also paid throughout to recognising and analysing the interconnectedness of these and other aspects of human resource management. Performance management systems provide inputs into other HR functions such as training and employee development, as well as evaluating HR decisions such as recruitment and selection.
The concept of ‘total reward management’, which was canvassed in chapter 1, acknowledges the growing importance of benefit plans in strategic reward practice, particularly in attracting and retaining high capability employees with specific demographic characteristics, such as women professionals, experienced older workers of both sexes, and younger workers, such as ‘Millennials’ (born between 1985 and 2000) and ‘Generation Z’ (those born since 2000).
Whereas benefits were once the least glamorous of all aspects of reward management – and were literally referred to as ‘fringe’ reward practices – many organisations now consider them to be an important means of gaining a competitive advantage in labour markets where key ‘talent’ is in short supply. As the workforce becomes more diverse and as the level of employee education and reward expectation rises, financial and non-financial benefits are assuming an increasingly critical role in the reward management system’s ability to attract, retain and motivate high-potential and high-performing employees.
Having laid out all the pieces of the performance and reward puzzle, it is time for us to consider how to go about assembling these elements into a coherent whole. In previous chapters, we have offered you some insights as to how the practices referred to in the chapter might support certain strategic priorities rather than others. In this chapter, we detail common approaches to assembling the various concepts, practices and strategies explored previously. In developing an integrated, strategically aligned and psychologically engaging performance and reward system, we need to remember that nothing is ever ‘finished’ and that change is the great constant. Accordingly, we examine the requirements for performance and reward system review, the steps involved in system change and development and challenges that may be encountered along the way. Although our approach here is primarily prescriptive in nature, we also draw on a range of insights from the research literature that has been referred to at various points throughout the book.
In this final chapter, we explore emerging trends – the new horizons – in business, technology and society with a particular focus on how these developments are influencing ideas, practice, employee experience and academic research in the field of performance and reward management. We begin with emerging trends and practices that have already begun to impact the design of performance and reward management systems and academic research in the field. We focus on three interconnected global trends that have already started to change performance and reward management practice; an impact that is very likely to increase in the years ahead. The first of these trends is the technological revolution associated with ‘Industry 4.0’; the second is the economic disruption and employment uncertainty associated with what has come to be called the ‘gig economy’; and the third is the social transformation flowing from generational change around the world.
The third edition of Managing Employee Performance and Reward: Systems, Practices and Prospects has been thoroughly revised and updated by a new four-member author team. The text introduces a new conceptual framework based on systems thinking and a dual model of strategic alignment and psychological engagement. Coverage of chapter topics provides a balance between research evidence and practice and, in this new edition, is enhanced with a more applied and technical approach. The text also includes chapters dedicated to conceptual framing, base pay and individual recognition and reward; 'reality check' breakout boxes with practical examples and current problems on each of strategic alignment, employee engagement, organisation justice and workforce diversity; and a new chapter exploring new horizons in performance and reward practice and research with a focus on the mega-trends of technological transformation under 'Industry 4.0', new economic forms and relationships arising from the 'gig' economy, and generational change.